• Save
What is Cancer Presentation
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

What is Cancer Presentation

on

  • 3,554 views

What is cancer presentation by the University of Colorado Cancer Center. Information from the National Cancer Institute.

What is cancer presentation by the University of Colorado Cancer Center. Information from the National Cancer Institute.

Statistics

Views

Total Views
3,554
Views on SlideShare
3,090
Embed Views
464

Actions

Likes
3
Downloads
0
Comments
0

5 Embeds 464

http://www.ucdenver.edu 410
http://www.drhasmah.com 41
http://urlwww--ucdenver--edu.reachlocal.net 7
http://ucdenver.edu 4
http://spdev.ucdenver.edu 2

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

What is Cancer Presentation What is Cancer Presentation Presentation Transcript

  • What Is Cancer?
  • Cancer is 100+ different diseases
    Each type of cancer shares one thing in common: unchecked growth toward limitless expansion
  • Most common cancers: carcinomas
    cancer of cells that cover body surfaces
    Lung
    Breast (women)
    Skin
    Colon
    Bladder
    Prostate (men)
  • Leukemias, lymphomas & sarcomas
    Leukemias:
    Bloodstream
    Lymphomas:
    Lymph nodes
    & immune system
    tissues
    Some common sarcomas:
    Fat
    Bone
    Muscle
  • Cancer names relate to location
    Prefix Meaning
    adeno- gland
    chondro- cartilage
    erythro- red blood cell
    hemangio- blood vessels
    hepato- liver
    lipo- fat
    lympho- lymphocyte
    melano- pigment cell
    myelo- bone marrow
    myo- muscle
    osteo- bone
  • All cancer starts the same way
    cells lose their normal ability to die, so they can keep multiplying without any limit
  • Normal tissue balances new cell growth and old cell death
    1. Cells divide
    3. Apoptosis, or
    cell suicide
    2. Cell is damaged
    & can’t be repaired
  • If apoptosis fails, the balance is disrupted
    cells divide and grow out of control
    Fourth orlater mutation
    Third mutation
    Second mutation
    First mutation
    Uncontrolled growth
  • Take your skin, for example
    normal growth control
    Dead cells shed from outer surface
    One basal cell migrates to the epidermis and loses its ability to divide
    Epidermis
    Cells in basal layer divide into 2 cells. One stays and keeps dividing.
    Dermis
  • Skin cancer starts with too many cells
    Cells in basal layer divide into 2 cells. Both can divide, leading to more dividing cells.
    Underlying tissue
  • Which become tumors (neoplasms)
    Gradual increase in the number of dividing cells creates a growing mass of tissue called a tumor or neoplasm.
    Normal organization of tissue becomes disrupted over time.
    Underlying tissue
  • Which can invade and metastasize
    how cancer spreads
    1
    Cancer cells invade surrounding tissues and blood vessels
    2
    Cancer cells are transported by the circulatory system to distant sites
    3
    Cancer cells reinvade and grow at new location
  • Only malignant tumors are cancer
    Malignant (cancer) cells invade neighboring tissues, enter blood vessels, and metastasize to different sites
    Benign (not cancer) tumor cells grow only locally and cannot spread by invasion or metastasis
    Time
  • Cancer is dangerous when it spreads to other parts of the body and disrupts how they work
    Brain
    Melanoma cells travel through bloodstream
    Liver
    Melanoma(initial tumor)
  • Cancer cells are created by mutations in the cells’ genes
  • Genes are inherited instructions that live in your chromosomes
    2 chromosomes twist into a double helix, aka DNA molecule
    DNA molecule
  • Chromosomes are made of chemical building blocks called “bases”
    The 4 bases are:
    • adenine [A]
    • thymine [T]
    • cytosine [C]
    • guanine [G]
    ATCG combine in different orders to create the gene’s message, like letters make words and sentences.
    Chemical
    bases
    A
    T
    C
    G
  • Mutations are like typos in the base sequence
    A
    G
    C
    T
    A
    A
    C
    T
    A
    C
    DNA
    Normal gene
    A
    G
    C
    G
    A
    A
    C
    T
    A
    C
    Single base change
    A
    G
    G
    C
    G
    C
    T
    A
    A
    C
    A
    C
    T
    Additions
    C
    T
    A
    G
    A
    A
    C
    T
    A
    C
    Deletions
  • 3 kinds of genes are involved in cancer
    Oncogenes
    Act like a stuck gas pedal, making the cell divide and multiply faster and faster.
    Tumor suppressor genes
    Act like brakes on cell growth, unless they are mutated.
    DNA repair genes
    Fix broken genes, unless they are mutated.
  • They disrupt the growth-signaling pathway
    Inactive intracellular signaling protein
    Inactive growth factor receptor
    Signaling protein from active oncogene
    Activated gene regulatory protein
    Transcription
    Cell proliferation driven by internal oncogene signaling
  • 3 kinds of genes are involved in cancer
    Oncogenes
    Act like a stuck gas pedal, making the cell divide and multiply faster and faster.
    Tumor suppressor genes
    Act like brakes on cell growth, unless they are mutated.
    DNA repair genes
    Fix broken genes, unless they are mutated.
  • Mutated, lost and inactivated tumor suppressor genes can allow cancer to start
    Normal cell
    Normal
    genes
    prevent
    cancer
    Remove or inactivate tumor suppressor genes
    Cancer cell
    Damage to
    both genes
    leads to
    cancer
    Mutated/inactivated
    tumor suppressor genes
  • 3 kinds of genes are involved in cancer
    Oncogenes
    Act like a stuck gas pedal, making the cell divide and multiply faster and faster.
    Tumor suppressor genes
    Act like brakes on cell growth, unless they are mutated.
    DNA repair genes
    Fix broken genes, unless they are mutated.
  • Mutated DNA repair genes allow more mutations to accumulate and cancer to start
    Normal DNA repair
    T
    C
    A
    G
    C
    Base pair mismatch
    No cancer
    T
    C
    A
    T
    C
    A
    G
    T
    C
    G
    T
    C
    A
    T
    C
    T
    C
    A
    T
    C
    A
    G
    T
    C
    G
    Cancer
    A
    G
    T
    G
    A
    G
    T
    A
    G
    No DNA repair
  • What can cause gene mutations? These things:
    Some viruses or bacteria
    Radiation
    Some chemicals
    Heredity
    Diet
    Hormones
  • Chemicals in tobacco smoke
  • UV radiation from the sun & tanning beds
    High
    Denver
    Skin
    Cancer
    Incidence
    Pittsburgh
    Detroit
    Low
    Most
    Least
    Annual Sunshine
    (UV radiation)
  • Viruses
  • Inherited mutations passed down in families
    Inherited Conditions That Increase Risk for Cancer
  • Cancer risk increases as you get older
    more time = more accumulated gene mutations
    400
    300
    200
    100
    Colon
    Breast
    Number of Cancer Cases
    (per 100,000 people)
    A 75-year-old is
    100x more likely
    to get cancer than
    a 25-year-old
    0 20406080
    Age of Person (in years)
  • So, how can you prevent cancer?
    Avoid the things that cause changes in your cells’ genes!
    Carcinogenic chemicals
    Carcinogenic radiation
    Cancer viruses or bacteria
  • Don’t use tobacco (cigarettes & chew)
    Lung Cancer Risk Increases with Cigarette Consumption
    15x
    10x
    5x
    Lung Cancer Risk
    0 15 30
    Non-smoker
    Cigarettes Smoked per Day
  • Don’t drink a lot of alcohol & smoke
    Heavy smokers or drinkers have 6 times the risk of esophagus cancer as people who don’t smoke or drink.
    People who smoke AND drink have 40 times the risk as people who don’t smoke or drink.
    40x
    30x
    20x
    10x
    Risk Increase
    Alcoholic Drinks Consumed per Day
    AND
    Packs of Cigarettes Consumed per Day
  • Protect yourself from excessive sunlight …
    …and never, ever use tanning beds
  • Limit the amount of meat & fat you eat
    Studies show eating a lot of it increases risk of certain cancers
    Correlation Between Meat Consumption and Colon Cancer Rates in Different Countries
    40
    30
    Number of Cases (per 100,000 people)
    20
    10
    0
    300
    200
    100
    80
    Grams (per person per day)
  • Eat lots of fruits & veggies
    Studies show it lowers your cancer risk
  • We need your help to fight cancer!
  • Through new discoveries and treatments you make
    … as a cancer researcher
  • When you help cure people and pets of cancer
    … as a cancer doctor or nurse