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What is Cancer Presentation
 

What is Cancer Presentation

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What is cancer presentation by the University of Colorado Cancer Center. Information from the National Cancer Institute.

What is cancer presentation by the University of Colorado Cancer Center. Information from the National Cancer Institute.

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    What is Cancer Presentation What is Cancer Presentation Presentation Transcript

    • What Is Cancer?
    • Cancer is 100+ different diseases
      Each type of cancer shares one thing in common: unchecked growth toward limitless expansion
    • Most common cancers: carcinomas
      cancer of cells that cover body surfaces
      Lung
      Breast (women)
      Skin
      Colon
      Bladder
      Prostate (men)
    • Leukemias, lymphomas & sarcomas
      Leukemias:
      Bloodstream
      Lymphomas:
      Lymph nodes
      & immune system
      tissues
      Some common sarcomas:
      Fat
      Bone
      Muscle
    • Cancer names relate to location
      Prefix Meaning
      adeno- gland
      chondro- cartilage
      erythro- red blood cell
      hemangio- blood vessels
      hepato- liver
      lipo- fat
      lympho- lymphocyte
      melano- pigment cell
      myelo- bone marrow
      myo- muscle
      osteo- bone
    • All cancer starts the same way
      cells lose their normal ability to die, so they can keep multiplying without any limit
    • Normal tissue balances new cell growth and old cell death
      1. Cells divide
      3. Apoptosis, or
      cell suicide
      2. Cell is damaged
      & can’t be repaired
    • If apoptosis fails, the balance is disrupted
      cells divide and grow out of control
      Fourth orlater mutation
      Third mutation
      Second mutation
      First mutation
      Uncontrolled growth
    • Take your skin, for example
      normal growth control
      Dead cells shed from outer surface
      One basal cell migrates to the epidermis and loses its ability to divide
      Epidermis
      Cells in basal layer divide into 2 cells. One stays and keeps dividing.
      Dermis
    • Skin cancer starts with too many cells
      Cells in basal layer divide into 2 cells. Both can divide, leading to more dividing cells.
      Underlying tissue
    • Which become tumors (neoplasms)
      Gradual increase in the number of dividing cells creates a growing mass of tissue called a tumor or neoplasm.
      Normal organization of tissue becomes disrupted over time.
      Underlying tissue
    • Which can invade and metastasize
      how cancer spreads
      1
      Cancer cells invade surrounding tissues and blood vessels
      2
      Cancer cells are transported by the circulatory system to distant sites
      3
      Cancer cells reinvade and grow at new location
    • Only malignant tumors are cancer
      Malignant (cancer) cells invade neighboring tissues, enter blood vessels, and metastasize to different sites
      Benign (not cancer) tumor cells grow only locally and cannot spread by invasion or metastasis
      Time
    • Cancer is dangerous when it spreads to other parts of the body and disrupts how they work
      Brain
      Melanoma cells travel through bloodstream
      Liver
      Melanoma(initial tumor)
    • Cancer cells are created by mutations in the cells’ genes
    • Genes are inherited instructions that live in your chromosomes
      2 chromosomes twist into a double helix, aka DNA molecule
      DNA molecule
    • Chromosomes are made of chemical building blocks called “bases”
      The 4 bases are:
      • adenine [A]
      • thymine [T]
      • cytosine [C]
      • guanine [G]
      ATCG combine in different orders to create the gene’s message, like letters make words and sentences.
      Chemical
      bases
      A
      T
      C
      G
    • Mutations are like typos in the base sequence
      A
      G
      C
      T
      A
      A
      C
      T
      A
      C
      DNA
      Normal gene
      A
      G
      C
      G
      A
      A
      C
      T
      A
      C
      Single base change
      A
      G
      G
      C
      G
      C
      T
      A
      A
      C
      A
      C
      T
      Additions
      C
      T
      A
      G
      A
      A
      C
      T
      A
      C
      Deletions
    • 3 kinds of genes are involved in cancer
      Oncogenes
      Act like a stuck gas pedal, making the cell divide and multiply faster and faster.
      Tumor suppressor genes
      Act like brakes on cell growth, unless they are mutated.
      DNA repair genes
      Fix broken genes, unless they are mutated.
    • They disrupt the growth-signaling pathway
      Inactive intracellular signaling protein
      Inactive growth factor receptor
      Signaling protein from active oncogene
      Activated gene regulatory protein
      Transcription
      Cell proliferation driven by internal oncogene signaling
    • 3 kinds of genes are involved in cancer
      Oncogenes
      Act like a stuck gas pedal, making the cell divide and multiply faster and faster.
      Tumor suppressor genes
      Act like brakes on cell growth, unless they are mutated.
      DNA repair genes
      Fix broken genes, unless they are mutated.
    • Mutated, lost and inactivated tumor suppressor genes can allow cancer to start
      Normal cell
      Normal
      genes
      prevent
      cancer
      Remove or inactivate tumor suppressor genes
      Cancer cell
      Damage to
      both genes
      leads to
      cancer
      Mutated/inactivated
      tumor suppressor genes
    • 3 kinds of genes are involved in cancer
      Oncogenes
      Act like a stuck gas pedal, making the cell divide and multiply faster and faster.
      Tumor suppressor genes
      Act like brakes on cell growth, unless they are mutated.
      DNA repair genes
      Fix broken genes, unless they are mutated.
    • Mutated DNA repair genes allow more mutations to accumulate and cancer to start
      Normal DNA repair
      T
      C
      A
      G
      C
      Base pair mismatch
      No cancer
      T
      C
      A
      T
      C
      A
      G
      T
      C
      G
      T
      C
      A
      T
      C
      T
      C
      A
      T
      C
      A
      G
      T
      C
      G
      Cancer
      A
      G
      T
      G
      A
      G
      T
      A
      G
      No DNA repair
    • What can cause gene mutations? These things:
      Some viruses or bacteria
      Radiation
      Some chemicals
      Heredity
      Diet
      Hormones
    • Chemicals in tobacco smoke
    • UV radiation from the sun & tanning beds
      High
      Denver
      Skin
      Cancer
      Incidence
      Pittsburgh
      Detroit
      Low
      Most
      Least
      Annual Sunshine
      (UV radiation)
    • Viruses
    • Inherited mutations passed down in families
      Inherited Conditions That Increase Risk for Cancer
    • Cancer risk increases as you get older
      more time = more accumulated gene mutations
      400
      300
      200
      100
      Colon
      Breast
      Number of Cancer Cases
      (per 100,000 people)
      A 75-year-old is
      100x more likely
      to get cancer than
      a 25-year-old
      0 20406080
      Age of Person (in years)
    • So, how can you prevent cancer?
      Avoid the things that cause changes in your cells’ genes!
      Carcinogenic chemicals
      Carcinogenic radiation
      Cancer viruses or bacteria
    • Don’t use tobacco (cigarettes & chew)
      Lung Cancer Risk Increases with Cigarette Consumption
      15x
      10x
      5x
      Lung Cancer Risk
      0 15 30
      Non-smoker
      Cigarettes Smoked per Day
    • Don’t drink a lot of alcohol & smoke
      Heavy smokers or drinkers have 6 times the risk of esophagus cancer as people who don’t smoke or drink.
      People who smoke AND drink have 40 times the risk as people who don’t smoke or drink.
      40x
      30x
      20x
      10x
      Risk Increase
      Alcoholic Drinks Consumed per Day
      AND
      Packs of Cigarettes Consumed per Day
    • Protect yourself from excessive sunlight …
      …and never, ever use tanning beds
    • Limit the amount of meat & fat you eat
      Studies show eating a lot of it increases risk of certain cancers
      Correlation Between Meat Consumption and Colon Cancer Rates in Different Countries
      40
      30
      Number of Cases (per 100,000 people)
      20
      10
      0
      300
      200
      100
      80
      Grams (per person per day)
    • Eat lots of fruits & veggies
      Studies show it lowers your cancer risk
    • We need your help to fight cancer!
    • Through new discoveries and treatments you make
      … as a cancer researcher
    • When you help cure people and pets of cancer
      … as a cancer doctor or nurse