Design Principles for Digital Preservation Systems
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Design Principles for Digital Preservation Systems

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Presented at the Bootcamp session of PASIG 2013 conference, Washington, May 21-24, 2013

Presented at the Bootcamp session of PASIG 2013 conference, Washington, May 21-24, 2013

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  • Copyright © 2013 by The Regents of the University of CaliforniaThis work is made available under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 license
  • Copyright © 2013 by The Regents of the University of CaliforniaThis work is made available under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 license
  • Robbi Verte, Gesture of hand holding a flash disk, http://www.123rf.com/Pietro Izzo, Open hand, http://www.flickr.com/photos/pietroizzo/482812880
  • Luxmart, Working together team puzzle concept, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Working_Together_Teamwork_Puzzle_Concept.jpg
  • Jason DeRusha, Crying baby shot, http://www.flickr.com/photos/derusha/1465953800Izumi Mitatami, The hamburger, http://www.flickr.com/photos/marvin_izumi/3881467402Sean Dreilinger, Big hamburger, little kid, http://www.flickr.com/photos/seandreilinger/3002176844
  • Guardian, Five reasons why waiters don’t write down your order, http://www.guardian.co.uk/lifeandstyle/2011/aug/14/waiters-dont-write-orders-down
  • Wikimedia Commons, Goldilocks 1912, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Goldilocks_1912.jpg
  • Brian Snelson, Lovely new metric spanners and torque wrench, http://www.flickr.com/photos/exfordy/353771860LoggerHead Tools, Bionic wrench, http://loggerheadtools.com
  • WindellOskay, Inside-out Lego brick, http://www.flickr.com/photos/oskay/265899811/
  • NCinDC, Life is one big balancing act, http://www.flickr.com/photos/ncindc/3229050640Energy Press,PWC: Το δάνειο στο ΛΑΓΗΕ δεν αρκεί για να μην καταρρεύσει η αγορά, http://www.energypress.gr/news/lianikh-reymatos/PWC:-To-daneio-sto-LAGHE-den-arkei-gia-na-mhn-katarreysei-h-agora
  • Wikimedia Commons, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Human_evolution_scheme.svg
  • Narufag,Naruto in the scream, http://narufag.deviantart.com/art/naruto-in-the-scream-267479366
  • Dominic 2007, Pantheon Dome, http://www.flickr.com/photos/9556741@N03/3157684854
  • Duncan Hall, Attention aux PickPockets, http://www.flickr.com/photos/dullhunk/4575707721Enrique Martinez Bermejo, Community-manager, http://www.flickr.com/photos/kikemb/5428414543

Transcript

  • 1. Design Principles forDigital Preservation SystemsStephen AbramsUniversity of California Curation CenterCalifornia Digital Librarywww.cdlib.org/uc3SystemsSystems?
  • 2. Design Principles forDigital Preservation SystemsStephen AbramsUniversity of California Curation CenterCalifornia Digital Librarywww.cdlib.org/uc3Programs
  • 3. WashingtonMay 22-24, 2013What’s the problem we’re trying to solve? Connecting people with digital content in meaningful waysacross barriers of space and time Preservation is the end, systems are just the meansRobbi Verte, Gesture of hand holding a flash disk, www.123rf.com/Pietro Izzo, Open hand, www.flickr.com/photos/pietroizzo/482812880
  • 4. WashingtonMay 22-24, 2013Think outside the (system) box Worry about designing your overall preservation programbefore considering the systems that will implement parts of itLuxmart, Working together team puzzle concept,http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Working_Together_Teamwork_Puzzle_Concept.jpg« Integration »
  • 5. WashingtonMay 22-24, 2013Think outside the (system) box Worry about designing your overall preservation programbefore considering the systems that will implement parts of it A preservation program should provide effective control overmanaged content in several key areas Technical control Managing bits, descriptions of bits, relationships between bits, etc. Analysis, planning, monitoring, intervention, etc. Intellectual (or curatorial) control Creation, selection/acquisition, arrangement, cataloging, etc.Cf. Kenney & McGovern (2003), “Five organizational stages of digital preservation,” Digital Libraries: A Visionfor the 21st Century (Ann Arbor: MPublishing,), hdl:2027/spo.bbv9812.0001.001« Integration »
  • 6. WashingtonMay 22-24, 2013Good design is good design Any principles for preservation system design should beinformed by general principles for system design andengineering design Beginning with a clearly defined need Leading to a creative design in response to the need Resulting in a system fully meeting the needCf. Royal Academy of Engineering (1999), Principles of Engineering Designwww.raeng.org.uk/education/vps/principles/pdf/armstrong_keynote.pdfJason DeRusha, Crying baby shot, www.flickr.com/photos/derusha/1465953800Izumi Mitatami, The hamburger, www.flickr.com/photos/marvin_izumi/3881467402Sean Dreilinger, Big hamburger, little kid, www.flickr.com/photos/seandreilinger/3002176844
  • 7. WashingtonMay 22-24, 2013Design principles for preservation systems Integration  Least surprise Definition  Elegance Generality  Community Parsimony Modularity Granularity Orthogonality Emergence Redundancy Evolution TransienceYes, some of these may sound, or evenbe, somewhat inconsistent orcontradictory
  • 8. WashingtonMay 22-24, 2013Know what you (really) need What you need, not just what you want Tie requirements to specific use cases Actual, expected, anticipated, or probable Hypothetical? Acceptance criteria Did you get what you asked for?« Definition »Guardian, Five reasons why waiters don’t write down your order,www.guardian.co.uk/lifeandstyle/2011/aug/14/waiters-dont-write-orders-down
  • 9. WashingtonMay 22-24, 2013Know what you don’t need Necessity vs. sufficiency vs. superfluity “A scientific theory should be as simple as possible, but nosimpler” – Einstein “It is futile to do with more things that which can be done withfewer” – William of Ockham “Not too big, not too small, just right” – Goldilocks« Parsimony »Wikimedia Commons, Goldilocks 1912, commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Goldilocks_1912.jpg
  • 10. WashingtonMay 22-24, 2013Inclusive applicability Solve a general problem today, to avoid having to solve aspecific problem tomorrow Support for re-configuration or self-configuration Facilitate (re)use, potentially in novel waysCf. Yourdon and Constantine (1979), Structure Design: Fundamentals of a Discipline of ComputerProgramming (Prentice-Hall), www.win.tue.nl/ ~wstomv/ quotes/structured-design.html#19« Generality »Brian Snelson, Lovely new metric spanners and torque wrench,www.flickr.com/photos/exfordy/353771860LoggerHead Tools, Bionic wrench, loggerheadtools.com
  • 11. WashingtonMay 22-24, 2013The Unix philosophy Make each program do one thing well To do a new job, build afresh rather than complicate oldprograms by adding new features Expect the output of every program to become the input toanother, as yet unknown, program Dont hesitate to throw away the clumsy parts and rebuildthemCf. McIllroy et al. (1978), “Unix time-sharing system: Forward,” Bell Systems Technical Journal 57(6): 1899–1904, www3.alcatel-lucent.com/bstj/vol57-1978/articles/bstj57-6-1899.pdf« Modularity / Granularity / Orthogonality / Emergence »Windell Oskay, Inside-out Lego brick, www.flickr.com/photos/oskay/265899811
  • 12. WashingtonMay 22-24, 2013Just in case, just in case Plan for failure Replication to avoid single points of failure Decorrelation to avoid cascade failureCf. Rosenthal (2010), “LOCKSS: lots of copies keeps stuff safe,” US Workshop on Roadmap for DigitalPreservation Interoperability Framework, NIST, Gaithersburg, MDlockss.org/locksswiki/files/NIST2010.pdf« Redundancy »Energy Press, PWC: Το δάνειο στο ΛΑΓΗΕ δεν αρκεί για να μην καταρρεύσει η αγοράwww.energypress.gr/news/lianikh-reymatos/PWC:-To-daneio-sto-LAGHE-den-arkei-gia-na-mhn-katarreysei-h-agoraNCinDC, Life is one big balancing act, www.flickr.com/photos/ncindc/3229050640
  • 13. WashingtonMay 22-24, 2013First make it work, then make it work better Configuration Customization Iterative enhancementCf. May and Zimmer (1996), “Evolutional development model for software,” HP Journal (August): 39-45,www.hpl.hp.com/hpjournal/96aug/aug96a4.pdf« Evolution »Wikimedia Commons, commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Human_evolution_scheme.svg
  • 14. WashingtonMay 22-24, 2013Easy come, easy go Preservation systems are inherently ephemeral andexpendable; the content managed in them is not Avoid system lock-in Standardized content representation Standardized APIs Smooth migration paths Your (aging) system’s DIP should be a replacement system’s SIP Preferably, change at a time and place of your choosingCf. Janée (2009), “Relay-supporting archives: Requirements and progress,” International Journal of DigitalInformation 4(1), www.ijdc.net/index.php/ijdc/article/view/102« Transience »
  • 15. WashingtonMay 22-24, 2013Keep the customer satisfied Default system behaviors should conform to implicit userexpectations Know the communities you are seeking to serve Consistency Treat like things alikeCf. Raymond (2003), “Applying the rule of least surprise,” Art of Unix Programming (Addison-Wesley),http://www.faqs.org/docs/artu/ch11s01.html« Least surprise »Narufag, Naruto in the scream, narufag.deviantart.com/art/naruto-in-the-scream-267479366
  • 16. WashingtonMay 22-24, 2013Commodity, firmness, and delight “Well building hath three conditions: firmness, commodity,and delight” – Vitruvius, De architectura [trans. Wotten, 1694] The analogous conditions for computer, rather than structural,architecture are… Utility Resilience EleganceCf. Madni (2012), “Elegant systems design: Creative fusion of simplicity and power,” Systems Engineering15(3): 347-54, doi:10.1002/sys.21209« Elegance »Dominic 2007, Pantheon Dome, www.flickr.com/photos/9556741@N03/3157684854
  • 17. WashingtonMay 22-24, 2013Beg, borrow, or steal Learn from the solutions and experience of the community Support the community and contribute backCf. Anderson (2011), “National Digital Stewardship Alliance: Community, content, commitment,” CENDIPrincipals and Alternatives, Washington, DCwww.cendi.gov/presentations/03_06_11_Anderson_Martha_NDSA.pdf« Community »Enrique Martinez Bermejo, Community-manager,www.flickr.com/photos/kikemb/5428414543Duncan Hall, Attention aux PickPockets,www.flickr.com/photos/dullhunk/4575707721
  • 18. WashingtonMay 22-24, 2013Principles in action: micro-services Decomposition of infrastructure function into a granular set ofindependent, but highly interoperable servicesCf. Abrams, Cruse, Kunze, and Minor (2011), “Curation micro-services: A pipeline metaphor forrepositories,” Journal of Digital Information 12(2), journals.tdl.org/jodi/article/view/1605“Archivematica implements a micro-serviceapproach to digital preservation”http://www.archivematica.org/“Curation Architecture Prototype Services (CAPS), isbuilt on the micro-services approach to digitalcuration” http://www.libraries.psu.edu/“The micro-services approach … seemed similar tothe SDR 2.0 principle of making services moremodular” http://library.stanford.edu/“*SDB] provides a viable solution to the challengesof long term digital preservation by delivering aflexible, extensible set of micro-services”http://www.tessella.com/“The University of North Texas (UNT) hasimplemented a robust architecture for digital libraryinitiatives utilizing the Curation Micro Servicesmethodology for building repository infrastructure”http://www.library.unt.edu/Mode Focus Value Service Valence VisibilityCurationValueAccretion AnnotationUI/Accesscontrol/MessagequeuingInteroperationUser-facingVisibility NotificationUtilityAccessibility AccessApplicationDerivation TransformationSelectivity SearchActionability IndexStewardship IngestPreservationContextEpistemology CharacterizationInterpretationProvider-facingOntology InventoryStateReliability ReplicationProtectionFixity FixityStability StorageIdentity Identity
  • 19. Principles in action: Merritt repositoryStorage nodeStoragebrokerInventoryStorage nodeStorage nodeUI/APIUI/APIUI/APILDAPLDAPLDAPRDBMSFixityUseragentMessagequeueRDBMSLoadbalancerIngestLoadbalancerIngestIngestEZIDNo-SQLDataCiteDataONEmember nodeRDBMSRDBMSDataONEcoord’ing nodeDASSANCloudIDFhttp://www.cdlib.org/uc3/merritthttp://merritt.cdlib.org/RDBMSRDBMS
  • 20. WashingtonMay 22-24, 2013Design principles for preservation systems Integration  Least surprise Definition  Elegance Generality  Community Parsimony Modularity Granularity Orthogonality Emergence Redundancy Evolution TransienceNote that these are principles, not rulesTheir applicability will depend on localneeds, conditions, expertise, resources,etc.—Rely on your intuition and experiencewww.slideshare.net/UC3/pasig-2013abramsdesignprinciplesforpreservationsystems
  • 21. WashingtonMay 22-24, 2013UC Curation Center www.cdlib.org/uc3uc3@ucop.eduStephen Abrams David LoyPatricia Cruse Mark ReyesShirin Faenza Joan StarrScott Fisher Carly StrasserErik Hetzner Marisa StrongJoshua Hubbard Adrian TurnerGreg Janée Bhavitavya VedulaJohn Kunze Kenneth WeissRosalie Lack Perry Willetwww.slideshare.net/UC3/pasig-2013abramsdesignprinciplesforpreservationsystems