Writing the Research Paper (Facilitator's Guide)<br />This guide contains facilitator notes for the Writing the Research Paper Wimba slides. <br />Prior to your presentation, make sure that you have downloaded links available for:<br />Student Handout http://cl.ly/0C083Q3J1z223A1z2r1z <br />Assignment Calculator http://assignmentcalculator.library.ubc.ca/<br />Refworks, Zotero and Mendeley. http://www.slideshare.net/giustinid/ref-works-mendeley-zotero <br />UBC Library Help page http://help.library.ubc.ca/ <br />UBC Writing Centre http://www.writingcentre.ubc.ca/index.html <br />Writer’s Toolbox http://www.writingcentre.ubc.ca/workshop/toolbox.htm <br />Drop-in tutoring (free) http://learningcommons.ubc.ca/get-study-help/tutoring-and-learning-support/#fragment-1-1<br />Cabell’s Directory of Publishing Opportunities HYPERLINK "http://resources.library.ubc.ca/1540"http://resources.library.ubc.ca/1540 <br />Survey http://www.surveyfeedback.ca/surveys/wsb.dll/s/1gaec <br />Workshop Outline<br />Learning OutcomeActionPurposeTime (approx.)Pre-workshop Push the handout and other relevant materials (i.e. templates, links)Explain that the handout serves as a basis for taking notes during the presentation5 minIntroductionsIntroduce yourself and poll the students about their background.Personalize the encounter and help the facilitator see the breadth of experience in the classroom2 minOutcomesOutline the learning outcomes for the workshopProvide students with a clear idea of what to expect in the workshop2 minUBC’s Assignment CalculatorDirect students to the UBC Library Assignment CalculatorProvide students with a framework and resource for approaching the research paper.4 minStep 1: Understanding your assignmentHighlight the need to clarify assignment criteria including format, key questions to address and verbs that indicate the type of writing required.Encourage students to pay close attention to the assignment criteria4 minWhat is a research paper?Define the two major types of research papersEncourage students to focus on one type of research paper to guide their research and writing2 minStep 2: Select and focus your topicList the types of sources useful for preliminary research and reasons for using themIllustrate that preliminary sources are necessary for finding the breadth of literature available and to become familiar with terminology and experts in the field3 minUBC subject guidesGive an example of a preliminary research sourceOffer an authoritative tool to guide students’ initial research3 minStep 3: Your thesis statementEmphasize the importance of the thesis statement and offer examples of weak/strong thesis statementsShow that the thesis statement should reflect the content of the paper and the research used to support it4 minStep 4: Design a research strategyRemind students that preliminary research sources are not necessarily those used for works citedEmphasize that the quality of supporting evidence used in an essay affects the quality of the writing and paper overall4 minIntro to SummonOffer a brief introduction to searching with Summon Help students take advantage of the features of the Summon search tool6 minDocumenting your researchIntroduce the idea of citation management and offer resources to compare the various citation tools available Highlight the benefits of using a citation management tool2 minPlagiarismDefine plagiarism and look at 2 case study examplesEmphasize the citation requirements for maintaining academic integrity 5 minStep 5: Find, review and evaluate your resourcesHighlight the expertise of UBC subject librarians for evaluating authoritative resourcesProvide contacts to get help evaluating authoritative resources4 min.Step 6: Create an outlinePresent strategies for beginning the writing process (steps of an outline, mind maps)Offer some example methods, steps and tools for creating an outline2 min.Steps 7 & 8: Writing, revising and the final copyIntroduce the UBC Writing Centre including its courses, online toolbox and tutoring opportunitiesEncourage students to take advantage of the UBC Writing Centre to improve the quality of their writing2 min.UBC Learning CommonsIntroduce the UBC Learning Commons site (eg. Study toolkits)Provide more resources to get help2 min.PollAsk students to articulate strategies and learning that they will take away from the workshop.Allow students to reconsider what has been covered in the workshop and prioritize what works for them3 min<br />Select the relevant content slides<br />It is recommended that you log in to the Learning Commons classroom at least 15 minutes prior to the start of the workshop. When you first log in to the classroom, you will need to select the appropriate slides from the Content dropdown menu. Once you have selected them, click on Go. <br />Workshop Series Title Slide<br />Use this slide to greet the students. Push the handout again as a download link in the text chat area if needed. If students are having technical troubles, please try to troubleshoot them early on (i.e. Have them exit and re-run Setup Wizard). <br />Facilitator Slide<br />Introduce yourself as the facilitator for the presentation. If you have some special insight or background, make sure to share it with the class.<br />About You Slide<br />Encourage students to share a little bit of their background with you. This helps to personalize the encounter and may help you see the breadth of experience in your classroom. This step should be completed prior to commencing archiving. <br />Introduce the Lecture<br />Remind students again that the presentation will be archived. After you click on the Archiving button, wait for the Archiving announcement to complete before speaking. (You will also notice that there are now two new listings in the participants representing the archive and encoder. You can ignore these.)<br />Introduce the workshop again for the benefit of the archive record. Remember that this will be the first slide seen/first words heard by later viewers. <br />Outline Learning Outcomes<br />Repeat the learning outcomes listed on the slide. Poll: What do you want to know?<br />What do you most want to learn about during today’s workshop? <br />We will intersperse today’s session with poll’s much like the one you completed to share your year and field of study. The reason these reflective exercises are important is that :<br />
Sharing your experience/ideas with a group can help you bring awareness to particular aspects of your personal learning and to identify any areas of strength or weakness.
We can learn as much from peers as the instructor.
As such, we encourage questions/comments from you in the text chat area at any time during today’s workshop.<br />[While participants are completing polls, it is a good idea to read the questions aloud. This will serve to share the content of the hidden poll slides with people viewing the archive copies and to ensure that there is no period of awkward silence while students are undertaking the activity. Try to verbally summarize the results (e.g. stressing the commonalities of participants, mention that skills will be introduced in the workshop to address issues…).]<br />UBC Library’s Assignment Calculator<br />The workshop description focuses on strategies for maintaining academic integrity, but before we get into specifics like citation tools and search strategies, I’d like to start with steps for approaching the research paper and to highlight an incredibly useful tool put together by the UBC Library called the Assignment Calculator. I’ll be using this as the framework for today’s workshop… [provide link in text chat area] Take 2 minutes to go to the link provided in the text chat and explore…<br />Assignment Calculator http://assignmentcalculator.library.ubc.ca/<br />Simply enter a due date (real or fictional and click on the grey tab ‘Calculate Assignment Schedule’<br />[After ~2 minutes, invite students to return to the Wimba classroom interface…]<br />Regardless of whether you’re taking on a short writing assignment of 1000 words, a 20 page paper, or even a major thesis many of the same best practices apply. I’ve condensed some of the steps from the Assignment Calculator for today’s session but would recommend revisiting and exploring this tool after the workshop to help guide your work.<br />Poll: What do you know about your assignment?<br />Think of an upcoming writing assignment (small or large) you have. Do you already know all the assignment criteria (i.e. format, length, questions you need to address…)?<br />Debrief with the group. <br />Most profs are pretty good about defining the assignment criteria clearly, but if you are unsure I would strongly encourage you to seek out this information ASAP because it can significantly impact your research strategies and the way you construct your writing.<br />Step 1: Understand your assignment<br />Step 1 - Understand your assignment<br />Intro and format<br />Usually the prof will introduce the assignment in some way and will outline the format that is required <br />(i.e. margins, font, word count/page numbers, citation style, etc.) Get clarification from your prof or TA if these criteria haven’t been clearly outlined and yes, it is important to follow them. For example, most profs will dock marks for going under or over the limits outlined (i.e. playing with font size and type or margins doesn’t usu. work).<br />Questions to address <br />There are often questions or ideas to discuss listed on the assignment sheet. Find out if you need to answer all or some of these. Students frequently make the mistake of trying to address all of these questions and only end up watering down their paper and their arguments because it lacks focus.<br />Sometimes you are really only required to examine one question or idea in depth. It’s important to ask this early on (just in case you really do need to answer them all!!) and since it can provide important information for guiding your research and outlining your paper.<br />Key verbs that indicate what you need to do<br />The questions or ideas you are asked to explore are frequently described using very specific verbs, ones which will guide the type of paper you are being asked to write. Pay close attention to these (eg. if you are asked to argue an issue you need to take and stance and defend it with evidence, debating the issue means you’ll present both sides of the argument, if you’re asked to judge or evaluate something you need to discuss its significance or value. It can be very easy to get sidetracked as you begin writing so always return to the assignment criteria.)<br />Refer to the extra resource links listed on your hand-out as well…<br />Terms Frequently used in Writing Assignments- Queen’s University Writing Centre http://www.queensu.ca/writingcentre/handouts/Terms.pdf<br />Understanding Assignments - University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Writing Centre http://www.unc.edu/depts/wcweb/handouts/readassign.html<br />What is a research paper?<br />This workshop is titled ‘Writing the Research Paper’ but what is a research paper? Purdue’s Online Writing Lab describes the goal of a research paper as not to summarize what others have to say, but rather to use others’ work to support your own unique perspective on a topic. This is usu. accomplished through two major types of research papers (there are others but these are the 2 major types): the argumentative or the analytical research paper.<br />
Argumentative research paper
“The argumentative research paper consists of an introduction in which the writer clearly introduces the topic and informs his audience exactly which stance he intends to take; this stance is often identified as the thesis statement”…”It makes a claim about a topic and justifies this claim with specific evidence. A good topic might then be debatable or controversial” (Purdue OWL).<br />
Analytical research paper
“The analytical research paper often begins with the student asking a question (a.k.a. a research question) on which he has initially taken no stance. Such a paper is often an exercise in exploration and evaluation. goal is to offer a critical interpretation of primary and secondary sources throughout the paper-sources that should, ultimately, buttress his particular analysis of the topic”… “It breaks down an issue or an idea into its component parts, evaluates the issue or idea, and presents this breakdown and evaluation to the audience” (Purdue OWL).<br />Purdue OWL: Research Papers. (n.d.). . Retrieved April 3, 2011, from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/658/2/<br />Poll: How do you start researching your topic?<br />Read poll aloud and debrief responses with the group and for the archived record.Step 2: Select and focus your topic<br />Step 2 - Select and focus your topic <br />For background information and a general introduction to your topic, an encyclopedia (yes, even Wikipedia) or another general reference tool might be the place to start. Searching Google Scholar can also be really useful at this stage. Using these discovery type tools early in your research is really only to help you focus your topic. It can help you to become familiar with experts in the field and with the terminology used for your subject. This can be especially important later on when using a thorough search strategy of relevant indexes and databases.<br />However, these are not the sources you should ultimately use and cite for your assignment. It’s common to stop here and decide that this is good enough.<br />UBC Research Subject Guides<br />Other options for early research include UBC’s research subject guides [link provided on your handout http://guides.library.ubc.ca/] . Depending on your field of study and the complexity of your research these may or may not be useful for you. <br />This example is for African Studies. Often, links to relevant databases or specific journals, stat sources, primary sources and other theses and dissertations are listed so a subject guide can be a very helpful starting point. (Have you ever actually timed how long you spend surfing the web to come up with only a few relevant items?).<br />For grad students, your handout also lists links for:<br />
Finding the Right Information Sources For a Literature Review http://toby.library.ubc.ca/webpage/webpage.cfm?id=502
FAQ: Dissertations and Theses http://toby.library.ubc.ca/webpage/webpage.cfm?id=37
Poll: What’s your thesis statement?<br />It’s ok if you haven’t completely nailed this yet but it can be really important to try to articulate your thesis statement to others. Don’t worry, your name isn’t attached to these polls and we won’t hold you to it, but please share your research topic with the group now.<br />[Debrief with the group and for the archived record.] This is one of my favourite parts of these workshops because I find it truly fascinating and inspiring to hear about the work that other students on campus are contributing.<br />Step 3: Your thesis statement<br />Step 3: Your thesis statement<br />
What is your thesis statement? (Is it argumentative – make a claim and defend it) or…
What question(s) are you trying to answer? (Is it analytical – an evaluation of the evidence to analyze your question).
Often, a more focused question or thesis yields better research and, as a result, better writing. Another resource link on your hand out is for the UBC Writing Centre’s Writer’s Toolbox. It offers examples of thesis statements that are vague (either in position or direction) and demonstrates how the language you use can make your statements more powerful. I’d like to read one of their examples to you now to illustrate the difference.<br />eg. Sample topic: “Should zoos, first established in the nineteenth century, be abolished? Provide a well-supported argument in defense of your thesis. Write your essay with a general audience in mind.”<br />Sample thesis #1: "Zoos are cruel to animals and should therefore be abolished."<br />No strong position taken or direction to take for support.<br />Sample thesis #2: "While some zoos have genuinely attempted to improve the living conditions and treatment of animals in captivity, most still offer squalid, cramped conditions not much improved over their nineteenth-century counterparts. With a proliferation of large, animal-friendly game farms and wildlife preserves, changes in social attitudes, and advances in technology, it no longer seems necessary to maintain the outdated establishment known as the 'zoo' in order to save the animals or learn from them."<br />from UBC Writers' Workshop - Writers' Toolbox - Thesis Statements. (n.d.). . Retrieved April 3, 2011, from http://www.writingcentre.ubc.ca/workshop/tools/thesisst.htmYour turn<br />Pause for any comments or questions so far.<br />With deadlines approaching it may seem onerous to spend so much time on these initial stages of the writing process, but it is important to remember that these early decisions will have a considerable impact on the overall quality of your work.<br />Step 4: Design a research strategy<br />Good writing skills are important but the kind of information you use to support your arguments will also affect the strength of your paper. <br />Think of an assignment you’ve completed in the past. Where did you look for your research evidence? (i.e. course readings, Google Scholar, UBC Library resources, a specific database for your field, organizational/government websites)<br /> This is the step that many students rush through, settling for whatever they found from their preliminary research.<br />Investing some time in learning to effectively search the UBC library resources and becoming familiar with the key databases in your field early in your academic career can contribute significantly to your academic success.<br />Summon: The New Library Homepage<br />The good news is that your research strategy may have just gotten a lot easier. You may have noticed changes to UBC’s library homepage…<br />Summon is a tool that searches for your keywords within all of UBC’s catalogue, e-books (right into the chapter level), databases, e-journals, cIRcle (UBC’s IR with recently published theses and dissertations, etc.) and more all in one search.<br />The red arrow points to “start here” which is the default search using Summon, but advanced searches are available from the link located below the search box.What is Summon?<br />Some advantages to using Summon…<br />This ‘all in one’ search is similar to Google and doesn’t require a lot of expertise. Unlike Google, it provides access to authoritative scholarly content in full text for material licensed through UBC’s library.<br />Summon results<br />If we look at an example results page you’ll see that the arrow of the left indicates the format of the item. The first one is a journal article available in full text and the next two are e-books. The arrows on the right point to the linked author field. This is useful if you learn that this individual (or group) is an authoritative expert on your topic and you want to find all of their work.<br />Note the column on the left allows you to refine your search further.<br />It doesn’t show up on the screenshot but another great feature of Summon is that mousing over each record in the top right corner will reveal a folder where you can add items of interest and auto-format and export citations to your email or a variety of citation management tools such as Refworks, Endnote and BibTex.<br />It’s important to know that this is a temporary folder and your search will not be saved so make sure you have exported the information you need before your next search, or before exiting. <br />What citation tool do you use?<br />Citing can be a tedious process and is rarely anyone’s favourite topic, but it is absolutely essential to learn good citation management practices as a university student. Please share your citation tool of choice, indicate if you use a combination of the above, or let us know if this idea is new to you and you are not currently using a citation management tool.Documenting your research<br />Documenting your research<br />It doesn’t matter a great deal which citation tool you choose, only that you do use one. Learning to take advantage of these will save you hours in the long run. It’s far easier to keep track of all your resources and to make sure that you are properly citing others’ work if you have a clear system in place from the start of your research process.<br />Today, it’s also far too tempting to copy and paste all kinds of useful information, forget to keep track of the sources and waste time re-searching in order to compile a works cited list at the end of your writing process. You also risk unintentionally plagiarizing or omitting to reference paraphrased sections of other’s research.<br />Different faculty may have preferences for the types of citations tools used. Here’s a link to a thorough comparison of Refworks, Zotero and Mendeley put together by a UBC librarian Dean Giustini for your reference. <br />Citation tools comparison. http://www.slideshare.net/giustinid/ref-works-mendeley-zotero <br />There are also numerous workshops on citation tools such as Refworks and Zotero offered on campus or online. Check the UBC Library workshop calendar for the next scheduled workshop if you’re interested in having someone guide you through the specifics.<br />What is plagiarism?<br />Basically, plagiarism is using another person’s words or ideas without giving them credit. This can happen for a variety of reasons including:<br />•Pressure to get good grades<br />•Lack of confidence<br />•Course seen as low priority<br />•Cannot handle the work load<br />Most students know that they can’t copy and paste others work without properly citing it but poor time management and/or organizational skills can lead to unintentional plagiarism.<br />You must cite your source whether you’re quoting, paraphrasing, or summarizing. Direct quotes should be used sparingly and only if they are needed as support for your own statements. OWL Purdue recommends that only about 10% of your final paper should be direct quotes.<br />Even accidental or unintentional plagiarism is subject to disciplinary measures. It is your responsibility as a student to familiarize yourself with UBC policies. The link is provided on your handout.<br />Is this plagiarism?<br />Let’s look at a couple case studies… [read slide and have students respond yes/no in text chat].<br />Yes, this is plagiarism. Although you have re-written the information in your own words, you have used someone else’s ideas. A summary or paraphrasing another’s work still requires citation, but you don’t need quotation marks around the writing.Is this plagiarism?<br />Here’s another scenario for you to consider… [again, read the example out loud and have students respond yes/no in the text chat]<br />Yes, this is also plagiarism.<br />
This is a form of plagiarism known as 'patchwriting' -- changing just a few words and then trying to pass the work off as your own. You must either quote the section exactly and use quotation marks, or completely rewrite it in your own words. Either way, don't forget to cite the source.
How to avoid plagiarism<br />Avoiding plagiarism begins with careful notes and good time management. It is important that you acknowledge all your sources with proper citation, not just direct quotes. Paraphrased or summarized material still needs to be cited.<br />Ask yourself:<br />▫Is the idea or argument presented mine? <br />▫Are these words my own? <br />▫Can my work be clearly distinguished from the work of others? <br />Step 5: Find, review and evaluate your resources<br />Step 5 - Find, review, and evaluate resources<br />This is the stage where the nature of your assignment will affect the degree to which you need to study and evaluate the literature available on your topic. Obviously for a major paper or thesis, a broad review of all previous related research is necessary. Knowing how to evaluate resources for authority and quality is also important. Tools like HYPERLINK "http://resources.library.ubc.ca/1067" t "_blank" COS PapersInvited or HYPERLINK "http://resources.library.ubc.ca/684" t "_blank" Journal Citation Reports (JCR) Web Editions HYPERLINK "http://science.thomsonreuters.com/tutorials/jcrweb/" t "_blank" (10 minute online tutorial)<br />might be a good place to start but if you a new to research, your best option is… [next slide]<br />UBC Library resources – Help!<br />… taking advantage of the expertise of offered at the UBC Library. You can start with this help page for information on finding various specific types of sources and don’t be afraid to click on the orange “Ask Us!” link in the top right corner.<br />Ask Us!<br />As you can see, there are several ways to get help from the library (in person, by phone or email or by live chatting online).<br />The subject librarian link under ‘Specialized Help’ offers a list of librarians (with their contact information) who specialize in certain faculties and who can direct you to/help you to navigate the key databases for your topic. They may also introduce you to other important resources you may not be aware of (i.e. organizational websites, stats, government docs, etc.)<br />I strongly recommend contacting someone in the library early in the research process.Your turn<br />Pause for any comments or questions so far.<br />Step 6: Create an outline<br />Step 6 - Create an Outline<br />So you finally have a thesis and a ton of great information, but how do you get started with the writing process?<br />Creating an outline can be approached several ways depending on your personal writing style. Begin by brainstorming as many ideas as possible in a small amount of time. Next, start to make connections between these ideas. Ordering and creating subheadings for these groups will allow you to start to see the framework for your paper.<br />One increasingly common strategy for this stage of the writing process is called Mind mapping or Webbing. Your handout provides links to an example of an online mind mapping tool as well as the OWL Purdue resources on creating a useful outline.<br />Text2Mindmap http://www.text2mindmap.com/ <br />Owl Purdue. How to create a useful outline. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/544/02 <br />UBC Writing Centre<br />Step 7 - Draft, revise and rewrite (Conduct additional research as necessary).<br />Step 8 – The Final Copy<br />Practice will improve your writing with time, but there are also expert tutors available to you from the UBC Writing Centre. They also offer non-credit writing courses to those who wish to improve their academic, professional, business and creative writing skills. For online advice try their Writer’s Toolbox (UBC Writing Centre) http://www.writingcentre.ubc.ca/workshop/toolbox.htm <br />UBC Learning Commons<br />Learning Commons/Additional Resources<br />For more help with research and writing, the UBC Learning Commons site is a good option (See the ‘Get study help’ menu). There are also study toolkits for web research, time or stress management and more…<br />Your handout also lists several additional useful links including:<br />
If you are looking to publish your academic research, some key resources to investigate include:<br />Cabell’s Directory of Publishing Opportunities http://resources.library.ubc.ca/1540 <br />cIRcle – UBC’s Information Repository http://www.library.ubc.ca/circle/about.html <br />3 things you learned from this workshop<br />Reflecting on your learning today can solidify the main areas you need to focus on for your next writing assignment. Hearing from other members of the group can remind you of key aspects you also need to focus on. Please share the three most useful things you learned about during today’s session.<br />Stay in Touch<br />If you are comfortable fielding questions after the workshop, you can offer your email in the text chat area.<br />Ask students to complete the online survey. Emphasize that it is a quick 2-3 minute poll survey.<br />Survey http://www.surveyfeedback.ca/surveys/wsb.dll/s/1gaec<br />Turn archive OFF!!<br />