Lecturing 4


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Lecturing 4

  1. 1. ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR Group Behavior Gunawan Baharuddin, SE., M.Ec
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION The essential feature of a group is that its members regard themselves as belonging to the group. A group is defined as any number of people who: • interact with one another; • are psychologically aware of one another; and • perceive themselves to be a group. (Schein) Hamner & Organ added, a psychologically group works toward a common goal”
  3. 3. FORMATION OF GROUPS Tuckman (1965) devised a model of group formation which consists of the following five Stages Stage 1 – Forming initial formation of the group where tasks have to be understood, individuals have to get to know one another Stage 2 – Storming problems begin to be faced more openly than in the earlier stage. Stage 3 – Norming relative upheaval moves into a more considered where conflicts are settled, new standards are developed and owned by the members. Cooperation really takes off. Stage 4 – Performing the group is working effectively both in terms of goals and its internal relationships. Teamwork develops and solutions are found. Stage 5 – Adjourning fact that a group’s life will eventually come to an end as people move on elsewhere in the organization or as original purpose is attained and the job is completed.
  4. 4. TYPES OF GROUP #1 Formal And Informal Groups Formal groups established by management as part of an organizational structure. They are defined in terms of their purpose and roles Informal Groups • they draw their norms (rules) of behavior from amongst themselves; • their first loyalty tends to be towards their fellow group members rather than to the organization as a whole. • their goals are decided more by what they feel is right for • their behavior is derived more from interpersonal relationships • their behavior may or may not be in line with what their organization • they generally meet social and security needs before other needs; • group leadership is exercised on a charismatic basis rather than by legitimate authority; • they are less permanent than formal groups
  5. 5. TYPES OF GROUP #2 Groups based on membership and interest e.g. Student, citizen, football supporter, indo-runners, etc #3 Groups based on number of members Diads (two peoples) Triad (three peoples) More than three #4 Productive relation between members
  6. 6. Correlation between number of groups and group behavior Dimension Size of group 2-7 8-12 13-16 Needs a leader Low moderate high Differentiate between leader and member Low Low-moderate Moderate-high Leader supervisory Low Low-moderate Moderate-high Low-moderate Moderate-high high Domination of member Low Moderate-high high Limitation to interact for normal member Low Moderate-high high Rules and procedures Low Low-moderate high Time for making decision Low-moderate Moderate high Tend to make sub-groups Low Moderate-high high Tolerance toward leader command
  7. 7. InterCOMMUNICATION of GROUPS #1 Process and steps Source: acts, experiences, personality, culture formulation Message Media receiver: acts, experiences, personality, culture Give meaning accepted Messages #2 Obstacles in communication Experience by-pass Use of technical terms Media selection Environmental distortion Abstract nature of words Status Resistance to change
  8. 8. InterCOMMUNICATION of GROUPS #3 Non-verbal communication Kinesics. Gestures, mimics, etc Proxemics. Physics distance Chronemics. Chat duration Occulesics. Eye gesture Physical appearances. Could be a problem #4 communication patterns
  9. 9. DINAMICS of GROUP on ORG. BEHAVIOR Norms and group’s goals (Hackman) 1. Norms are structural characteristics of group which summarize & simplify group influence processes 2. Norms apply only to behavior, not private thoughts and feelings 3. Norms are generally developed only for behavior which are viewed as important by most group members 4. Norms usually developed gradually, but the process can be shortcutted if members so desires 5. Not all norms apply to everyone Cohesiveness (Seashore) 1. productivity of group members would be more likely if it has a high level of cohesiveness 2. there are differences in productivity levels between the groups according to the level of cohesiveness of each group 3. Cohesiveness can cause low or high productivity, depending on how the behavior of managers
  10. 10. DINAMICS of GROUP on ORG. BEHAVIOR Problem –solving in a group (Van de Ven and Delberg) 1. Use of nominal grouping for fact finding and generating ideas 2. Use of structured group interaction and interaction and informal discussion for clarifying and evaluating the idea generated 3. Use of nominal grouping for voting and for final independent judgement