Short stories
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Short stories Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Year 9 MWSC 2012 PSS
  • 2. A short story is a narrative that has a beginning, a middle and an ending. The orientation (beginning) tells the reader who, what, when, where and why. The complication (middle) is the problem or the conflict the main character or characters must face and solve. The resolution (ending) is the solving of the problem or conflict for better or for worse.
  • 3.  Purpose: What is the writer‟s purpose? Is it to entertain or to make the audience think? Plot: How are the events of the story arranged? Are they interesting or exciting? Setting: Where and when does the action take place? Does the setting have an important bearing upon the action? Theme: What is the main underlying idea, to which the author would like the audience to respond?
  • 4.  Narrator: Who is telling the story? Is it a character in the story, an observer or the writer? Characters: Who are the characters? Are they true to life? Why are they important? Conflict: What struggle or problems occur between the characters or what inner conflict does the character need to resolve? Climax: What is the most exciting point in the story?
  • 5.  Title: How does the title relate to the story? Orientation: How does the beginning arouse your interest? Complication: What are the problems that hinder the main characters from achieving their goal? How does the writer build up the suspense? Resolution: Is the ending of the story a surprise? Are the problems solved?
  • 6.  Start with a situation – a problem to be resolved for your protagonist. Then present the problems that can occur: Misunderstandings mistaken identity lost opportunities
  • 7.  Thefinal step is to show how you can solve the problem. Love Triumphs good conquers evil honesty is the best policy united we stand
  • 8.  Every piece of writing must have a message or thread of meaning running through it and this theme is the skeleton or framework on which you hang your plot, characters, setting etc. As you write, make sure that every word is related to this theme.
  • 9.  Aneffective short story convers a very short time span. It may be one single event that is momentous in the life of your main character or the story may take place in a single day or even an hour. Try to use the events you depict to illustrate your theme.
  • 10.  You do not have to be predictable when deciding on settings. For example, some of the most frightening settings for thrillers are not cemeteries or lonely allies, but normal places where readers can imagine themselves. Appeal to your reader‟s five senses to make your settings more real.
  • 11.  Around three main characters is all a short story can effectively deal with because too many will distract you from your theme. Decide on the characteristics that are important for your theme and stick to those.
  • 12.  Never underestimate the power of dialogue in conveying character, but it must contribute to the main focus of the story. Every word you put into the mouth of your characters must contribute to revealing your theme……if it doesn‟t, be ruthless and cut it.
  • 13.  Visual imagery also draws the reader in. Capture the reader‟s interest in, and empathy for, your characters. You need to paint such a vivid picture that the reader can imagine herself/himself to be in the scene.
  • 14.  Beginwith an arresting first paragraph or lead, enough to grab the readers and make them curious to know what happens next. Makesure the plot works – there must be a beginning, middle and end. Don‟tsignal the twist ending too soon – try to keep the reader guessing until the last moment.
  • 15.  The narrator is the one who tells the reader what is going on. It is through the eyes of the narrator that the events and characters are seen. The narrator may be one of the characters in the story or someone who observes what happens. We use the term narrative point of view (POV) to describe the way in which the narrator sees the events that make up the story.
  • 16.  The First Person “I” singular or “we” pluralThis gives the most personal view of events, asif told by a firsthand witness or witnesses. The Second Person “You” – singular and plural Seldom used for telling stories as this POV is used when giving instructions and commands.
  • 17.  The Third Person “He”, “She”, “Tom” – singular Or “They” – pluralOffers a view of events and characters that isnot limited by time or place. The main form iscalled the “Omniscient POV”. This POV is themost flexible.
  • 18.  Thenext screen shows the first few lines of a short story called The Breadwinner.
  • 19. The Breadwinner The parents of a boy of fourteen werewaiting for him to come home with his firstweek‟s wages. The mother had laid the table and wascutting some slices of bread and butter fortea. She was a little woman with a pinchedface and spare body, dressed in a blue blouseand skirt, the front of the skirt covered with astarched white apron. She looked tired andfrequently sighed heavily.
  • 20. The Breadwinner The parents of a boy of fourteen werewaiting for him to come home with his firstweek‟s wages. The mother had laid the table and wascutting some slices of bread and butter fortea. She was a little woman with a pinchedface and spare body, dressed in a blue blouseand skirt, the front of the skirt covered with astarched white apron. She looked tired andfrequently sighed heavily.The title of the story relates to the main issue
  • 21. The Breadwinner The parents of a boy of fourteen werewaiting for him to come home with his firstweek‟s wages. The mother had laid the table and wascutting some slices of bread and butter fortea. She was a little woman with a pinchedface and spare body, dressed in a blue blouseand skirt, the front of the skirt covered with astarched white apron. She looked tired andfrequently sighed heavily.Orientation: the characters are introduced
  • 22. The Breadwinner The parents of a boy of fourteen werewaiting for him to come home with his firstweek‟s wages. The mother had laid the table and wascutting some slices of bread and butter fortea. She was a little woman with a pinchedface and spare body, dressed in a blue blouseand skirt, the front of the skirt covered with astarched white apron. She looked tired andfrequently sighed heavily.Little to eat - poverty
  • 23. The Breadwinner The parents of a boy of fourteen werewaiting for him to come home with his firstweek‟s wages. The mother had laid the table and wascutting some slices of bread and butter fortea. She was a little woman with a pinchedface and spare body, dressed in a blue blouseand skirt, the front of the skirt covered with astarchedwhite apron. She looked tired andfrequently sighed heavily.Description of mother suggests financial hardship and thatshe is struggling with a problem
  • 24. The BreadwinnerThe parents of a boy of fourteen were waitingfor him to come home with his first week‟swages.The mother had laid the table and was cuttingsome slices of bread and butter for tea. Shewas a little woman with a pinched face andspare body, dressed in a blue blouse andskirt,the front of the skirt covered with astarchedwhite apron. She looked tired andfrequently sighed heavilyClean and neat – even if little to eat the table is still laidout
  • 25. He was a soft-faced man wearing rimlessglasses, but he handled the automatic withunmistakable competence. I was rather surprised at my calmness when Ilearned the reason for his presence. „It‟s apity to die in ignorance,‟ I said. „Who hiredyou to kill me?‟ His voice was mild. „I could be an enemy inmy own right.‟
  • 26.  We walk down to the busy intersection, me trailing behind Harry. We strut our stuff across the road. I can feel eyes watching and heads turning as we pass. In fact, I‟m surprised we haven‟t caused a collision with all the drivers watching. “Nice dog mate” remarks a passer-by. MWSC Year 9 student
  • 27.  It‟squiet in here, cool leather pressed against my cheek. I can hear noises, my relatives lie next to me. Suddenly sunlight pierces the darkness, glinting off my golden skin. I am flying through the sky and as I crash onto the table top a Freddo frog slides past me. MWSC Year 9 student
  • 28. Now it is your turn!