Site Inventory Form                         State Inventory No.                                New     SupplementalState H...
Yes   No   More Research Recommended   D   Property yields significant information in archaeology or history.
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Iowa Department of Cultural AffairsState Historical Society of Iowa                                                      S...
Iowa Department of Cultural AffairsState Historical Society of Iowa                                                  Site ...
Iowa Department of Cultural AffairsState Historical Society of Iowa                                                    Sit...
Iowa Department of Cultural AffairsState Historical Society of Iowa                                                    Sit...
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Iowa Department of Cultural AffairsState Historical Society of Iowa                Site Number Error:Reference source not ...
Iowa Department of Cultural AffairsState Historical Society of Iowa                Site Number Error:Reference source not ...
Iowa Department of Cultural AffairsState Historical Society of Iowa                Site Number Error:Reference source not ...
Iowa Department of Cultural AffairsState Historical Society of Iowa                Site Number Error:Reference source not ...
Iowa Department of Cultural AffairsState Historical Society of Iowa                                                       ...
Iowa Department of Cultural AffairsState Historical Society of Iowa                                                      S...
Iowa Department of Cultural AffairsState Historical Society of Iowa                                                      S...
Iowa Department of Cultural AffairsState Historical Society of Iowa                                                       ...
Iowa Department of Cultural AffairsState Historical Society of Iowa                                                      S...
Iowa Department of Cultural AffairsState Historical Society of Iowa                                                     Si...
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Iowa Department of Cultural AffairsState Historical Society of Iowa                                                   Site...
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Iowa Department of Cultural AffairsState Historical Society of Iowa                                                   Site...
Iowa Department of Cultural AffairsState Historical Society of Iowa                                                   Site...
Iowa Department of Cultural AffairsState Historical Society of Iowa                                                   Site...
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Iowa Department of Cultural Affairs State Historical Society of Iowa                                              Site Num...
Iowa Department of Cultural AffairsState Historical Society of Iowa                                                 Site N...
Iowa Department of Cultural AffairsState Historical Society of Iowa                                                 Site N...
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Iowa Department of Cultural AffairsState Historical Society of Iowa                                                 Site N...
Iowa Department of Cultural Affairs                                                                           AB&T No 2Sta...
Iowa Department of Cultural AffairsState Historical Society of Iowa                                     Site Number Error:...
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Iowa Department of Cultural AffairsState Historical Society of Iowa                                          Site Number E...
Iowa Department of Cultural AffairsState Historical Society of Iowa                                            Site Number...
Iowa Department of Cultural AffairsState Historical Society of Iowa                                          Site Number E...
Iowa Department of Cultural AffairsState Historical Society of Iowa                                            Site Number...
Iowa Department of Cultural AffairsState Historical Society of Iowa                                            Site Number...
Iowa Department of Cultural AffairsState Historical Society of Iowa                                          Site Number E...
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Documenation for the Nonextant Mason City Clay Brick and Tile Company

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From 1871 until 1979, a major industry in Mason City grew, then flourished, becoming at one among the largest manufacturers in finished clay products in the nation (Loomis 2011). Until the energy crisis on the 1970s, the demand for Mason City clay products was strong enough to survive the coal shortage of 1903 and labor strike of 1909 as well as labor shortages caused by the two world wars. An archaeological site in the Iowa Site File (13CE8) defines the approximate area of an extremely large former pottery works and quarry district (discontinuous). The archaeological site and discontinuous district was recorded as being associated with the Mason City Brick and Tile Manufacturing Company. The district once encompassed 10 separate facilities operated by 8 companies that no longer exist in any meaningful way. . The archaeological site, a discontinuous district encompassing a set of industrial brick and tile manufacturing plants operated by 8 companies in operation from 1892–1979 and retains a low level of integrity as a result removal and modification of the significant aspects of the district’s integrity. Removal of key aspects of the industrial architecture—buildings and structures, alteration to the few remaining buildings, and extensive redevelopment across its area that that together have resulted in a substantially diminished sense of design, materials, workmanship, setting and feeling. l

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Documenation for the Nonextant Mason City Clay Brick and Tile Company

  1. 1. Site Inventory Form State Inventory No.       New SupplementalState Historical Society of Iowa Part of a district with known boundaries (enter inventory no.)      (November 2005) Relationship: Contributing Noncontributing Contributes to a potential district with yet unknown boundaries National Register Status:(any that apply) Listed De-listed NHL DOE 9-Digit SHPO Review & Compliance (R&C) Number       Non-Extant (enter year)      1. Name of Propertyhistoric name Mason City Clay Brick and Tile Industry( District)other names/site number mutliple sites, multiple companies / corresponds to Iowa Site File No. 13CE82. Locationstreet & number Locations are not associated with a street addresscity or town Mason City Iowa vicinity, county      Legal Description: (If Rural) Township Name Township No. Range No. Section Quarter of Quarter       96–97 20          (If Urban) Subdivision       Block(s)       Lot(s)      3. State/Federal Agency Certification [Skip this Section]4. National Park Service Certification [Skip this Section]5. ClassificationCategory of Property (Check only one box) Number of Resources within Property building(s) If Non-Eligible Property If Eligible Property, enter number of: district Enter number of: Contributing Noncontributing site    buildings       buildings structure 9 sites       sites object    structures       structures    objects       objects    Total       TotalName of related project report or multiple property study (Enter “N/A” if the property is not part of a multiple property examination).Title Historical Architectural Data Base Number           6. Function or UseHistoric Functions (Enter categories from instructions) Current Functions (Enter categories from instructions)10A05 Potery 01 Domestic10B02 quarry 10G Storage      13H06 Water7. DescriptionArchitectural Classification (Enter categories from instructions) Materials (Enter categories from instructions)01 No Style foundation 10 Concrete99 Mixed constrcution methods walls (visible material) 03 Brick      roof 05F Steel      other      Narrative Description ( SEE CONTINUATION SHEETS, WHICH MUST BE COMPLETED)8. Statement of SignificanceApplicable National Register Criteria (Mark “x” representing your opinion of eligibility after applying relevant National Register criteria) Yes No More Research Recommended A Property is associated with significant events. Yes No More Research Recommended B Property is associated with the lives of significant persons. Yes No More Research Recommended C Property has distinctive architectural characteristics.
  2. 2. Yes No More Research Recommended D Property yields significant information in archaeology or history.
  3. 3. County Error: Reference source not found Address Error:Reference source not foundSite NumberError: Reference source not foundCity Error: Reference source not found District Number Error:Reference source not foundCriteria Considerations A Owned by a religious institution or used E A reconstructed building, object, or structure. for religious purposes. F A commemorative property. B Removed from its original location. G Less than 50 years of age or achieved significance within the past C A birthplace or grave. 50 years. D A cemeteryAreas of Significance (Enter categories from instructions) Significant Dates Construction date      1884–1914 check if circa or estimated date Other dates, including renovation      1914, 1950, 1979Significant Person Architect/Builder(Complete if National Register Criterion B is marked above) Architect            Builder           Narrative Statement of Significance ( SEE CONTINUATION SHEETS, WHICH MUST BE COMPLETED)9. Major Bibliographical ReferencesBibliography See continuation sheet for citations of the books, articles, and other sources used in preparing this form10. Geographic DataUTM References (OPTIONAL) Zone Easting Northing Zone Easting Northing1                2               3                4                See continuation sheet for additional UTM references or comments11. Form Prepared Byname/title Tim Weitzel, HPSorganization IEDA date 9/29/11street & number 200 E Grand/ PO Box 686 telephone 515/559.4401city or town Des Moines/Iowa City state IA zip code 50309/52244ADDITIONAL DOCUMENTATION (Submit the following items with the completed form)FOR ALL PROPERTIES1. Map: showing the property’s location in a town/city or township.2. Site plan: showing position of buildings and structures on the site in relation to public road(s).3. Photographs: representative black and white photos. If the photos are taken as part of a survey for which the Society is to be curator of the negatives or color slides, a photo/catalog sheet needs to be included with the negatives/slides and the following needs to be provided below on this particular inventory site: Roll/slide sheet #       Frame/slot #       Date Taken       Roll/slide sheet #       Frame/slot #       Date Taken       Roll/slide sheet #       Frame/slot #       Date Taken       See continuation sheet or attached photo & slide catalog sheet for list of photo roll or slide entries. Photos/illustrations without negatives are also in this site inventory file.FOR CERTAIN KINDS OF PROPERTIES, INCLUDE THE FOLLOWING AS WELL1. Farmstead & District: (List of structures and buildings, known or estimated year built, and contributing or noncontributing status)2. Barn: a. A sketch of the frame/truss configuration in the form of drawing a typical middle bent of the barn. b. A photograph of the loft showing the frame configuration along one side. c. A sketch floor plan of the interior space arrangements along with the barn’s exterior dimensions in feet.State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO) Use Only Below This LineConcur with above survey opinion on National Register eligibility: Yes No More Research Recommended This is a locally designated property or part of a locally designated district.Comments:
  4. 4. Evaluated by (name/title): Date:
  5. 5. Iowa Department of Cultural AffairsState Historical Society of Iowa Site Number Error:Reference source not foundIowa Site Inventory Form Related District Number Error:Reference source not foundContinuation SheetPage 1 Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundName of Property County Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundAddress CityNarrative DescriptionAn archaeological site in the Iowa Site File (13CE8) defines the approximate area of an extremely large formerpottery works and quarry district (discontinuous). The archaeological site and discontinuous district was recordedas being associated with the Mason City Brick and Tile Manufacturing Company. The district once encompassed10 separate facilities operated by 8 companies that no longer exist in any meaningful way.Aerial photography documents that substantial portions of the site have been destroyed by the subdivision along SGarfield Ave. Other areas have been converted to tractor trailer storage, other storage, or redeveloped. Based onthe aerial map for 2010, most if not all of the quarries have been converted to water features. The kilns have beenrazed at all of the sites and the few remaining buildings at one or two plants have been modified by conversion tostorage and tractor trailer storage lots. Further exploration with third-party map servers indicates possibly onecomplex remains and that does not retain its original form but has been heavily modified. Based on the highdegree of land surface alteration, few, if any, intact archaeological deposits associated with the Mason City ClayBrick and Tile industry would be forseeable. Those few that might remain are not likely to contribute importantknowledge to the history of the Mason City Clay Brick and Tile Industry. Although field testing could beperformed the current understanding of the site as it originally existed, its land use history and how it currentlyappears does not indicate that such a research strategy would be productive or would be likely to contributefurther to the understanding of this site.Brick and tile works have been described in trade journals, descriptions in Iowa Geological Survey annual reports,and county histories, as well as extensive profession investigation in cultural resource literature (c.f. Deiss 1992,Gurcke 1987, Hamilton 1990, Hirst 2000, Kelly and Kelly 1977, Finney, et al. 1994, Rogers 1993, Schoen andBleed 1993, Terrell 2000, Walters 1982, 1979). No brick and tile works have been recommended to proceedbeyond Phase I survey that were found in the literature. That said, at least one other location, not part of thearchaeological site designation of 13CE8 and therefore outside the determination recommended on this site form,the latest added to the Mason City Clay Brick and Tile industry could be the subject of further research. Theoriginal Nelson Brick Yard in Lime Creek Township also could be researched further, but it may be found thatthis area had been utilized by one or more cement production companies.Statement of SignificanceArchaeological Site 13CE8, Mason City Clay Brick and Tile Industrial District does not appear to meetNational Register Criteria as it does not demonstrate architectural merit, important historical associations, orsignificant characteristics of design or construction and has not nor is likely to yield information important inthe prehistory or history of Mason City, the State of Iowa or the United States of America. Thearchaeological site, a discontinuous district encompassing a set of industrial brick and tile manufacturingplants operated by 8 companies in operation from 1892–1979 and retains a low level of integrity as a resultremoval and modification of the significant aspects of the district’s integrity. Removal of key aspects of theindustrial architecture—buildings and structures, alteration to the few remaining buildings, and extensiveredevelopment across its area that that together have resulted in a substantially diminished sense of design,materials, workmanship, setting and feeling. Therefore, it is determined that the portion of the site that
  6. 6. Iowa Department of Cultural AffairsState Historical Society of Iowa Site Number Error:Reference source not foundIowa Site Inventory Form Related District Number Error:Reference source not foundContinuation SheetPage 2 Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundName of Property County Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundAddress Cityoverlaps the SW ¼ Sec. 8, T96N–R20W is not eligible for the National Register due to a lack of integrity.Additional research also indicates that that remainder of the site is also likely not eligible for the NationalRegister. As a result of these reasons the area designated 13CE8 is not eligible for National Register Historicas an archaeological site or district due to a lack of integrity.
  7. 7. Iowa Department of Cultural AffairsState Historical Society of Iowa Site Number Error:Reference source not foundIowa Site Inventory Form Related District Number Error:Reference source not foundContinuation SheetPage 3 Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundName of Property County Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundAddress CityMason City Clay Brick and Tile IndustryFrom 1871 until 1979, a major industry in Mason City grew, then flourished, becoming at one among the largestmanufacturers in finished clay products in the nation (Loomis 2011). Until the energy crisis on the 1970s, thedemand for Mason City clay products was strong enough to survive the coal shortage of 1903 and labor strike of1909 (Minnesota Bricks 2011) as well as labor shortages caused by the world wars (c.f. Brick and Clay Record1917).Despite numerous challenges, the combination of labor, transportation, raw material and an active and engagedmanagement lead to great successes. By 1913, a manager of o local brickworks wrote to a trade journal to protestthe proclamations made in other areas of the Midwest and to indicate how much more impressive the Mason Cityoperations were: …a trifle over thirty hollow block chimneys in Mason City, ranging from a 115 to 150 feet high. All but four of these have been put up by a local mason whose name is Joseph Maddy. Overburden Stockpile -Myron W. Stephenson, Gen. Supt. Mason City Brick and Tile Works. (Brick and Clay Record 1913)The success can be attributed to a combination of local available and abundant raw material and a superiortransportation network, especially rail freight. Much of the success of the Mason City Brick and Tile industry wasachieved under the leadership of O.T. Denison, who was a proprietor in three of the many of the brick yards,including the largest, the Mason City Brick and Tile Works. Under his direction, the company came to own mostof the brick works in town, the Farmer’s Cooperative Brick and Tile Company, North Iowa Brick and Tile Workseach being an exception. Denison was given the place of primary eminence in the biographical volume of the1910 History of Cerro Gordo County, Iowa (Wheeler 1910).Environmental ContextIn Iowa, like much of the Upper Midwest, Clay is an abundant mineral resource, occurring in loess depositedwindblown and colluvial sediments, river valleys as alluvial sediments and in sedimentary clay shale rockformations such as those present in the subglacial till in the Mason City area (Anderson 1998, Anderson andBunker 1998, Prior 1991). Clay and clay shales are used in brick, tile, and pottery manufacture but also ascomponents of cement manufacture and specialty applications (Anderson and Bunker 1998, Anderson 1998, IowaEngineer 1910). In Mason City, brick and tile and cement were and are the main uses of locally mined clay andclay shale.Naturally occurring industrial grade clay shales of Lime Creek Formation of the Devonian system and lacustrienlake deposits are present at Mason City, along with Sioux City, Ottumwa, Clinton, and Van Meter, Dallas County(Anderson 1998, Iowa Engineer 1910). In the 1920s there were more than 100 brick and tile works in the state(Brick and Clay Record).
  8. 8. Iowa Department of Cultural AffairsState Historical Society of Iowa Site Number Error:Reference source not foundIowa Site Inventory Form Related District Number Error:Reference source not foundContinuation SheetPage 4 Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundName of Property County Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundAddress CitySeveral photos in the Samuel Calvin collection at the University of Iowa Libraries show images of the early brickand tile works facility. The images document production facilities, products made, the name of the company andthe clay mine operations. Samuel Calvin was educated in classical studies and natural sciences. A self-trainedgeologist, Calvin eventually earned a position on the faculty and taught at the State University of Iowa, now theUniversity of Iowa, in Iowa City (Iowa Digital Library 2011). He was interested in the applied (Continued p. 8)
  9. 9. Iowa Department of Cultural AffairsState Historical Society of Iowa Site Number Error:Reference source not foundIowa Site Inventory Form Related District Number Error:Reference source not foundContinuation SheetPage 5 Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundName of Property County Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundAddress City
  10. 10. Iowa Department of Cultural AffairsState Historical Society of Iowa Site Number Error:Reference source not foundIowa Site Inventory Form Related District Number Error:Reference source not foundContinuation SheetPage 6 Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundName of Property County Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundAddress City
  11. 11. Iowa Department of Cultural AffairsState Historical Society of Iowa Site Number Error:Reference source not foundIowa Site Inventory Form Related District Number Error:Reference source not foundContinuation SheetPage 7 Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundName of Property County Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundAddress City
  12. 12. Iowa Department of Cultural AffairsState Historical Society of Iowa Site Number Error:Reference source not foundIowa Site Inventory Form Related District Number Error:Reference source not foundContinuation SheetPage 8 Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundName of Property County Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundAddress City
  13. 13. Iowa Department of Cultural AffairsState Historical Society of Iowa Site Number Error:Reference source not foundIowa Site Inventory Form Related District Number Error:Reference source not foundContinuation SheetPage 9 Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundName of Property County Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundAddress City
  14. 14. Iowa Department of Cultural AffairsState Historical Society of Iowa Site Number Error:Reference source not foundIowa Site Inventory Form Related District Number Error:Reference source not foundContinuation SheetPage 10 Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundName of Property County Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundAddress City(Continued from p. 3) sciences of Geology. Calvin, like many of the persons involved in the Mason City clayindustry understood the importance of near surface geology in determining where ideal clay deposits would befound (Wheeler 1910).The type of raw material has much to do with the final product that is derived from the material. For instance, rawclay derived from loess or alluvial sediments most often forms an earthenware used in soft brick and drain tilewhile clay shales are useful in high-fire, hard materials such as face brick, fire brick (refractory brick), brickpavers and has the name of flint clay, fire clay, stoneware and so on. More to the point, clays that haveaccumulated due to mechanical transport tend to be higher in oxides, especially iron, as well as mixed withimpurities. These clays therefore have a much lower refractive nature, meld at a lower temperature, but remainporous and perform poorly under high kiln temperatures. Conversely, clays that form in one place due to thechemical or mechanical leaching of soluble materials and leaving the clay deposits as residual accumulations tendto be low in oxides and in localized areas are free of impurities, and therefore are less plastic and more refractive.These clays tend to be nearly pure derivatives of feldspar and perform well at high temperatures, become fullyfused (vitreous) and approach glass in final characteristics when fully fired. There are exceptions and it is basedmore on parent material and the presence of the impurities than anything else but in general Primary weatheredsedimentary materials and weathered igneous form the most pure clays—kaolin (Searle 1912, Rhodes 1973). Ballclay is secondary clay that is extraordinarily free of iron and sand and therefore is an excellent plastic additive forKaolin, which is too stiff for most applications. Using a variety of clay types and other material additives, stonegrit, previously fired clay grog, sand, and so on can also allow clays to be designed for specific purposes. Brickand tile industrial applications favor iron–rich, natural accumulations of soft clay that has or to which anappropriate amount of sand can be added without too much trouble (Rhodes 1973).TimelineThe first brick fired in Mason City by Nelson Gaylord in 1861 (American Clay Magazine, Bucyrus, Ohio,December 1910, Volume 4, Number 4). It appears Gaylord employed temporary clamp kilns on site. Nels M.Nelson and Henry Brickson opened the first industrial scale brick yard west of the river in the NW ¼ of Section34, Lime Creek Township in 1871 and in 1877 Nelson became the sole proprietor (Loomis 2001, UnionPublishing1883). By 1908 the Northwest States Portland Cement Company was in operation and they wouldeventually obtain the same land parcel. By then Nelson had moved to SW Mason City (Visit Mason City 2011,Wheeler 1910).The Mason City Brick and Tile Company began operation in 1884 (Wheeler 1910). Along with changesleadership the physical appearance and configuration of the plant changed considerably over time in response tonew technology and available clay sources (Sanborn Maps, Brick and Clay Record). Both the clay pits and thefacilities expanded before they were closed and, for the most part demolished with the land being redevelopedafter 1979 (Loomis 2011; Iowa Geographic Information Server 2011).The Mason City Brick and Tile Co. brick works plant was located ½ mile west of the train depot in 1892, the yearit incorporated (Brick and Clay Record 1909, Sanborn Map 1892). The location was northwest of the Elmwood
  15. 15. Iowa Department of Cultural AffairsState Historical Society of Iowa Site Number Error:Reference source not foundIowa Site Inventory Form Related District Number Error:Reference source not foundContinuation SheetPage 11 Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundName of Property County Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundAddress CityCemetery at a location corresponding to SW ¼ of the SE ¼ of Section 9. The Brick & Tile plant was serviced bya rail spur from Chicago Milwaukee and St. Paul Railroad, according to the 1912 county atlas. The Patron’sdirectory listed the Mason City Brick and Tile Company as “Manufacturers of Wire Cut Brick and Drain Tile,Vitrified Paving and Sidewalk Brick, Dealers in St. Louis Firebrick and Fire Clay. O.T. Denison President andManager (Anderson 1912).Several companies in the “burnt clay” industry began operations thereafter, including American Brick and Tile in1900, Mason City Clay works in 1900, Mason City Sewer Pipe Company in 1905, and the Mason City Drain Tilein 1907. In 1909, an additional plant in operation by the American Brick and Tile Company was located 2 milessouthwest of the post office, in the NW ¼ of Section 17, due south of the west boundary of Elmsly and Adam’sSubdivision located south west of First St and Inland Ave in the NW ¼ of the NW ¼ of Section 16 (Sanborn1909).With the single exception of the American Brick and Tile Company, all of the preceding were operated incooperation or directly under O.T. Denison, who died in 1910. In 1914 all were acquired outright by the MasonCity Brick and Tile Company and continued under this ownership until closed. The last company closed in 1979,but several of the operations were shut down before that point. Two other important brick works were neverassociated with the Denison plants. The North Iowa Brick and Tile Company was opened in 1906 (Clay and BrickRecord 1909). This plant manufactured drain tile from 4 in. in size up to 24 in., one of the factors of its equipmentbeing a new design of Madden tile press which makes tile up to 24 in. in diameter. This plant also manufactureshollow building block and common brick (Clay and Brick Record 1909). The Farmers Cooperative Brick and TileCompany started operations in Mason City in 1910 (Clay and Brick Record 1910). In 1912, the county atlasdepicts the North Iowa Brick and Tile in operation in the SE ¼ of Section 8. The Farmers Cooperative Brick andTile Co. was located in the west half of the same section. By 1930, the Hixson plat map and trade journalsindicate there were 10 plants operated by 8 companies.Farmers Cooperative was the second operation for the principal investor of that company, the other plant beinglocated in Sheffield (Wheeler 1910). One of the issues cited in the trade journals was the need to relocateoperations or otherwise improve travel time from new quarries. As quarries were played out, new sources wouldbe necessary and they were not often nearby the existing plant. The influx of new companies likely curtailed theraw materials available for the existing companies. Further, as time passed, residential and commercial uses beganto impinge upon the area, circling around it reducing its continued suitability for industrial use. By 1947 many ofthe plants were listed as vacant (Sanborn 1947). The 1950s aerial photo shows that the entire facility at the NorthIowa Brick and Tile site had been removed leaving bear ground (Iowa Geographic Information Server 2011). By1979, the demand for brick had greatly reduced demand for the products and the last of the operations ceased.Brick and Tile Manufacturing ProcessBrick or tile making involves a combination of processes that begin with mining clay or shale that has a high claycontent. The material is hauled, and the processed and prepared. Then the work is made, dried, and fired in a kiln.The last part of the operation involves the logistics of product storage and shipment.
  16. 16. Iowa Department of Cultural AffairsState Historical Society of Iowa Site Number Error:Reference source not foundIowa Site Inventory Form Related District Number Error:Reference source not foundContinuation SheetPage 12 Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundName of Property County Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundAddress CityInitially, brick was made in clamp kilns on a building site, after the basement cellar had been dug. According to apresentation by John P. Spewek, an expert in historic plaster and masonry materials and restoration, building pitsare also useful in the construction and plaster trades as well. For this, limestone was needed on site or needed tobe brought to the site. Both brick and plaster require a considerable amount of fuel to make. Later, kilns were builtIn the late 19th century, the perception was that lime was an essential flux for clay wares (Union Publishing 1883).In fact the higher the fired clay body, lime actually acts as a contaminant in that it will chemically convert to anoxide that becomes unstable, will hydrate, and creates defects in the finished ware, sometimes weeks or monthafter the sale of the product (c.f. Rhodes 1971).The first fuel of choice was wood. Wood has been used to fire clay for centuries. The conversion to coal waslikely for mixed reasons. First, coal does provide larger BTU per volume than wood. But more decisively, woodhad become scarce by the late 19th century. Importantly, the writer’s for the Calvin Project at The University ofIowa Libraries observed the denuded landscape in late 19th century Iowa, remarking that Most striking and useful for geologic interpretation is the lack of trees in Calvins photographs. The pioneers and industries consumed most of the trees for buildings and fuel. Today, Iowa is more wooded, and many of the geologic localities that Calvin photographed, as well as the new roads and railcuts, have since been overgrown or lost to new construction. The photographs are potentially useful for the study of agricultural changes and land use. They give a glimpse of the native prairie that existed in Iowa in the late 1800s. (Iowa Digital Library 2011)And although large scale industrial brick works require coal to fire the kilns and as source of power to run pugmills, mixers, and extruders (Weitzel 2005, Bleininger and Greaves-Walker 1918, Windsor and KinfieldPublishing Co 1897–ca.1950), there were a number of issues. Coal kilns needed a new design for one, and a newmethod of clay firing needed to be developed. But there were other issues not only in converting to coal but alsoexpanding its use as a fuel source (Dornback 1910).In 1866, the Mason City and Fort Dodge railroad line was established. The railroad opened the door for MasonCity to grow quickly and much of the brick in the building built during this time came from the brickyard ofNelson and Brickson (Loomis 2011, Union Publishing 1883) and then Nelson and Barr (Iowa Engineer 1910).The Mason City Brick and Tile Co. brick works plant was located inside the corporate boundary, in south part ofthe 3rd Ward at the time. It began operations in 1892 (Brick and Clay Record 1909). The location was northwestof the Elmwood Cemetery at a location corresponding to SW ¼ of the SE ¼ of Section 9. The ChicagoMilwaukee and St. Paul Railroad was shown running east to west near the south section line. The intersecting linefrom the southwest was operated by the Mason City and Fort Dodge Railway. Further east a north to south linewas operated by the Iowa Central RR, the Mason City Junction was located near the SW corner. The Brick & Tileplant was serviced by a rail spur from Chicago Milwaukee and St. Paul Railroad. The Patron’s directory listed the
  17. 17. Iowa Department of Cultural AffairsState Historical Society of Iowa Site Number Error:Reference source not foundIowa Site Inventory Form Related District Number Error:Reference source not foundContinuation SheetPage 13 Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundName of Property County Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundAddress CityMason City Brick and Tile Company as “Manufacturers of Wire Cut Brick and Drain Tile, Vitrified Paving andSidewalk Brick, Dealers in St. Louis Firebrick and Fire Clay. O.T. Denison President and Manager.Originally, clay was dug by hand and most brick works used human or animal power to move barrows or carts ofclay to the brick works (Lienhard 1997, Terrell 200, Rhodes 1971, Webber 1976–1992, Weitzel 2005). Differentprocesses were used depending on the type of clay, the amount of impurities or inclusions and the desired finalproduct. Some clay works will spread out the raw material to dry, sieve, and then crush, re-sieve and rehydrate.This process allows consistency by using a dry weight measure, in turn facilitating more precise mixtures of clays(Rhodes 1873, Weitzel 2005). For extrusion products, the clay would be mixed with other additives to facilitatethe process (Propst and Clark 2003). The resulting slurry would then be fed into an extruding machine. Thismachine could be fitted with differently size or shaped dies for square building block or round drainage tile (Hirst2000, Popst and Clark 2003). A different type of process was necessary to make silo tile or sewer brick becausethese generally are made in the form of an arc, the diameter of which determines the size of the final structure.The extrusions were cut in the desired lengths, usually 12 to 14 inches for drain tile, longer for sewer tile (Weitzel2005). Building blocks were typically sixteen inches (Propst and Clarke 2003). The specialty fittings were ofnecessity made by hand (Popst and Clarke 2003). Originally, brick was also made by hand using a specialized setof tools and molds (Terrell 2000, Lienhard 1997, Weber 1976–1992, Weitzel 2005), eventually, the dry process orpressed bricks were developed, wherein a ball with a clay body containing a lot less water is placed into mold andthe pressed into the desired shape using force from any of a number of methods. The tiles were placed on dryingracks before being fired in the kilns. Depending on the type of kiln, the bone ware must either be handed ontoware carts, moved to the kiln and it loaded. After a cooling period the tile was removed from the kilns and eitherstockpiled or loaded directly into boxcars (Brick and Clay Record). Later innovations involved rail cars andtunnel kilns. In this process the formed ware is loaded onto rail cars and the cars slowly move through the kiln,with each chamber set to the proper temperature to correctly fire the ware form warming, to bisque to near or ascomplete a vitrification as the clay body will allow. The brickyard would shut down for a short time each winterfor repairs and improvements (Popst and Clarke 2003). Eventually, several of the Mason City brick worksinstalled steam powered cable cars made by the Vulcan Iron Works, Wilkes-Barre, PA or the Hathorn Foundry &Machine Co., Mason City that were elevated to the top of the clay works by a mine tipple (Brick and Clay Record1909). Once under mutual ownership, the several plants would mine from the same pit (Popst and Clarke 2003).As distances grew and labor shortages mounted during WWI improvements in efficacy for labor and energy drovethe further mechanization of the plants and mines (Brick and Clay Record). The Mason City Clay WorksCompany installed a rail track with mine cars driven by a steam locomotive were used some time before 1915along with a centralized clay processing facility at the clay pit in NW ¼ of Section 16 (Propst and Clocke 2003,Sanborn Map 1915). By 1956, trucks hauled the clay to the remaining plants. Consequently, the rails wereremoved and the rail equipment was scrapped (Propst and Clocke 2003).Much of the work at the plants was initially facilitated by steam powered Corliss type work engines with Powertake off for driving belts and equipment. The manufacturers were located at Sioux City and Burlington amongother locations (Popst and Clarke 2003, Brick and Clay Record 1909). Eventually steam and electrical power forvarious operations were provided by the power plant on the industry site.
  18. 18. Iowa Department of Cultural AffairsState Historical Society of Iowa Site Number Error:Reference source not foundIowa Site Inventory Form Related District Number Error:Reference source not foundContinuation SheetPage 14 Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundName of Property County Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundAddress CityThe introduction of steam powered, later petroleum powered, draglines and the conversion from coal to gas firedkilns was increased at this time but were not perfected until the 1920s but at the same time other efficienciesincreasingly were introduced, such as hydraulic presses for face brick (Brick and Clay Record 1917, The Clay-worker 1922). Again changes came about as the Second World War approached. The haul line was electrified in1940 and two side dump engines were purchased from The Clinton, Davenport & Muscatine Railroad (Ross2011). The engines were made by the Differential Steel Car Company of Findley, Ohio, a company thatdeveloped innovations in mine cars and locomotives (Ohio Vintage Coal 2009). When the pits were locatedfarther away from the factories, the rail line was not extended. Instead trucks transported it from the pits to therailhead (Popst and Clocke 2003).Components of a Typical Clay Brick or Tile FacilityClay PitProcessing Plant/Brick Works Machine Room/Black Smith Shop/Clay Room Crushing and pulverizing mills, Mixers, Pug Mills, Extrusion Mills, Brick Press and molds, Conveyors, Ware Cars/tracks, Ware Shelving Power Plant (to generate steam and electricity) Drying Sheds Kiln Array Tunnel system to duct heat from furnace fire rooms to kilns and drying shed Offices Storage/Warehouse Drying ShedsAdditional Facilites and Equipement Cable Car/Railroad/Haul Road, Pit mine conveyors/tipple Steam powered Corliss type engines to haul equipment and for the use of the Power Take Off.
  19. 19. Iowa Department of Cultural AffairsState Historical Society of Iowa Site Number Error:Reference source not foundIowa Site Inventory Form Related District Number Error:Reference source not foundContinuation SheetPage 15 Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundName of Property County Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundAddress CityProducts: Pavement brick (street and sidewalk types), drain tile, structural tile (wall block, window caps, window sills, farm silos), common brick (structural brick), hollow brick (face brick)
  20. 20. Iowa Department of Cultural AffairsState Historical Society of Iowa Site Number Error:Reference source not foundIowa Site Inventory Form Related District Number Error:Reference source not foundContinuation SheetPage 16 Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundName of Property County Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundAddress City Company Name or Other Significant Board or Management Location Dates Lime Creek Brickyard 1871 (1) Nels M Nelson and Henry. First pit and Brickson to 1877, Nelson sole works were in proprietor after 1877 (1) Lime Creek Twp, NW-34-97-20 1882 (8, 5) N.M. Nelson and Barr Later moved to Southwest Mason City in 1882. 4,000 brick from this yard in 1882. Mason City Brick and Tile Company 1884 (2) O.T. Denison, President and SW-SE-9-96-20 (founded) L.W. Dension Secretary- Later acquired the American Brick Treasurer and Tile Company and consolidated Incorporated the Denison companies under this 1892 (2) name, 7 facilities 1910 (4) C.E. Smith General Manger Added Clay handling plant in clay 1913 (4) M.W. Stephenson General pit and tramways before 1914 Superintendent 1914 (8) Keeler consolidation American Brick and Tile Company 1900 (6) Ira Irving Nichol Organizer SW-SW-9-96-20 Albert F. Shots General Built on site of the original Nelson Manger and Barr brick works of 1882 (5) Second Plant (Plant No. 1), due north across railroad track. 1909 (7) 1914 (7, 8) acquired by MCB&T
  21. 21. Iowa Department of Cultural AffairsState Historical Society of Iowa Site Number Error:Reference source not foundIowa Site Inventory Form Related District Number Error:Reference source not foundContinuation SheetPage 17 Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundName of Property County Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundAddress City Company Name or Other Significant Board or Management Location Dates Mason City Clay Works 1900 (2) F. A. Stephenson is president; NW-NE-16-96- O. T. Denison, vice-president; 20 Drain tile, common brick, and L. W. Denison, secretary, and hollow block tile. F. E. Keeler, treasurer. Uses cable cars built by Vulcan Iron Stephenson also had work or Works, Wilkes-Barre, PA was working with plants in Des Moines and Illinois This company used mechanical explosives to loosen shales that they worked to a depth of 45 feet below 1914 (7, 8) Acquired by MCB&T surface. (2) Mason City Sewer Pipe Company 1905 (2) O.T. Dension, president L.W. SE-SW-9-96-20 Denison, secretary, and F. E. Sewer tile and brick. Keeler, treasurer. Completely lit by electrical lights 1914 (7, 8) Acquired by MCB&T when built North Iowa Brick and Tile Company 1906 (2) A.W. Dawson, president. L.A. SW-SE-8-96- Page, vice-president, J.W. Specialized in large field tile in a Adams Treasurer, and R. wide range of sizes. Closed in the Valentine, secretary 1950s Mason City Drain Tile Company 1907 (2) O. T. Denison, president; F. A. NE-NW-16-96- Stephenson, vice-president; F. 20 E. Keeler, secretary, and L. W. Denison, treasurer. 1914 (7, 8) Acquired by MCB&T Farmers Cooperative Brick and Tile 1910 (3) James H. Brown SE-SW-8-96-20 Company William M. Colby (Promotional Agent) Same proprietor in Sheffield National Clay Works 3 Miles west of Court House(7)
  22. 22. Iowa Department of Cultural AffairsState Historical Society of Iowa Site Number Error:Reference source not foundIowa Site Inventory Form Related District Number Error:Reference source not foundContinuation SheetPage 18 Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundName of Property County Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundAddress City1. Lime Creek Township. Union Publishing 1883 5. The Iowa Engineer 19102. Brick and Clay Record 1909 6. Wheeler 19103. Brick and Clay Record 1910 7. Sanborn Maps4. Brick and Clay Record 1913 8. Loomis 2011
  23. 23. Iowa Department of Cultural AffairsState Historical Society of Iowa Site Number Error:Reference source not foundIowa Site Inventory Form Related District Number Error:Reference source not foundContinuation SheetPage 19 Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundName of Property County Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundAddress CityBIBLIOGRAPHYAnderson, R.R. and B. J. Bunker Fossil Shells, Glacial Swells, Piggy Smells, and Drainage Wells: The Geology of the Mason City, Iowa, Area, GSI-65, Iowa Geological Society, Iowa City. 1998.Anderson Publishing. Atlas of Cerro Gordo County, Iowa. Anderson Publishing Company, Chicago. 1912.Anderson, Wayne l. Iowa’s Geologic Past: Three Billion Years of Earth History. University of Iowa Press, Iowa City. 1998.Becker, Sharon R. Cero Gordo County, IaGenweb Project. Accessed September 22, 2011.Bettis, E. Arthur III. Soil Morphological Properties and Weathering Zone Characteristics as Age Indicators in Holocene Alluvium in the Upper Midwest. Chapter 4 in Holliday, Vance T. Soils in Archaeology: Landscape Evolution and Human Occupation. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 1992.Bleininger, A.V and A.F. Greaves-Walker. Fuel Economy in Burning Clays. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 1918.California Brick. Historical Brictures, California Brick Society Website, http://californiabricksociety.com/HistoricalPictures.html, Accessed September 23, 2011.Cerro Gordo County Assessor website http://www.co.cerro-gordo.ia.us/WebAccess/showimage PDF.asp? docid=10000000042000026809, Accessed September 22, 2011.Deiss, Ron. A Brief History and Chronology of Ceramic Drainage and Masonry Tile Produced in the United States. Jounrnal of the International Brick Collectors Association 10(1):6–18.Dornback, W.E. The Iowa Engineer, Iowa State College, Ames, Iowa, October 1910, Volume XI, Number 1Finney, Fred A., Cynthia L. Peterson, Rolfe D. Mandel, and Hugh R. Davidson. Archaeological, Geomorphological, and Historical Survey of the South Raccoon River Greenbelt, Dallas County, Iowa: Summary and Future Research Guide. Contract Completion Report 432. Office of the State Archaeologist, The University of Iowa, Iowa City. 1994.Gurcke, Karl. Bricks and Brickmaking: A Handbook for Historical Archaeology. The University of Idaho Press, Moscow, Idaho.Hamilton, Kelly. Archaeological and Historical Survey of the Zerrenner Brickyard, 47-Ou-101, Outagamaie County, Wisconsin. Transportation Archaeological in Wisconsin, the 1988 Field Season. Wisconsin Department of Transportation., Archaeological Report 16. Madison. 1990.Hirst, K. Kris. Archaeological Investigation at the Brown Brothers Tile Factory, Washington County, Iowa. Journal of the Iowa Archaeological Society. Vol. 47. 2000. Brick and Tile Bibliography. Brick and Tile References: Technical Treatises for the Archaeologist. Tennessee Archaeology Net Bibliography Page. Frank.mtsu.edu/~kesmith/TNARCHNET/Pubs/ Bricks.html. Accessed September 23, 2001.
  24. 24. Iowa Department of Cultural AffairsState Historical Society of Iowa Site Number Error:Reference source not foundIowa Site Inventory Form Related District Number Error:Reference source not foundContinuation SheetPage 20 Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundName of Property County Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundAddress CityHixson. Plat Book of Cerro Gordo County, Iowa. W.W. Hixson & Company, Rockford, IL. 1930. Copy available at Iowa Digital Library http://digital.lib.uiowa.edu/u?/hixson,287. Accessed September 23, 2011.Iowa Digital Library, Calvin Image Database, Digital Library Services, The University of Iowa Libraries, Iowa City. http://www.uiowa.edu/~calvin/calvin_search.html Accessed September 23, 2011.The Iowa Engineer, Volume XI, Number 1. Iowa State College, Ames, Iowa, 1910.Iowa Geographic Map Server, Iowa State University Geographic Information Systems Support & Research Facility, Ames, Accessed September 22, 2010.Iowa Geological and Water Survey web site, Bedrock and Quaternary Geologic and Maps of Iowa, Iowa Department of Natural Resources web page, Accessed September 22, 2011.Kelley, Roger E. and Marsha C.S. Kelley. Brick Bats for Archaeologists: Value of Pressed Brick Brands.Lienhard, John L. Engines of Our Ingenuity. No. 1249, Bricks. www.uh.edu/engines/epi1249.htm. Accessed September 23. 2011.Loomis. History of Mason City Timeline. Lee P. Loomis Archives, Mason City Public Library. Accessed September 23, 2011.Minnesota Bricks, 10 – Out of State Brick, Iowa Brick, Mason City Brick, http://www.mnbricks.com/mason-city- brick, MNBricks.com, 2011. Accessed September 23, 2011.National Brick, The Clay-worker, Volumes 77-78, National Brick Manufacturers Association of the United States of America, Indianapolis. 1922.North West Publishing. Plat book of Cerro Gordo County, Iowa. North West Publishing Company, s.l. [probably Philadelphia], 1895. Copy available at Iowa Digital Library http://digital.lib.uiowa.edu/u?/atlases,644. Accessed September 23, 2011Ohio Vintage Coal, Differential Steel Car Co., http://industrialrail.5u.com/photo_44.html, Ohio Vintage Coal Company, Pataskala, Ohio, 2009. Accessed September 23, 2011.Online Iowa Site File database and LANDMASS predicative and interpretive models, Office of the State Archaeologist, The University of Iowa, September 22, 2011.Prior, Jean C., Landforms of Iowa, The University of Iowa Press, 1991.Propst, Clark and Chuck Klocke, “27) Mason City Brick and Tile Works”, Chuck Klocke contributor. Minneapolis and St. Louis Railway Company: Mason City Industry by Clark Propst on Minneapolis & St. Louis, Iowa Central, Chicago & Northwestern Website, Lyndon “Cash” Groth on RailServe, Internet Railroad Database. http://www.cashgroth.com/index.html. 2003, Accessed September 23, 2011.Rhodes, Daniel, Clay and Glazes for the Potter. Chilton Book Company, Radnor, Pennsylvania. 1973.Rogers, Leah D. A Phase I Archaeological Survey for the Proposed Des Moines Recreational River and Geenbelt, Botanical Center Riverfront Park, Riverfront Garden Project, Des Moines, Iowa. Contract No. ACW25-
  25. 25. Iowa Department of Cultural AffairsState Historical Society of Iowa Site Number Error:Reference source not foundIowa Site Inventory Form Related District Number Error:Reference source not foundContinuation SheetPage 21 Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundName of Property County Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundAddress City 92-M-1022, for the US Army Corps of Engineers, Rock Island District. Mount Vernon, IA. 1993.Ross, Don. Mason City Brick & Tile Company, Don’s Rail Photos, http://donsdepot.donrossgroup.net/dr145.htm,Don Ross Group. 2011. Accessed September 23, 2011.Sanborn Map. Fire Insurance Maps for Mason City Iowa, 1892–1947, The Sanborn Map Company, Sanborn Library, LLC. 2011.Schoen, Christopher, and Peter Bleed. The Archaeology of the Lincoln Pottery Works. Central Plains Archaeology 3(1). 1993.Searle, Alfred B. The Natural History of Clay. Cambridge University Press, G.P. Putnum,’s Sons New York, 1912.Soil Survey Staff, Natural Resources Conservation Service, United States Department of Agriculture. Web Soil Survey. Available online at http://websoilsurvey.nrcs.usda.gov/. Accessed September 22, 2011.Terrell, Michelle M. Nineteenth Century Soft-Mud Brick Kilns: Two Examples From Lost Creek Valley, Mahaska County, Iowa. Journal of the Iowa Archaeological Society. Vol. 47. 2000.Union Publishing, History of Franklin and Cerro Gordo Counties, Iowa, Union Publishing Company, Springfield, Illinois. 1883.Visit Mason City, Iowa. About Mason City: Mason City History, Visit Mason City, Iowa website. http://www.visitmasoncityiowa.com/html/history.htm, Accessed September 23, 2011.Wall, Joseph Frazier. The WPA Guide to 1930s Iowa Pp. 285-88. Federal Writers Project. University of Iowa Press. Iowa City. 1986.Walters, William D. Jr. Nineteenth Century Midwestern Brick. Pioneer America 14(3):125–136. 1982. Abandoned Nineteenth Century brick and Tile Works in Central Illinois: An Introduction from Local Sources. Industrial Archaeology Review 4(1). 1979.Weber, Irving. Historical Stories about Iowa City (Irving Weber’s Iowa City). Lions Club (Iowa City, Iowa). 1976–1992.Weitzel, Tim, An Armchair Walking Tour of the Longfellow Neighborhood, Library Cable Chanel 4, August 1, 2005, Iowa City Public library, Iowa City. 2005. History Notes: The Oakes Brickworks and “1142” in The Long View [Newsletter], Longfellow Neighborhood Association, November 2005, Iowa City, Iowa. 2005. The Longfellow Neighborhood Historic Markers, in Past, Present, Future, Spring 2005, Friends of Historic Preservation, Iowa City, Iowa. 2005. The Oakes Brickworks, Sign #2B, Longfellow Neighborhood Art Project. Historic Markers and Public Art in the Longfellow Neighborhood, Iowa City. http://www.icgov.org/default/?id=1684 and http://www.icgov.org/site/CMSv2/file/publicArt/LNAbrochure.pdf, Accessed September 23, 2011, City
  26. 26. Iowa Department of Cultural AffairsState Historical Society of Iowa Site Number Error:Reference source not foundIowa Site Inventory Form Related District Number Error:Reference source not foundContinuation SheetPage 22 Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundName of Property County Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundAddress City of Iowa City, Iowa City, Iowa. Updated 2008.Wheeler, J.H., History of Cerro Gordo County Iowa, Lewis Publishing Company, Chicago. 1910.Wikipedia online encyclopedia (www.wikipedia.org). Accessed; September 22, 2010.Windsor and Kinfield Publishing Co. Brick and Clay Record, Windsor and Kinfield Publishing Company, Chicago, 1897–ca. 1950. Volume XX, Number 2, Page 93, February 1904 Volume XIX, Number 2, Pages 4, 41, August 1903 Volume XXX, Number 1, Pages 1, 11, 12, 13, 14, January 1909 Volume XXIX, Number 6, Page 532, December 1908 Volume XXIX, Number 2, Page 345, August 1908 Volume XXXIII, Number 3, Page 135, 121, September 1910Volume LI, Number 1, Page 692–693, July, 1950
  27. 27. Iowa Department of Cultural Affairs State Historical Society of Iowa Site Number Error: Reference source not found Iowa Site Inventory Form Related District Number Error: Reference source not found Continuation Sheet Page 23 Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source not found Name of Property County Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source not found Address City MCB&T NIB&T AB&T No1 MCSTCFCB&T MCB&T Clay Handling MCCW APE AB&T No 2 MCDTCUSGS Map for APE. Iowa Geographic Map Server. Key cultural features shown at arrows.
  28. 28. Iowa Department of Cultural AffairsState Historical Society of Iowa Site Number Error:Reference source not foundIowa Site Inventory Form Related District Number Error:Reference source not foundContinuation SheetPage 24 Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundName of Property County Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundAddress City MCB&T NIB&T AB&T No1 MCSTC APE FCB&T MCB&T Clay Handling MCCW AB&T No 2 MCDTCUSDA Aerial Photo (1930s). Iowa Geographic Map Server. Key cultural features shown at arrows
  29. 29. Iowa Department of Cultural AffairsState Historical Society of Iowa Site Number Error:Reference source not foundIowa Site Inventory Form Related District Number Error:Reference source not foundContinuation SheetPage 25 Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundName of Property County Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundAddress City MCB&T NIB&T AB&T No1 MCSTC FCB&T MCB&T Clay Handling MCCW APE AB&T No 2 MCDTCUSDA Aerial Photo (1950s). Iowa Geographic Map Server. Key cultural features shown at arrows
  30. 30. Iowa Department of Cultural AffairsState Historical Society of Iowa Site Number Error:Reference source not foundIowa Site Inventory Form Related District Number Error:Reference source not foundContinuation SheetPage 26 Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundName of Property County Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundAddress City MCB&T NIB&T AB&T No1 MCSTC FCB&T MCB&T Clay Handling MCCW APE AB&T No 2
  31. 31. Iowa Department of Cultural AffairsState Historical Society of Iowa Site Number Error:Reference source not foundIowa Site Inventory Form Related District Number Error:Reference source not foundContinuation SheetPage 27 Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundName of Property County Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundAddress CityUSDA Aerial Photo (1960s). Iowa Geographic Map Server. Former locations of Cultural Features shown at arrows.Note the disturbed surface of the area coinciding with the APE.
  32. 32. Iowa Department of Cultural Affairs AB&T No 2State Historical Society of Iowa Site Number Error:Reference source not found MCDTCIowa Site Inventory Form Related District Number Error:Reference source not foundContinuation SheetPage 28 Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundName of Property County Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundAddress City USDA Aerial Photo (2010). Iowa MCB&T NIB&T AB&T No1 MCSTC MCB&T Clay Handling FCB&T MCCW APEGeographic Map Server. Former locations of Cultural Features shown at arrows.
  33. 33. Iowa Department of Cultural AffairsState Historical Society of Iowa Site Number Error:Reference source not foundIowa Site Inventory Form Related District Number Error:Reference source not foundContinuation SheetPage 29 Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundName of Property County Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundAddress CityView of works of the Mason City Brick and Tile Company, from the southeastPhotographed by: Samuel Calvin. Lantern Slide No. 1481. Photograph No. 98Calvin Collection, Iowa Digital Library
  34. 34. Iowa Department of Cultural AffairsState Historical Society of Iowa Site Number Error:Reference source not foundIowa Site Inventory Form Related District Number Error:Reference source not foundContinuation SheetPage 30 Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundName of Property County Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundAddress CityMason City Brick and Tile Company, view from northeastPhotographed by: Samuel Calvin.Photograph No. 81Calvin Collection, Iowa Digital Library
  35. 35. Iowa Department of Cultural AffairsState Historical Society of Iowa Site Number Error:Reference source not foundIowa Site Inventory Form Related District Number Error:Reference source not foundContinuation SheetPage 31 Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundName of Property County Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundAddress CityClay pit of the Mason City Brick and Tile CompanyGeologic Age: Devonian, Lime Creek Shales.Photographed by: Samuel Calvin.Photograph No. 91Calvin Collection, Iowa Digital Library
  36. 36. Iowa Department of Cultural AffairsState Historical Society of Iowa Site Number Error:Reference source not foundIowa Site Inventory Form Related District Number Error:Reference source not foundContinuation SheetPage 32 Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundName of Property County Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundAddress CityView of Differential Steel Car purchased, from the Clinton Davenport & Muscatine RailwayPhotograph from the Don Ross Collection (Ross 2011)
  37. 37. Iowa Department of Cultural AffairsState Historical Society of Iowa Site Number Error:Reference source not foundIowa Site Inventory Form Related District Number Error:Reference source not foundContinuation SheetPage 33 Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundName of Property County Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundAddress CityMason City Brick and Tile Company, Mason City, Iowa. Post Card. California Brick SocietyAmerican Brick and Tile Company, Mason City, Iowa. Postcard. California Brick Society
  38. 38. Iowa Department of Cultural AffairsState Historical Society of Iowa Site Number Error:Reference source not foundIowa Site Inventory Form Related District Number Error:Reference source not foundContinuation SheetPage 34 Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundName of Property County Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundAddress City Former Location of Mason City Brick and Tile (Bing Bird’s Eye Maps) Former Location of American Brick and Tile No. 1 and No. 2 Nelson & Barr Brick Yard (Bing Bird’s Eye Maps)
  39. 39. Iowa Department of Cultural AffairsState Historical Society of Iowa Site Number Error:Reference source not foundIowa Site Inventory Form Related District Number Error:Reference source not foundContinuation SheetPage 35 Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundName of Property County Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundAddress City Former Location of Mason City Sewer Pipe (Bing Bird’s Eye Maps) Former Location of Mason City Clay Works and Clay Processing Facility (Bing Bird’s Eye Maps)
  40. 40. Iowa Department of Cultural AffairsState Historical Society of Iowa Site Number Error:Reference source not foundIowa Site Inventory Form Related District Number Error:Reference source not foundContinuation SheetPage 36 Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundName of Property County Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundAddress City Former Location of Mason City Drain Tile (Bing Bird’s Eye Maps) Former Location of Mason City Sewer Pipe (Bing Bird’s Eye Maps)
  41. 41. Iowa Department of Cultural AffairsState Historical Society of Iowa Site Number Error:Reference source not foundIowa Site Inventory Form Related District Number Error:Reference source not foundContinuation SheetPage 37 Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundName of Property County Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundAddress City APE Former Location of Farmer’s Cooperative Brick and Tile, North Iowa Brick and Tile (Bing Bird’s Eye Maps)
  42. 42. Iowa Department of Cultural AffairsState Historical Society of Iowa Site Number Error:Reference source not foundIowa Site Inventory Form Related District Number Error:Reference source not foundContinuation SheetPage 38 Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundName of Property County Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source notfoundAddress City Former Location of Nelson and Brickson Brick Yard, not part of 13CE8 (Bing Bird’s Eye Maps) Possible Former Location of National Clay Works, not part of 13CE8 (Bing Bird’s Eye Maps)

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