Bridges to the gilded age
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Bridges to the gilded age



Lecture for TAH Slavery to Citizens History Institute

Lecture for TAH Slavery to Citizens History Institute



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  • Visions of America, 470
  • Liberty, Equality, Power, 5e concise, 473.
  • Enduring Vision, 7e, 515.
  • Enduring Vision, 7e, 515.
  • Visions of America, 475
  • Norton Media Library, Foner, Give Me Liberty, 2e, 637.
  • Enduring Vision, 7e, 555.
  • Liberty, Equality, Power, 5e concise, 508.
  • Enduring Vision, 7e, 522.
  • Liberty, Equality, Power, 5e concise, 484.
  • Liberty, Equality, Power, 5e concise, 484.
  • Enduring Vision, 7e, 513.

Bridges to the gilded age Bridges to the gilded age Presentation Transcript

  • Bridges to the Gilded Age
  • United States in 1875
  • The Gilded Age witnessedenormous increases in outputand value. Huge populationincreases helped driveindustrial and farm output.
  • The North• Railroads
  • Railroad Expansion, 1870-1890This map provides a vivid illustration of the railroad expansion in just two decades.
  • Transcontinental Railroads and Federal Land Grants, 1850-1900
  • The ―Big Trestle‖ near Promontory Summit show some of the engineering accomplishments of the railroadconstruction crews. This trestle, at 405 feet long and 85 feet high, was assembled in just 38 days and was so flimsy that one reporter warned it ―will shake the nerves of the stoutest hearts to cross it.‖
  • “The Last Spike” at Promontory Summit, 10 May 1869 completing the transcontinental railroad. A.J. Russell was the photographer
  • Transcontinental Railroads and Federal Land Grants, 1850-1900
  • Big Business
  • Vertical Integration Horizontal Integration
  • John D. Rockefeller and Standard Oil
  • Standard Oil Refinery in Cleveland, OH (1889)
  • Standard Oil horse-drawn oil tank, probably selling kerosene.
  • ―What a Funny Little Government‖The Verdict on January 22, 1900 shows Rockefeller holding the White House in his hand, while the U.S. Capitol has been converted into an oil refinery.
  • Andrew Carnegie and Steel
  • Bessemer process
  • Andrew Carnegie‘s Steel Works, General View of Blast Furnaces, Homestead, PA
  • The McCormick Reaper Works outside Chicago in 1887.
  • Inventions
  • This is Alexander Graham-Bells telephone,which he demonstrated to the world in 1876at the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition.After witnessing how voice was transmittedover wire, the emperor of Brazil cried out,"My God, it talks!"
  • Alexander Graham Bell placing the first telephone call between New York and Chicago in 1892
  • Young Thomas Edison with an early phonograph
  • Thomas Edison‘s application for a patent for the incandescent light bulb.
  • Replica of Edison‘sfirst incandescentelectric light bulb.
  • Thomas Edisons Laboratories in Menlo Park, NJ, c. 1880 Thomas Edisons dream of illuminating the world is illustrated by this fanciful drawing of hislaboratories in Menlo Park, New Jersey. For the time being, however, it was the American home that was the primary beneficiary of Edisons wonderful light bulb, since electricity was slow to arrive in many parts of the world.
  • Edisons Chemistry Lab at Meno Park, NJ
  • Christopher Scholes typewriter, 1873
  • Later typewriters and their keys.
  • “Consuming”
  • A ―mom and pop‖ general store.
  • A small ―dry goods‖ store in Upper Sandusky, OH. Notice counters separate customers from merchandise.
  • The Marble Palace of Alexander T. Stewart in Manhattanopened for business in 1846. Notice the street-levelwindows for merchandise display.
  • Macy‘s department store in New York City
  • The 1897 Sears catalog.
  • Uneeda Biscuit‘s nationalcampaign poster.
  • Cream of Wheat advertisement, probably 1895.
  • Ads for the Kodak ―boxcamera‖ in 1888
  • 1898 Ivory soap poster 1916 Ivory soap advertisement showing US Army soldiers using it.
  • Labor
  • ―New England factory life—―Bell Time,‖ Harpers Weekly, 25 July1868. Drawing byWinslow Homer. Workers going to the Lowell Mills.
  • Small children working in the mills was common
  • Boys in a North Carolina textile mill in 1908.
  • ―Breaker Boys‖ at work.
  • Women workers in a ―sweatshop‖
  • ―The Female Slaves of New York. –‗Sweaters‘ and their Victims. 1) Scene in a‗sweater‗s‘ factory; 2) The End; 3) Scene atthe Grand Street Ferry,‖ Frank LesliesIllustrated Newspaper, November 3, 1888
  • Shoeworkers in Haverhill, MA ca. 1880
  • Drawing of the Great Railroad Strike of 1877 in Baltimore, MD
  • Picture and map of Pullman, Illinois
  • Railroad cars destroyed in Pullman strike Cleanup after strike.
  • Immigration
  • ―Welcome to All!,‖ Puck, April 28, 1880.―We may say that the present influx of immigrants to the United States is something unprecedented in our generation.‖ -- N.Y. Statistical Review
  • ―New York - Welcome to the land of freedom - An ocean steamer passing the Statue of Liberty:Scene on the steerage deck‖ Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper, 2 July 1887.
  • Emigrants coming tothe ―Land ofPromise― (ca 1902)
  • Immigrants on a ship waiting to set foot in their new home
  • Immigrants just arrivedfrom foreign countries –Immigrant Building,Ellis Island, New YorkHarbor (1904)
  • Inspection room at Ellis Island
  • Dalrymple‘s cartoon giving a harsh warning about ―The High Tide of Immigration.‖ He believes the dangerlies in the number of immigrants as well as in their origins and character as ―riff raff.‖ (1903)
  • ―What Shall We Do With Our Boys?‖ The Wasp, 1882
  • ―In the Clutches of the Chinese Tiger‖ -- 1885
  • Urbanization
  • Technological advances, the Brooklyn Bridge under construction. Itwas completed in 1883 and connected the largest and the thirdlargest cities together (Brooklyn and New York)
  • Brooklyn Bridge in 1890 with sailing ship beneath. Notice how thebridge towers over the surrounding neighborhoods.
  • New York and Brooklyn Bridge in 1889
  • Electric trolleys in New York City in 1900
  • Electric street cars of New Orleans. Rail lines transformedcities in the late 19th century
  • The first Oldsmobile was built in 1897.
  • Tenements in New York City, with clotheslines strung between buildings.
  • Mulberry Street, New York, 1905 part of the Russian Jewish Lower East Side
  • Street life for the urban poor.
  • ―Garbage in the streets, East Fifth Street, N.Y.C. tenement area,‖ Jacob Riis photo (ca 1890)
  • New York City in 1885This photograph shows the crowded,chaotic nature of lower Manhattan inthe 1880s. This is Broadway atCortlandt Street. Note the crowdedstreet, with horse-drawn street car andthe utility poles containing telephoneand electric wires.
  • Urban congestion in Chicago in 1890s.
  • Chicago‘s StateStreet.
  • World‘s Columbian Exposition, Court of Honor (1893)
  • Worlds Columbian Exposition: Grand Basin (1893)
  • The Midway, Worlds Columbian Exposition, Chicago, IL (1893) In the background is the FerrisWheel on the ―Midway‖. The wheel was 264 feet high, held 36 cars capable of holding 60 people at once. Fully loaded, 2,160 people could be on the wheel at a time.
  • Ferris Wheel in 1893 at the ―fair‖. Notice how it towers over the landscape.
  • The West
  • Mining and Cattle Frontiers, 1860-1890
  • The Texas Cowboy
  • Moving cattle on the ―long drive‖
  • Cowboys with their herd.
  • Packing houses in the distance. Covered pens for hogs and sheep; open pens for cattle. Area of yards, 75 acres;50 miles railroad tracks. Daily capacity: 25,000 head cattle, 160,000 hogs, 10,000 sheep, and 1,000 horses.
  • The beginning of the ―disassembly line.‖
  • Meatpacking industry
  • Sylvester Rawding family in front of sod house, north of Sargent, Custer Co., Nebraska (1886)
  • Sodhouse
  • Morrison residence on Victoria Creek near Merna, Custer County, Nebraska (1886)
  • ―Bonanza‖ farm
  • Harvesting wheat on ―bonanza‖ farm
  • The American Bison, or Buffalo
  • William J. Hays painted Herd on the MoveHe was accused of exaggerating the numbers of bison.
  • Another William J. Hays painting of bison on the Great Plains. The Gathering of theBuffalo Herds (1866)
  • An advertisement for thefashionable buffalo robes(1870s).
  • ―Buffalo Hunters‖
  • Stacks of buffalo hides in Dodge City, Kansas in 1873. This one company could handle 80,000 hides at at time.
  • “The Buffalo Hunt” by Frederic Remington (1890) By the time he painted this picture, such hunts would have been a rarity.
  • Indian Reservations, 1875 and 1900
  • Tom Torlino as he arrived Tom Torlino several months at The Carlisle school laterOctober 21, 1882 from his Navajo tribe.
  • The students at the Carlisle School of Captain Richard Pratt.
  • Annie Oakley. Though she “advertised” the West in Buffalo Bill’s Wild West show, she never lived west of Ohio.
  • ―Sitting Bull and Buffalo Bill, 1885‖Photograph originally taken by WilliamNotman studios, Montreal, Quebec,Canada, during Buffalo Bills Wild WestShow, August 1885
  • Indian Reservations, 1875 and 1900
  • ―The opening of the fight at Wounded Knee,‖ a drawing byFrederic Remington for Harper’s Weekly, 24 January 1891.
  • Burying the Dead at Wounded KneeThrowing the frozen bodies of the Sioux intoan open trench was a grim reminder of USArmy-Indian relations.
  • The New South
  • Trolley car in the South with the ―For Whites‖ sign.
  • Poll tax receipt for Birmingham, Alabama.Note the date the tax was paid – April 1896.Note the two ―labels‖ (Col.) (White.)
  • The New South• Booker T. Washington• W.E.B. Du Bois
  • Booker T. Washington
  • W.E.B. DuBois
  • Imperialism
  • An artist‘s rendering of the explosion which destroyed the Maine on 15 February 1898 in Havana, Cuba harbor.
  • ―DECLINED WITH THANKS‖ The Antis, ―Here, take a dose of this anti-fat and get thin again!‖Uncle Sam, ―No, Sonny! I never did like any of that stuff, and I‘m too old to begin!‖ Lithography by S. Pughe in Puck, 5 September 1900
  • Progressive Reform – efforts to solve problems of the Gilded Age• Big Business – Is big necessarily “evil” or bad? – Consumer rights and protections• Labor issues – Child and women workers – Hours, wages, conditions• Urban problems• Democracy• “Welfare State” – Expansion of government functions