I. FRIENDSHIP1) Friends play an important part in our lives, and although we maytake the fact of friendship for granted, we often dont clearly understandhow we make friends. While we get on well with a number of people,we are usually friends with only a very few - for example, the average5) among students is about 6 per person.Moreover, a great many relationships come under the termfriendship. In all cases, two people like one another and enjoy beingtogether. However, the degree of closeness between them and thereasons for their mutual interest vary greatly. In other words, there are10) many reasons for why two people share the same interest in each other.At the very beginning, much depends on how people meet and onpositive first impressions. As we get to know people, we take intoconsideration things like age, physical attractiveness, economic andsocial status and intelligence. Although these factors may not seem very15) important, it is difficult to be friends when there is a big age differenceor when the backgrounds are different.As we get closer, we become interested in actual behaviour, facialexpression and tone of voice. Friends will stand closer together and willspend more time looking at each other than people who just know each20) other. Smiles and soft voices also express friendliness. It is becausethey may send out the wrong signals that shy people often havedifficulty in making friends. To illustrate, their nervousness may bemistaken for unfriendliness. People who do not look at the eyes ofthose they are speaking to are not trusted. However, those people may25) simply lack confidence.Some relationships become stronger with argument and discussion,but usually intimate friends have similar ideas and beliefs and share thesame attitudes and interests. Although some people become closefriends immediately, it usually takes time to reach this point. The more30) intimate people become, the more they rely on one another. People wantto do friends favours and hate to disappoint them.There are no friendship ceremonies but the support andunderstanding that results from shared experiences and feelings seemsto create a powerful relationship which can overcome differences in35) background and age.A. Find the meanings of the words.1. mutual interest (line 9): the interest which2. intimate (line 27):B. Mark the statements as True (T) or False (F).1. The reasons behind friendship are clearly understood.2. Many relationships can be classified as friendship.3. Two people who like each other and being together always becomevery close friends.4. People who just know each other look at each other more than goodfriends do.5. People who are not self-confident may not be able to look at apersons eyes.6. Argument and discussion help some relationships to get better.C.1. What determines whether we want to be friends with someone before we
know him?a) :b)2. Why are actual behaviour, facial expression and tone of voice important infriendship?3. Which two differences between people are likely to prevent friendship?a) .b)4. Write four characteristics of an intimate friendship.a)b)c)d) : 5. What two things seem to create a powerful relationship?a)b) ; ;II. THE WORLDS OF WALT DISNEYDisneyland and Disney World are the two most famousentertainment parks in the world. Disneyland is in California andDisney World is in Florida, U.S.A. These were built by Walt Disney.Walt Disney started to make cartoon films in 1923 with his brother5 Roy. First he made Alice in Wonderland and then, in 1928, MickeyMouse was created. He was very interested in technology so all hiswork was technically excellent and very enjoyable. He believed inproviding good, clean entertainment and fun for all the family. Hewanted a world which would give him a lot of fun when he was a boy10 and so he built it for others to enjoy in Disneyland, which was openedin Anaheim, California in 1955. It has four parts: Adventureland,Frontierland, Fantasyland and Tomorrowland.In 1960 Walt Disney bought a big piece of land near Florida andstarted to build his second great entertainment park. This was called15 "Disney World". It was finished in 1971 and cost 400 million dollars.This place is a little different from Disneyland. It has got hotels andshopping centres as well as entertainment places. So people can eat,sleep and enjoy doing things in the same place.A few years ago two other small cities were planned near Disney20 World. One of them is called Lake Buena Vista. This has beencompleted and people have started to move in. They are still buildingihe second city so people will not move in until 1995.Walt Disney died of cancer in 1966, but people still remember himwhen they visit his parks today.601. What are Disneyland and Disney World?2. Did Walt Disney work alone when he started to make cartoon films?3. When did he make Alice in Wonderland?4. What did Walt Disney try to give people when he made his films?5. Why did he build Disneyland?6. How long did it take to build Disney World?7. What is the difference between Disneyland and Disney World?8. What is Lake Buena Vista?9. Do people live in the second city today?
10. What do the following refer to?a) He (line 6):b) This place (line 16):c) them (line 20):d) his parks (line 24):III. BALIBali is a beautiful island of mountains, forests and rice fields. It isalso an island of artists. Almost everybody there is an artist of somekind. The people work all day at home, in the fields or in their boats,but in the evenings they make music, dance, paint or carve things out of5 wood and stone. There are thousands of temples in Bali, and there arefestivals at these temples when people die, or get married, or when achild is born.Until the 1950s the Balinese people did not worry about the outsideworld. For them Bali was the whole world. But in the 1950s tourists10 began to visit Bali, and since then tourism has become big businessthere. So the people have begun to sell their art to tourists. These daysthe Balinese produce more and more things for tourists; they makefewer things for their temples. They have less time for their gods, sothere are fewer festivals.15 Every year more tourists bring more money to the island. They alsobring new ideas and a new way of life. The Balinese need money, andthey need new ideas. Nowadays too many people live on the island,and they need to buy food and other things from abroad. The Balineseknow that if fewer tourists come to the island, there will be less money.20 too. But they also know thai if there are too many tourists, ûıc Balineseway of life will change too quickly. So the authorities are trying tcorganise and control tourism very carefully. Bali should change; butthey want to make sure that it changes for the better, not for the worse.A.1. Line 2, there refers to .2. Line 9, them refers to .3. Line 15, They refers to .4. Line 20, they refers to .5. Line 23, it refers to .B. What do the following words mean?1. whole* (line 9)a) partb) unusualc) differentd) completeHI2. produce (line 12)a) makeb) deliverc) caused) include3. abroad (line 18)a) salesmenb) other countriesc) customers
d) ones own countryC.1. What do the Balinese people do in their free time?2. When did the Balinese people begin to worry about the outside world?3. Why do the Balinese have less time for their gods?4. Why do the Balinese need tourists?2 (5. What will happen if tourists stop coming to Bali?6. Why dont the Balinese authorities want too many tourists?IY. HOLIDAYSMore than 300 million people go abroad for their holidays each year,and most of them prefer spending less on food and clothes than onholidays. Choosing the ideal holiday is not always easy, but today thereis a wide range of choice, and it is easy to find something to suit your5 taste and pocket.Some people like planning their holiday independently. Others findmaking arrangements on their own difficult, so they prefer to book apackage tour. It depends on where you are going, how much moneyyou have and whether you are travelling alone or with friends and10 family.The obvious advantage of a package holiday is that it is simple toorganise. You book the holiday through a travel agent, and transportand accommodation are all arranged for you. You dont have to worryabout how you will get there or where you will stay. All you have to do15 is pay the bill. If you take an independent holiday, on the other hand,you can spend a lot of time and money checking complicated timetables,chasing - looking for - cheap flights and trying to make hotelreservations in a language you cant even speak. In addition, packageholidays are often incredibly cheap. For the price of a good dress, you20 can have a fifteen-day holiday in a holiday resort abroad, includingaccommodation, meals and air travel. A similar independent holiday cancost you much more.However, planning your own holiday has several advantages. Youare free to choose where and when you want to go, how you want to25 travel, and how long you want to stay. You can avoid the large holidayresorts which are often crowded with holidaymakers on package tours.You can eat the food of the region at reasonable prices at localrestaurants instead of the international dishes that they serve in holidayresorts. Moreover, although package holidays are usually cheap, they30 are not always cheaper. If you are willing to take a little trouble, youmay be able to save money by organising a foreign holiday yourself.A. Write the meaning of each word.1. independently (line 6):2. accommodation (line 13):3. chasing (line 17):240B. What do the following refer to?1. their* (line 1):2. which (line 26):3. they (line 29):C. Mark the statements as True (T) or False (F).
1. Today it is easier to choose a holiday because there are a lot ofpossibilities.2. Instead of buying a new dress, you should have a fifteen-day packageholiday.3. At holiday resorts you are served local food.4. It is possible to organise an independent holiday which is cheaper thana package one.D.1. What does the choice between a package and an independent holidaydepend on? (Write two things.)a)b)2. What do you have to do when you go on a package holiday?3. What are the disadvantages of an independent holiday? (Write two things.)a)b)Y. SAN FRANCISCOSan Francisco is in the State of California in the west of the United States.It is near the Pacific Ocean. People think it is the capital of California, but itisnt. First, people from Spain lived there. Today, Austrians, Italians,Chinese and others live in the city with Americans.The Chinese live in Chinatown. There are many Chinese restaurants there.The houses, post boxes and telephones in the streets are very interesting. Thispart of the town is exactly like China.Fishermans Wharf is another place where tourists want to go. You canfind a table in a nice little restaurant near the sea there. You can eat sea foodand look at the Golden Gate Bridge. You can watch the ships passing under itand the cars crossing it. The Golden Gate Bridge is the symbol of SanFrancisco.After you finish your meal, you can take a boat trip to Alcatraz. Alcatrazwas a famous prison between 1866 and 1920, but only tourists go there now.San Francisco is different from other American cities. It is more European.The sun always shines there and there are a lot of things you can do at night -you can go to the nightclubs, discos, restaurants, cinemas and theatres.Thats why a lot of young people want to live in San Francisco.1. Where is San Francisco?2. Is it the capital of California?3. Who came to San Francisco first?4. Which interesting places do tourists visit in San Francisco? (3 places)5. Who lives in Chinatown?6. What can you watch in a restaurant at the Fishermans Wharf?7. What is the symbol of San Francisco?8. What was Alcatraz?9. Are there any prisoners in Alcatraz today?10. Why is San Francisco different from other American cities?YI. A LANGUAGE TEACHERS PERSONAL OPINIONWhy is English such an important language today? There are severalreasons. Many newspapers send their reports to other newspapers in different
countries in English - not in Spanish or Italian. English is also the language ofthe businessworld. For example, when a Mexican businessman buyssomething from a Chinese businessman he usually speaks English. Atairports you can always hear English, and at the cinema you can watch a filmin English. Today a lot of people want to learn this language. They go tolanguage schools in England or take English courses in their own countries.Every day I see advertisements in the newspapers and on buses. They areabout language courses. Sometimes they also advertise language cassettes inEnglish. They say you can learn a second language very fast and easily.They often say you can read plays by Shakespeare or books by CharlesDickens after you listen to the cassettes or after you go to the classes for threemonths. These advertisements are awful. I am an English teacher and I knowthat it is difficult to learn a new language. But a lot of people think theseadvertisements are true. They want to go to these short courses or buy thoseexpensive cassettes. I dont understand them. How can someone learn a newlanguage in three months? Are super teachers teaching their classes? I reallydont know.I dont think people can learn English from cassettes. When we speak alanguage we dont repeat sentences only. We use the language every day andeverywhere. For example, we talk to our friends, our neighbours or to awaiter in a restaurant. You cant speak to a cassette. You can only repeat thequestions and answers. We must talk to people and listen to them when welearn a new language. And this takes a long time. Not only three months!A. Mark the statements as True (T) or False (F).1. Many businessmen can speak English.2. The language cassettes are not cheap.3. The writer likes the advertisements about language courses.4. The writer is a super teacher.5. The writer thinks cassettes can teach you English very well.YII. COMPUTERS IN THE MODERN WORLDThe computer is a fairly new invention, but it has already becomevery important in the modern world, especially in government, science,business, and education. Since computers are very efficient, schools,banks and other organisations use them for many kinds of work in5 which speed is essential.For example, banks often use computers to monitor accounts. Inmany city banks, computers keep all the records of customers depositsand withdrawals. Customers can also do their banking ât any time ofthe day, thanks to computers. They can go to an outside window where10 they punch a code number on a computer. The computer will take careof their deposit or withdrawal. If they are depositing, they put theirmoney in an envelope and insert it in the machine. If the customer iswithdrawing, the machine will return money in an envelope. Customerscan pay bills without going to the bank since the computers in banks15 can communicate with computers in other places. People find it moreconvenient than having to carry cash or cheques with them when theygo shopping. When the customer buys something at a store, thecomputer can immediately subtract money from the customers bankaccount and add it to the stores account.20 Computers help us in other areas, too. They help scientists do manyexperiments. Because of computers, we have made progress in many
areas, such as health care, communications systems, businessmanagement, and space exploration. Large hotels, airlines, and otherbusinesses use computers too to control reservations, keep records, pay25 employees and compute bills.In fact, computers are more efficient today than ever before, and it isdifficult to imagine the world without them . But it is very easy topredict the importance of these thinking machines in the future.A. What do the following refer to?1. it (line 1):2. them (line 4):3. they* (line 10):4. their (line 11):5. it (line 12):6. if (line 19):7. them (line 27):B.1. In which areas has the computer become very important?2. Especially for what kind of work are computers essential?3. What is the function of computers in banks?4. In which areas have we made progress because of computers?5. What is the function of computers in large hotels, airlines and otherbusinesses?