Relative clauses explanation and exercises
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Relative clauses explanation and exercises

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    Relative clauses explanation and exercises Relative clauses explanation and exercises Document Transcript

    • http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar Relative Pronouns relative pronoun use example who subject or object pronoun for people I told you about the woman who lives next door. which subject or object pronoun for animals and things Do you see the cat which is lying on the roof? which referring to a whole sentence He couldn’t read which surprised me. whose possession for people animals and things Do you know the boy whose mother is a nurse? whom object pronoun for people, especially in nondefining relative clauses (in defining relative clauses we colloquially prefer who) I was invited by the professor whom I met at the conference. that subject or object pronoun for people, animals and things in defining relative clauses (who or which are also possible) I don’t like the table that stands in the kitchen. Subject Pronoun or Object Pronoun? the apple which is lying on the table the apple (which) George lay on the table Relative Adverbs This is the shop in which I bought my bike. → relative adverb when meaning in/on which This is the shop where I bought my bike. use refers to a time expression example the day when we met him where in/at which refers to a place the place where we met him why for which refers to a reason the reason why we met him
    • Relative Pronouns http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar Defining Relative Clauses - Neccesary information - not put in commas. - Relative can be omited if it isn’t a subject The boy (who) we met yesterday is very nice. Non-Defining Relative Clauses - additional information - in commas. - that. - Object pronouns must be used. Jim, who we met yesterday, is very nice. Choose the correct relative pronoun (who, which, whose). 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. This is the bank __________ was robbed yesterday. A boy __________ sister is in my class was in the bank at that time. The man __________ robbed the bank had two pistols. He wore a mask __________ made him look like Mickey Mouse. He came with a friend __________ waited outside in the car. The woman __________ gave him the money was young. The bag __________ contained the money was yellow. The people __________ were in the bank were very frightened. A man __________ mobile was ringing did not know what to do. A woman __________ daughter was crying tried to calm her. The car __________ the bank robbers escaped in was orange. The robber __________ mask was obviously too big didn't drive. The man __________ drove the car was nervous. He didn't wait at the traffic lights __________ were red. A police officer __________ car was parked at the next corner stopped and arrested them. Decide whether the relative pronoun is a subject pronoun or an object pronoun. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Do you know the girl who I danced with? - ___________________ Do you know the girl who danced with me? - ___________________ The apples that are lying on the table are bad. - ___________________ The apples that we bought in the shop are bad. - ___________________ We will stay at a hotel which is not far from the beach. - ___________________ We will stay at a hotel which my friend has recommended to us. ___________________ That is a museum which I like very much. - ___________________ That is a museum which lies in the heart of the town. ___________________ This is the man who Barbara visited in Scotland. ___________________
    • 10. Relative Pronouns http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar This is the man who lives in Scotland. ___________________ Decide whether the relative pronouns must be used or not. 1. A calendar is something which tells you the date. 2. relative pronoun is necessary relative pronoun is not necessary Strikers are soccer players who try to score goals for their team. 3. relative pronoun is necessary relative pronoun is not necessary Jane is a person who everybody likes. 4. relative pronoun is necessary relative pronoun is not necessary A stamp is something which you put on a letter if you want to send it. 5. relative pronoun is necessary relative pronoun is not necessary The Thames is a river which runs through London. relative pronoun is necessary relative pronoun is not necessary Decide whether the relative pronouns must be used or not. 1. The book which is on the table belongs to Brandon. 2. relative pronoun is necessary relative pronoun is not necessary The museum which we visited last month is closed now. 3. relative pronoun is necessary relative pronoun is not necessary The man who you saw in the house is my cousin. 4. relative pronoun is necessary relative pronoun is not necessary Bob, who I know very well, is going out with Mary. 5. relative pronoun is necessary relative pronoun is not necessary I cannot forget the song which they played last night. relative pronoun is necessary relative pronoun is not necessary Choose the correct relative adverb. 1. This is the station _________ Emily met James. 2. July and August are the months _________ most people go on holiday. 3. Do you know the reason _________ so many people in the world learn English? 4. This is the church _________ Sue and Peter got married. 5. Edinburgh is the town _________ Alexander Graham Bell was born. 6. 25 December is the day _________ children in Great Britain get their Christmas presents. 7. A famine was the reason _________ so many Irish people emigrated to the USA in the 19th century. 8. A greengrocer's is a shop _________ you can buy vegetables. 9. The day _________ I arrived was very nice. 10.A horror film was the reason _________ I couldn't sleep last night. Complete the sentences using relative clauses. Use who and which. 1. 2. 3. 4. A Scot is a person (live in Scotland) ___________________________________ Nessie is a monster (live in Loch Ness) ___________________________________ A fridge is a thing (keep food cool) ___________________________________ A DJ is someone (play music in a disco) ___________________________________
    • Relative Pronouns http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar A bee is an insect (make honey) ___________________________________ A lemon is a fruit (be yellow and sour) ___________________________________ A watch is a thing (tell the time) ___________________________________ A ferry is a ship (carry people across the water) ___________________________________ A shop assistant is someone (work in a shop) ___________________________________ 10. A key is a thing (can open and lock doors) ___________________________________ 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Write relative clauses. You can write all of them without using the relative pronoun. 1. I gave you a book. It had many pictures. → The book________________________ 2. I am reading a book at the moment. It is very interesting. → The book_______________________ 3. You live in a town. The town is very old. → The town___________________________ 4. The sweets are delicious. I bought them yesterday. → The sweets___________________________ 5. The football match was very exciting. My friend played in it. → The football match _________________________ 6. The letter hasn't arrived yet. I posted it three days ago. → The letter ________________________________ 7. He lives in a house. The house is not very big. → The house ________________________________ 8. They are playing a song on the radio. Do you like it? → Do you like_________________________________ 9. Jane wore a beautiful shirt yesterday. Did you see it? → Did you see_____________________ 10.Sue is going out with a boy. I don't like him. → I don't like______________________ Study the situations and then decide whether the following relative clauses are defining or nondefining. defining – no commas non-defining – commas 1. I have three brothers. My brother who lives in Sidney came to see me last month. 2. My brother, who lives in Sidney, came to see me last month. I have one sister. My sister who is 25 years old spent her holiday in France. 3. My sister, who is 25 years old, spent her holiday in France. Bob's mum has lost her keys. Bob's mum who is a musician has lost her car keys. 4. Bob's mum, who is a musician, has lost her car keys. My friend Jane moved to Canada. My friend Jane whose husband is Canadian moved to Canada last week. My friend Jane, whose husband is Canadian, moved to Canada last week.
    • 5. Relative Pronouns I am a shoe fanatic. http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar The shoes which I bought yesterday are very comfortable. The shoes, which I bought yesterday, are very comfortable. Combine the sentences using relative clauses. Note that all relative clauses are non-defining. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Samuel Johnson was the son of a bookseller. Samuel Johnson was born in 1709. Samuel Johnson _______________________________________________________ In 1728, he went to Oxford. He studied at Pembroke College in Oxford. In 1728, he went _______________________________________________________ Johnson had to leave Oxford without a degree. He was too poor to pay the fees. Johnson _______________________________________________________ In 1737, Johnson moved to London. There he wrote poetry, essays and biographies. In 1737, Johnson _______________________________________________________ In 1746, Johnson started to write his dictionary. It took him nine years to complete. In 1746, Johnson started _______________________________________________________ His home at that time was in 17 Gough Square in London. It is a museum now. 17 Gough Square in London _______________________________________________________ In this house, his wife died in 1752. Her name was Elizabeth Porter. In this house his wife _______________________________________________________ In 1755, the work was published. It was called A Dictionary of the English Language. In 1755, the work _______________________________________________________ Samuel Johnson died in 1784. He is buried in Westminster Abbey. Samuel Johnson _______________________________________________________ Combine the sentences using a relative clause. Use relatvie pronouns only where necessary. Note that you have to use commas in some of the sentences. A holiday in Scotland 1. We spent our holiday in Scotland last year. Scotland is in the north of Great Britain. Last year we _______________________________________________________ 2. People live in Scotland. They are called Scots. The people _______________________________________________________ 3. We first went to Edinburgh. Edinburgh is the capital of Scotland. We first _______________________________________________________ 4. Arthur Conan Doyle was born in Edinburgh. He wrote the Sherlock Holmes stories. Arthur Conan Doyle _______________________________________________________ 5. Then we visited a lake. It is in the Highlands. The lake _______________________________________________________ 6. Loch Ness is 37 km long. People know it for its friendly monster. Loch Ness _______________________________________________________ 7. There we met an old man. He told us that he had seen Nessie. An old man _______________________________________________________ 8. We then travelled to a mountain. The mountain is near the town of Fort William. We then _______________________________________________________ 9. The mountain is the highest mountain in Great Britain. It is called Ben Nevis. The mountain _______________________________________________________ 10. I sent you a postcard. It was written on the summit of Ben Nevis. The postcard _______________________________________________________
    • 5. Relative Pronouns I am a shoe fanatic. http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar The shoes which I bought yesterday are very comfortable. The shoes, which I bought yesterday, are very comfortable. Combine the sentences using relative clauses. Note that all relative clauses are non-defining. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Samuel Johnson was the son of a bookseller. Samuel Johnson was born in 1709. Samuel Johnson _______________________________________________________ In 1728, he went to Oxford. He studied at Pembroke College in Oxford. In 1728, he went _______________________________________________________ Johnson had to leave Oxford without a degree. He was too poor to pay the fees. Johnson _______________________________________________________ In 1737, Johnson moved to London. There he wrote poetry, essays and biographies. In 1737, Johnson _______________________________________________________ In 1746, Johnson started to write his dictionary. It took him nine years to complete. In 1746, Johnson started _______________________________________________________ His home at that time was in 17 Gough Square in London. It is a museum now. 17 Gough Square in London _______________________________________________________ In this house, his wife died in 1752. Her name was Elizabeth Porter. In this house his wife _______________________________________________________ In 1755, the work was published. It was called A Dictionary of the English Language. In 1755, the work _______________________________________________________ Samuel Johnson died in 1784. He is buried in Westminster Abbey. Samuel Johnson _______________________________________________________ Combine the sentences using a relative clause. Use relatvie pronouns only where necessary. Note that you have to use commas in some of the sentences. A holiday in Scotland 1. We spent our holiday in Scotland last year. Scotland is in the north of Great Britain. Last year we _______________________________________________________ 2. People live in Scotland. They are called Scots. The people _______________________________________________________ 3. We first went to Edinburgh. Edinburgh is the capital of Scotland. We first _______________________________________________________ 4. Arthur Conan Doyle was born in Edinburgh. He wrote the Sherlock Holmes stories. Arthur Conan Doyle _______________________________________________________ 5. Then we visited a lake. It is in the Highlands. The lake _______________________________________________________ 6. Loch Ness is 37 km long. People know it for its friendly monster. Loch Ness _______________________________________________________ 7. There we met an old man. He told us that he had seen Nessie. An old man _______________________________________________________ 8. We then travelled to a mountain. The mountain is near the town of Fort William. We then _______________________________________________________ 9. The mountain is the highest mountain in Great Britain. It is called Ben Nevis. The mountain _______________________________________________________ 10. I sent you a postcard. It was written on the summit of Ben Nevis. The postcard _______________________________________________________