ANALYSIS OF WORLD OF WORK /LABOUR MARKET IN UGANDA VIS-À- VIS VOCATIONAL EDUCATION & TRAINING (VET) Wycliff E.Tusiime – FK Participant Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences June 2012
PRESENTATION STRUCTURE Current Status of World of Work in Uganda The Concept of Work in Uganda Competencies Required from Employees in Uganda’s Labour market today Vocational Education &Training (VET) The Required Nature of VET VET Challenges Way forward
WORLD OF WORK/LABOUR MARKET:Definition This is where workers find paying work, employers find willing workers, and wage rates are determined. It is where actual work takes place. It includes labourers who are skilled, semi-skilled and non- skilled (uneducated labourers) Uganda’s labour market is “slack” meaning there are more workers than the jobs availbale.
Its Size Labour force: approx. 11.5m persons aged 14–64 (2009/2010 UNHS estimates - UBOS) Composition: Female 53% Male: 47% Area distribution: Rural 85% Urban 15% Literacy rate: 77% (No education or attained primary) 33% (educated) Age distribution: 75% (below 40 years)This indicates that majority of the individuals entering labour market have no skills considering that the primary schools do not offer vocational working skill training.
Labour Participation Participation rate is 80% Rural women have higher participation rates than their urban counterparts. Illiterate persons available for work than the literate ones. Persons without education have higher participation levels than those with primary education, those with secondary education have the lowest. Female participation for lower ages is higher than that of males. This shows that females enter the labour market at young ages than males.
Unemployment Vs Education The lowest unemployment is found among those with no education, followed by those with primary education. The rate of unemployment of graduates stood at 17.4% in 2005. (UBOS, 2006) The Population Report (UBOS, 2010), revealed that 400,000 graduates join the Labour market each year and only 80,000 get employed.This shows that there is need to orient graduates from being job seekers to job makers. Government needs to develop policies and ensure that children are kept in schools.
THE CONCEPT OF WORK INUGANDAFor various reasons, the concept of work haschanged significantly in the last three decades.Work manifests its self in two major concepts inUganda today:The traditional concept of workThe modern concept of work
Traditional Concept of Work Work means paid employment Full time job involving about 40 hours of employment per week Permanent job where one works until he chooses to move on For life – till retirement with retirement benefits Career development with prospects of growth at work A defined employer-worker relationship exists Work-family chores are clearly separate
The Traditional Nature of Work Structured and rigid job descriptions Hierarchical reporting and supervision structures Tools of work are available and provided Rules and regulations strongly observed Boss-subordinate relationship Decision making structures highly structured – mostly top-down and rigid
The Modern Concept of Work Engagement in productive activity to earn a living Not about time spent but about output May be full-time, part-time, or contract Work may be office-based, home-based, or mobile Work is associated with earning and survival May be in the formal or informal sector
The Modern Nature of Work Mostly unstructured systems Flexibility in the execution of work Teamwork required to accomplish tasks Creativity is encouraged Multi-skills required Characterized by new and changing technologies
Competencies Required from Employees inUganda’s Labour market today Should embrace the concept of lifelong learning and be ready to learn more and to learn new things throughout their lives Should have cross-disciplinary knowledge Should have good communication and interpersonal skills Should be ready to work in teams Should pay attention to details Should be creative and innovative Should be ready for self-adjustment Should be committed Should display a sense of responsibility Should have functional skills
VOCATIONAL EDUCATION ANDTRAINING (VET): Its Meaning The terms “vocational education” and “vocational training” are commonly used together, sometimes separately, and sometimes interchangeably. Vocational Education refers to provision of knowledge about vocations and about skills required for production of goods and services. Vocational training refers to the process of actual skills acquisition targeting specific outputs.
VOCATIONAL EDUCATION ANDTRAINING: Its Purpose To provide general knowledge about vocations and work for personal development To provide knowledge and skills for individual use and personal development To provide knowledge, attitudes, and skills necessary for community development To provide appropriate skills for industry and national development
Current Status of VET VET is currently undertaken at various levels by various categories of clients Informal sector VET Pre-primary and primary school VE Secondary school VE Post-secondary level VET
Vocational Education and Training inthe Informal Sector Itaims at providing skills for productivity and self-reliance. It is: Most relevant education and training Focused on specific skills delivery and acquisition Targets requirements of the labour market Characterized by apprenticeships, on the job training, and experiential learning
Pre-primary and Primary VocationalEducationThe following are the aims of VET at this level: to enable pupils to master fundamental knowledge and techniques used in vocational tasks. to develop children’s ability in the use of hands and head and educate them to appreciate the value dignity and decisive role of labour in processes of production and in public welfare. to promote rational thinking and attitudinal change in favour of productive manual work. to stimulate interest among pupils in the acquisition of basic skills ultimately leading to the development of a strong technological awareness in the masses and , to promote intergration of technical subjects with other subjects. to lay a firm and viable basis in the development of the lives of the citizens, and of the country upon which a national, managerial, technical and scientific base can be founded and established.
Secondary Vocational EducationAt secondary school level, the purpose is to: instill positive attitudes towards work and strong respect for those who engage in productive labour activities. To expose students to various trades in the world of work To provide basic and general entry level job skills for immediate personal application for positive employment on leaving school. To lay a foundation for more advanced technical training.
Post-Secondary VETThe purpose of VET at this level is: To facilitate interpretation, application and translation of basic knowledge and understanding of fundamental facts and principles of science processes and techniques to be able to produce and use tools and labour saving devices for productive work. Inculcate an appreciation of labour and the environment as a resource base. To impart skills necessary for protection, utilization and conservation of environmental heritage. To refine and consolidate indigenous artistic and technological skills in order to produce things of aesthetic and cultural value. To consolidate, synthesize and apply the ability to use the head, heart and hands towards innovations, modernization and improvement in the quality of life; and To broaden and increase technological awareness and the capacity of the learner to engage in productive activities for becoming self-reliant.
THE REQUIRED NATURE OF VET Demand driven Flexible Multi-skilled Attitude driven (career guidance) Labour market information systems Entrepreneurial skills Environmental issues ICT
VET CHALLENGES Equipment and tools Retraining staff Curriculum changes Evolving needs of the workplace Socio-economic climate Skills levels and requirements Labour market information systems Donor driven policies and programmes.
WAY FORWARD Labour market information Resource mobilization Curriculum relevance and flexibility Employer involvement Strengthen private public partnership Lifelong learning Multi-skilling School enterprises Needs assessment must be a critical part of curriculum planning
Bibliography Uganda (1992) The Government White Paper on Implementation of the Report of the Education Review Commission. Kampala, Uganda. MISR (2006) Graduate Tracer and Employers’ Expectations in Uganda. Kampala, Uganda MLGSD (2006) Labour Market Information Status (LMIS) Report for Uganda. Kampala, Uganda. Tusiime, W.E (2010) Master Thesis: Vocational Education and Training Graduates and the Labour Market in Uganda. Kyambogo University, Kampala. Prever Mukasa (2011) The Labour Market and Today’s Graduate. Accessed at http://www.ucu.ac.ug/thestandard/life-and-style/28-life-and-style/915-the-labou . MLGSD (2011) The National Employment Policy for Uganda. Kampala, Uganda.
Bibliography cont…. UBOS (2010) The Urban Labour Force Survey Report. Kampala, Uganda. Precious N (2011) Uganda’s Education Irrelevant to Labour Market – Minister. Article accessed at http://ugandaradionetwork.com/a/story.php?s=35920#ixzz1vVA5oc00 on 21.05.2012 at 13:14pm