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Emerging contaminants in surface and Drainage Water By Shiv


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Emerging contaminants in surface and Drainage Water By shiv- Department of Bioresource engineering. McGrill university, Canada

Emerging contaminants in surface and Drainage Water By shiv- Department of Bioresource engineering. McGrill university, Canada

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  • 1. Emerging Contaminants in Surface and Drainage Waters
    Shiv O. Prasher et al.
    Department of Bioresource Engineering
    McGill University, Montreal, Canada
  • 2. Outline
    Emerging Contaminants
    Environmental Concerns
    Pharmaceuticals in the Environment
    Pharmaceuticals in Manure
    Experimental/Field Work
    Preliminary Results
    Further Work
  • 3. Emerging Contaminants
  • 4. Environmental Concerns
  • 5. What are pharmaceuticals?
    Pharmaceuticals are medications - prescription drugs, i.e. hormones, antidepressants and antibiotics; over-the-counter medications, such as pain relievers, cold/flu remedies, antiseptics; and veterinary medicines
  • 6.
  • 7.
  • 8. Pharmaceuticals in Surface Waters
    50% of streams in the US contain some level of antibiotics
    Human use of antibiotics is always therapeutic
    Veterinary use, however, is therapeutic and subtherapeutic (growth promotion and prophylactic)
    Up to 84% antibiotic use in the US is subtherapeutic - 9 to 11 million kg
  • 9. Pharmaceuticals in Surface WatersDolliver and Gupta (2008)
    However, 70 to 90% of the antibiotics fed are excreted in manure
    Annually, manure is applied to over 9.2 million ha of land in the US
    Manure may contain antibiotics from trace levels to >200 mg kg-1 or L-1, with typical concentrations in the 1 to 10 mg kg-1 or L-1
    Most antibiotics used for animals are similar to those given to humans
  • 10. Manure Production in Canada
    Manure production in Canada has increased by 16% between 1981 and 2006
    Over180 million metric tons of manure is produced annually (38% by beef cows, 12% by dairy,12% by calves, 12% by heifers, 10% by steers, 9% by pigs, 3% by poultry, 2% by horses, 2% bulls, <1% by sheep
    Beef cows generate 37 kg d-1
    Milk cows produce 62 kg d-1
    Pigs make between 1 and 4 kg d-1
    Poultry produce less than 1 kg d-1
  • 11. 130 times more animal waste is produced
    in the US than human waste
  • 12. Indicator Microbial Populations in Lagoon Water Samples(Bradford et al., 2008)
  • 13. Antibiotic analyses in Filtered Lagoon Water Samples (Bradford et al., 2008)
  • 14. Estrogen analyses of whole Lagoon Water Samples(Bradford et al., 2008)
  • 15. Estimated environmental loading of metals, total antibiotics, total estrogen hormones, and total indicator microbes when lagoon waters are applied to 1 m2 area of agricultural field to meet nitrogen needs of corn during a 90-d summer growing season (assuming ET rate of 10 mm d-1; Bradford et al., 2008)
  • 16. Human Use/Overuse of Pharmaceuticals
  • 17.
  • 18.
  • 19. Biosolids for Land Application
    Also known as sewage sludge
    Produced as part of normal wastewater treatment
    Biosolids are rich in organic carbon thus have beneficial use
    Must meet regulations for nutrient, metal and pathogen content before land application
  • 20. Biosolids for Land ApplicationKinney et al. (2006)
    Average wastewater treatment plant generates 240 kg dry weight of solids per million liters of wastewater treated
    In 2006, 8x106 dry tons of biosolids were produced in the US
    50% of the biosolids are land applied in the US
    Remaining 50% are incinerated or disposed of in landfills
  • 21.
  • 22. Ecological Impact of PPCPsPseudo-Persistent Chemicals
    Most drugs tend to have shorter half-lives than conventional contaminants
    However, although in small quantities, drugs are introduced continuously to the environment
    This may make the exposure of drugs to aquatic ecosystems similar to that from conventional contaminants
    Pseudo-persistent chemicals – half-lives are exceeded by their continuous introduction rates through WWTP effluents
  • 23. Ecological Impact of PPCPs
    Reproductive hormones found in 21% of 139 streams across US in a national reconnaissance survey (Ying et al., 2002) – affect endocrine and reproductive systems
    Among the hormones found, 17β-estradioland testosterone are, respectively, principal regulators of the development, maintenance, and function of female and male vertebrate reproductive organs
    Estradiol concentrations as low as 0.001 µg L-1 can feminize wild male fish
    Methyltestosterone concentration of 0.027 µg L-1masculinized fish populations in vitro
  • 24. Effects of Pharmaceuticals on Fish Health
    Fathead minnows, grown from egg to adulthood in the presence of as little as three parts-per-trillion (3 ng L-1) of synthetic estrogen (used in birth control pills), got completely feminized
    A human female, using the birth control pill, will excrete this amount in her urine in one day
    This amount of synthetic estrogen is like one birth control pill in 10,000 L of water
  • 25. Drugs in Drinking Water
    DrugUseMax. Conc.Country
    (ng L-1)
    Carbamazepine Anti-epileptic 24 Canada
    258 USA
    Gemfibrozil Lipid regulator 70 Canada
    Diazepam Psychiatric 10 UK
    Ibuprofen Analgesic and 3 Germany
  • 26. Impacts on Humans
  • 27. Impacts on Humans
    Chronic exposure to mixture of drugs at low concentrations
    "What is the long-term effect of drinking, day after day, a dilute cocktail of pesticides, antibiotics, pain killers, tranquilizers and chemotherapy agents?“
  • 28. E. Coli Resistance in Surface WatersData from J. Cicmanic, US EPA
  • 29. Lysimeter Site
  • 30. Concentration of Poultry Pharmaceuticals in Drainage Waters
  • 31. Oxytetracycline concentration at the surface
  • 32. Oxytetracycline concentration in Drainage Waters
  • 33. Metribuzin concentration at the Soil Surface
  • 34. MORE TO COME
    HYDRUS Modeling
    Constructed wetlands
    Vegetated filter strips
    Water table management
    Aerobic vs. anaerobic conditions
  • 35. Peeking at the Future
  • 36. Control of PPCP Pollution
    Pharmaceuticals are essential for humans, agriculture, and aquaculture
    Pollution can be minimized by
    Proper disposal programs for human drugs
    Effective sewage treatment programs
    Efficient manure management strategies
    Proper application of manure and biosolids
  • 37. “Although it is unlikely that a serious problem exists now, it would be prudent to apply the precautionary principle and try to reduce the levels of these compounds in drinking water before any harm is proved.”
    Jones et al. (2005)
  • 38. THANK YOU