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  • A very impressive and practical solution given by the Author in the vital issue for the Entire India for the present and for the future !! This suggestion from this Plan to be discussed in all the Forum and all the State Governments and the Govt. of India to come forward together the solve the Long pending concern of the People of India, Water,as said going to be scarce and We, Indians need Water for drinking and Irrigation of Land, the traditional occupation of Majority of working population of India and if possible Water, can also be used for Hydro Power generations !! Nithyanandam
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  2. 2. STATUS OF THE WORLD WATER The total quantity of WATER available on earth today is same as if was millions of years ago. 97.5% of the World’s WATER is in the form of salt water located in the Seas and Oceans. Only 2.5% of the World WATER is considered as “FRESH WATER” and can be used by the mankind for their needs. Out of this 2.5% of FRESH WATER, 65% is located in the ICE-CAPS and is not available for the use of mankind. Availability of “FRESH WATER” is “SCARCE” & not uniform through out the world.  India is having 16% of the World population, but the share of India in the World Water is only 4%.Hence, “FRESH WATER” is a Scarce Commodity and is to be utilized in a Judicious
  3. 3. INCREASING DEMAND FOR WATERThe demand for the water is increasing in a rapid manner due to the populationgrowth and Economic development.The present population of India is about 108 Crores. Population likely to touch 132Crores by 2025. Further, the population touches 162 Crores by 2050 and get stabilized.The growing population needs about 360 million tones of food grains by 2025 andaround 426 million tones by 2050.At present, our food grain production is static around 200 to 230 million tones.The growing population needs water for their own and other uses. According toMinistry of Water Resources, GOI, the demand for WATER will be as follows:By 2010: Water requirement ranges from 694 to 700 BCMBy 2025: Water requirement ranges from 784 to 850 BCMBy 2050: Water requirement ranges from 973 to 1180 BCMHence, we have to plan for the additional needs of water by undertaking new projectsas well as improving the water use efficiency in the existing projects.
  4. 4. SOME FACTS1. It is estimated that a quantity of 1700 Cubic Meters of water is required for each individual per year as per UNO.2. If a country experiences less water per person per year below 1700 cubic meters, the country is said to be experiencing “WATER STRESS”.3. Similarly if a country experiences less WATER per person per year below 1000 cubic meters, the country is said to be facing “WATER SCARCITY”.4. At present, the per capita availability of water in India is 1706 cubic meters per year as per CWC in 2005.5. According to World Water Council by the year 2025 about 48 countries with more than 2.8 billion people, will be effected by “WATER STRESS” and this population could be about 35% of the World population.
  5. 5. WATER RESOURCES IN INDIASL. PARTICULARS QUANTITYNO1. Annual Precipitation Volume(including snow fall) 4000 Billion Cubic Meters2. Average annual potential flow in rivers 1869 Billion Cubic Meters3. Estimated utilizable water resources 1122 Billion Cubic a. Surface Water Resources – 690 Billion Cub. Mts. Meters b. Ground Water Resources – 432 Billion Cub. Mts.4. Per capita water availability (2005) 1706 Cubic Meters (Source: Central Water Commission, GOI)
  6. 6. MAJOR RIVER BASINS IN INDIAThere are about 12 major river basins in India and they are as follows:-1. INDUS 7. PENNAR2. GANGA – BRAHMAPUTRA – MEGHNA 8. BRAHMANI – BAITARINI3. GODAVARI 9. SABARMATI4. KRISHNA 10. MAHI5. CAUVERY 11. NARMADA6. MAHANADI 12. TAPIThe total catchment area is 252.8 Million Hectares.The rain fall varies from 100 mm in Rajasthan to 11000mm in Chirapunji inMeghalaya.Most of the rivers are Inter State Rivers flowing through 2 or 3 States.
  7. 7. RIVER BASINS IN INDIA© Govt. of India copy right 2004. Based upon Survey of India map with the permission of the Surveyor General of India
  8. 8. IRRIGATION POTENTIAL UIP, IPC AND IPU FROM MAJOR & MEDIUM AND MINOR IRRIGATION PROJECTS UPTO END OF IX PLAN Hectares ULTIMATE IRRIGATION POTENTIAL IRRIGATION POTENTIAL CREATED IRRIGATION POTENTIAL (UIP) (IPC) UTILIZED (IPU)NAM E MAJOR & MINOR TOTAL MAJOR & MINOR TOTAL MAJOR & MINOR TOTAL MEDIUM MEDIUM MEDIUM 5,84,65,000 8,14,28,000 13,98,93,000 3,70,46,000 5,69,00,000 9,39,46,000 3,10,10,000 4,90,48,000 8,00,58,000All theStatesandUTs Note: India is supporting 16% of the world population with a meager land mass of 2.45% of the World’s land mass. The Irrigation potential created so far is by way of constructing various projects across the river basins and sub-basins which are flowing through different states. Today there are number of disputes existing for the use of Inter State River Waters by the Riparian States
  9. 9. EXISTING LEGAL FRAME WORK FOR SOLVING THE INTER STATE WATER DISPUTES India is a federal structure and is governed by a written constitution. As per the constitution of India o Entry 17 in the States List o Entry 56 in the Union List and o Article 262are dealing with issues of WATER by both Central and StateGovernments. River Boards Act of 1956 Inter State Water Disputes Act of 1956 National Water Resources Council
  10. 10. Existing Legal Frame Work ……………. Contd…Entry 17 in the States list runs as “Water that is to say, water suppliesIrrigation & Canals, Drainage, and Embankments, Water Storage and WaterPower, Subject to the provisions of entry 56 list I”.This provision clearly indicates that the states can exercise their powersubject to Central Government acceptance.Entry 56, in the Union list runs as follows:“Regulation and development of Inter-State rivers and River Valleys to theextent to which such regulation and development under the control of theUnion is decided by Parliament by law to be expedient in the public interest”
  11. 11. Existing Legal Frame Work ……………. Contd…But, so far the Parliament has made use of the powers under entry 56 of the union listin a limited manner, and thereby the States are enjoying power as per entry 17 of theStates list of the Constitution of India.According to Article 262 of the Constitution of India, i) Parliament may by law providefor the adjudication of any dispute or complaint with respect to the use, distribution orControl of the Waters of any Inter-State river or river valley, ii) Notwithstandinganything in the constitution, Parliament may by law provide that, neither the supremecourt nor any other court shall exercise jurisdiction in respect of any such dispute orcomplaint as is referred in clause i) above.From the above, it stands to reason that the legislative competence of a StateGovernment under entry 17 of the State List, must be exercised in such amanner as not to prejudice the interests of other states and create a waterdispute within the meaning of Article 262 of the constitution of India.
  12. 12. Existing Legal Frame Work ……………. Contd… As per the 73rd and 74th amendments carried out to the constitution, the local Governments are also empowered to manage the affairs related to Drinking Water, Watershed Development and Sanitation Water Management in their respective jurisdiction .In light of the above provisions as existing in the constitution the WaterManagement at different levels became a complex issue and is certainly creating aconfusion. National Water Resources Council: The council is headed by the Prime Minister of India as Chairman, the Union Minister of Water Resources as Vice-Chairman, all the Chief Ministers of State and several Central Ministers as Members is meeting once in a year and are discussing the Water Related Issues. But the council is not backed by any statutory powers. River Boards Act of 1956 The Indian Parliament has enacted the Act, under entry 56 of the Union List, to promote integrated and optimum development of Water flowing through the Inter State Rivers and River Valleys. As no powers given to these Boards to implement the advises given by them, the Act became non-functional.
  13. 13. Existing Legal Frame Work ……………. Contd…INTER-STATE WATER DISPUTES ACT-1956:The Act provides a right to the Central Government for setting up of Tribunalsfor the adjudication of Water disputes between the States.EXPERIENCES: Mandovi River: There is a dispute for the water usage from this river among the states of Karnataka, Maharashtra and Goa Godavari River: There is a dispute going on in the Honourable Supreme Court of India between Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh, on account of the construction of Babli Project by Maharashtra within the territorial water of Sri Ram Sagar Project of Andhra Pradesh.
  14. 14. EXPERIENCES Krishna River: Krishna Water disputes tribunal has been appointed in 2004. The issue of sharing the waters among the states of Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh is progressing. Both Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh have filed petitions before the Tribunal stating that the other state is constructing illegal Projects and Bridge cum Barrages on River Krishna. Cauvery River: Cauvery River water disputes tribunal has been constituted by the Government of India 1990 and the final report has been submitted, but the states have not agreed to the report. Ravi-Beas River: Ravi – Beas Water Tribunal was constituted in 1986 but, the final order is yet to come. It is to note that the Punjab legislative assembly has passed a resolution nullifying all the earlier agreements entered between the states of Punjab, Rajasthan, Delhi and Jammu & Kashmir and the Government of India has remained a mute spectator.
  15. 15. Existing Legal Frame Work ……………. Contd…I. There are enormous delays in the establishment of a Tribunal, conducting the proceedings by the Tribunal, giving the Award, the process of further references and supplementary clarifications or orders, and finally the notification of the award by the Central Government.II. Adjudication is an unsatisfactory way of dealing with a water dispute and a negotiated settlement between the parties would be definitely a superior and workable model.The Sarkaria commission have gone through the difficulties experiencedand suggested certain amendments fixing time limit for each step of aTribunal which were enacted as amendments to the Inter State WaterDisputes Act 2002. But, the delays in forming the Tribunals and their workis still to be improved.
  16. 16. WHAT IS TO BE DONE?1. The Inter-State river water management should be undertaken by the Government of India, if need be, by a statutory means, and supported by a River Board comprising the Technical Experts and Stakeholders of the States Concerned. The River Board must have the powers to implement the decision/advise given by them.2. The states must restrict themselves to monitor and manage the water allocated and received by them through Inter State River authorities with formation of a Mechanism at every level with Technical experts as well as stake holders as partners.3. The Traditional practices followed by the communities and International law/conventions on Water issues are to be respected and implemented in an effective manner.
  17. 17. WHAT IS TO BE DONE?.....Contd….4. The participation of the Stakeholders right from investigation of a project till the completion of the project will go a long way in the subsequent efficient Water Management under the project.5. The authorities / boards proposed to be created at various levels should be free from political clout and backed by statutory provisions.The Parliament of India, being the Supreme PolicyMaking Body in the Country, should come forward touse the powers vested under constitution ofIndia, particularly under entry 56 of Union List, toform a National Level River Authority withindependence in similar lines to that of the ElectionCommission of India on PRIORITY basis.
  18. 18. INTERLINKING OF RIVERSIn the year 1865, Sir Arthur Cotton has proposed the Interlinking of Rivers in India with aview to create water ways and connect the whole country. Later, several of our eminentEngineers like Padmavibhushan K.L.Rao have suggested to have the Interlinking of Rivers.Long distance Inter Basin transfer of water has been in practice in India for over 500 years. The Periyar project is the most notable link endeavoured in the 19th Century. A 47.28 meter high gravity dam was constructed across a gorge on the West flowing Periyar River. A 1740 meter long tunnel with a discharge capacity of 40.75 cubic meters was drilled across the mountain barrier to convey the waters East-wards to the Vaigai River. The project was commissioned in 1895 and provide Irrigation to about 58,000 Hectares and later extended to 80,000 hectares. 140 Mega Watts of Power is also being generated. The USA which is a Water rich and scarcely populated country is transferring 45 Billion Cubic Meters (BCM) of water through inter-basin water transfer and plans to add 376 BCM. China has a scheme under implementation for a transfer of 45 BCM of water through Inter Basin Transfers.At present, India is transferring only about 10 BCM of water through Inter Basin Transfersbut, there is a potential of nearly 200 BCM of water which can be transferred through InterBasin Transfers.
  19. 19. INTER BASIN TRANSFER OF WATERS BENEFITS Will provide additional Irrigation facilities to about 35 million hectares of land. Reduces the regional imbalances in the availability of water in different regions. Construction of Storage reservoirs as proposed will reduce the floods and the resultant damage. Benefits the drought prone areas of11 states by providing Irrigation facility to an extent of 25,00,000 hectares of land. Hydro power can be generated to the extent of about 34,000 MW in addition to the existing 22,000 mega watts.
  20. 20. MAHATMA GANDHI JIMahatma Gandhi Ji, “Father of The Nation” who has played a key role in achievingindependence to INDIA, through his weapon “Non-Violence” has once said that“NATURE HAS PROVIDED EVERYTHING FOR ONE’S NEED, BUT NOT FOR GREED”May we request everyone of us to keep the above saying at the back of our minds, sothat we can retain the Federal Structure of our Country and with a spirit ofcooperation & understanding.
  21. 21. CONCLUSIONAt the beginning of the Xth Plan the following projects with a spill over cost as mentionedagainst each are ongoing for the last 2 decades in different states. SL DETAILS OF THE PROJECT SPILL-OVER COST No (CRORES) 1. 162 MAJOR PROJECTS 1,40,968.79 2. 221 MEDIUM PROJECTS 12,786 3. 85 EXTENSION, RENOVATION AND 21,256 MODERNIZATION PROJECTS TOTAL 1,75,010 .79But the budget allocations from the GOI budget is so low that it may take another 2 decades tocomplete these projects.It is suggested that the Honourable Members of Parliament make an effort to impress theGovernment of India, the necessity of completing these projects in a time scheduled frame work,say 5 years by allocating the necessary funds from Government of India Budget.The inter linking of river project has to be under taken by the Government of India as a nationalproject in line with that of National Highway Authority of India or the Election Commission ofIndia.