Irrigation Efficiency


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Irrigation Efficiency Enhancement in Hotriculture- Govt Initiative Policies- 5th Asian Regional Conference. New Delhi

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Irrigation Efficiency

  1. 1. 5 th Asian Regional Conference New Delhi National Committee on Plasticulture Applications in Horticulture Ministry of Agriculture Government of India IRRIGATION EFFICIENCY ENHANCEMENT IN HORTICULTURE GOVERNMENT INITIATIVES..POLICIES .. PATH FORWARD
  2. 2. Geographical Area - 328.7 Gross Cultivable Area - 190.2 (58%) Net Cultivable Area - 141.3 (74%) Gross Irrigated Area - 79.51 (42%) Net Irrigated Area - 58.5 (41%) Population- >1000 Million Water Logged Area - 8.5 (4.5%) Area under Horticultural Crops - 20 (11%) Average number of drought years - Once in 3 Years (37 years in 126 years) India- At a Glance Area (in Million ha)
  3. 3. Average Annual Rainfall - 1170 mm Maximum Average Annual Rainfall - 11000 mm (Cherrapunji) Minimum Average Annual Rainfall - 100 mm (Western Rajasthan) Rainfall Variation “ Heavy rainfall areas too have water scare period”
  4. 4. Alarming Droughts “ Frequency of Droughts is of serious concern”
  5. 5. Ground Water level has fallen by more than 4 meters during last two decades. Off-late it has reached to one metre per anum Source:CGWB “ Ground water depletion is alarming” India- Falling Ground Water Levels
  6. 6. As per IWMI Estimates Water! Water! Water! By 2025 – 1/3 of India’s population will live under absolute water scarcity condition
  7. 7. Source: MOWR In % “ Water available for Irrigation is reducing” Sectoral availability
  8. 8. Loss of Water in conveyance Comparative Efficiency of Irrigation Systems Surface 30 - 40% Sprinkler 60 - 70% Drip Irrigation 80 - 90% “ Huge loss in traditional conveyance methods”
  9. 9. Source: Agricultural Research Data Book 2004 / Indian Horticulture Database 2003 (MT / Ha) “ Wide gap in global & Indian agricultural productivity” Crop Productivity India vis-à-vis World
  10. 10. <ul><li>Low crop productivity – 40 to 60% of world average. </li></ul><ul><li>Only 40% of land area is irrigated with conventional irrigation. </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy pre and post harvest losses – food grains (10-20%) / fruits and vegetables (30-35%) </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers’ share merely 30 – 35% of total realisation. </li></ul><ul><li>Progressively lakhs of hectares of agricultural land getting uncultivable because of water logging and soil salinity. </li></ul><ul><li>Un-organized network for marketing of agricultural produce. </li></ul>Only use of plasticulture applications may avert the situation Indian Agriculture – Critical Issues
  11. 11. Plasticulture can alone resolve some of these issues
  12. 12. Plasticulture… <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water Management and Irrigation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crop production and protection </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Controlled environment agriculture </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Harvesting, storage and packaging </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reclamation of wasteland and water logged areas. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Plasticulture is one of the most important indirect input in agriculture.
  13. 13. Major Applications for Plastics in Agriculture <ul><li>Lining of Canals / Farm Ponds / Water Reservoirs </li></ul><ul><li>Plastics pipes water distribution network /agricultural pump sets. </li></ul><ul><li>Micro and sprinkler irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>Green house, low tunnels, shade net houses, plant protection nets </li></ul><ul><li>Mulching and soil solarisation </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-surface drainage </li></ul><ul><li>Nursery bags, trays, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Post Harvest handling – crates, boxes, bags etc </li></ul>“ Plasticulture is the only solution for the next evergreen revolution.”
  14. 14. More Crop Per Drop ` Through Micro Irrigation For ---THE NEXT GREEN REVOLUTION! Need of the Hour
  15. 15. Micro Irrigation <ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Better water use efficiency (60-70%) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in yield (30 – 90%) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Saving in Fertilizer usage (40%) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cultivation in saline land possible. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Status in India </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1.6 million ha under Drip Irrigation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2.3 million ha under Sprinkler Irrigation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>By converting 1 lakh land area under micro irrigation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Total water saving is 347 million Cu. Meters / annum. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fertilizer saving of Rs. 105 cores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saving of 271 lakh KWH of energy per year worth Rs. 7crores by pumping less water. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Application of irrigation water similar to rainfall under high pressure(2.5 kg/cm 2 – 3.0 kg/cm 2 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Suitable for most soil types when infiltration rates are matched to soil infiltration capacity. </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrients can be applied through irrigation system (fertigation) </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used to cool the crop during high temperatures, to protect against frost and to manage plant health. </li></ul><ul><li>Keeps soil soft for emerging seedlings with frequent irrigation. </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes rapid germination and crop establishment as compared to conventional method. </li></ul>Sprinkler head Sprinkler Irrigation System
  18. 18. Layout of Sprinkler Irrigation System
  19. 19. Sugarcane Drip Furrow
  20. 20. Case study of Sugarcane 2 Pay back period (yr) [7/18] 19 33750 Addl. Income due to MI System 18 60495 Net Return (Rs) 17 90000 Gross Income (Rs) 16 900 Market Value (Rs/ton) 15 100 Yield (Tons) 14 29506 Total Expenditure (Rs) 13 15563 Cost of Cultivation (Rs) 12 13943 Total Annual Cost of MI System (Rs) [8+9+10] 11 927 Repairs & Maintenance (Rs) 10 3750 Operator Charges (Rs) 10 9266 Annual Fixed Cost (Rs) 8 56848 System Cost (Rs) 7 1.0 Area (ha) 6 9440365899 Contact Number 5 Vizianagaram (AP) District 4 Bobbili Mandal 3 Alajangi Village 2 D.V. Krishna Rao Name of Farmer 1
  21. 21. Case Study of Banana 2 Pay back period (yr) [7/18] 19 37,500 Addl. Income due to MI System 18 1,13,496 Net Return (Rs) 17 1,87,500 Gross Income (Rs) 16 300 Market Value (Rs/quintal) 15 625 Yield (quintals) 14 74,004 Total Expenditure (Rs) 13 57,500 Cost of Cultivation (Rs) 12 16,504 Total Annual Cost of MI System (Rs) [8+9+10] 11 1,159 Repairs & Maintenance (Rs) 10 3,750 Operator Charges (Rs) 9 11,594 Annual Fixed Cost (Rs) 8 71,130 System Cost (Rs) 7 1.21 Area (ha) 6 9885523344 Contact Number 5 Guntur (AP) District 4 Thulluru Mandal 3 Lingayapalem Village 2 A.K. Parandhama Name of Farmer 1
  22. 22. Case study of Papaya 1 Pay back period (yr) [6/17] 18 1,35,000 Addl. Income due to MI System 17 2,09,819 Net Return (Rs) 16 3,60,000 Gross Income (Rs) 15 1,800 Market Value (Rs/ton) 14 200 Yield (ton) 13 1,50,181 Total Expenditure (Rs) 12 1,18,000 Cost of Cultivation (Rs) 11 32,181 Total Annual Cost of MI System (Rs) [7+8+9] 10 2,244 Repairs & Maintenance (Rs) 9 7,500 Operator Charges (Rs) 8 22,437 Annual Fixed Cost (Rs) 7 1,37,650 System Cost (Rs) 6 2.00 Area (ha) 5 Ananthapur District 4 Atmakur Mandal 3 P.Seddarampuram Village 2 M. Narayana Name of Farmer 1
  23. 23. Estimated Potential Area Potential Area under Drip/ Sprinkler Source: National Task Force on Micro Irrigation
  24. 24. Trends in adoption of Drip Irrigation Micro Irrigation Scheme of GoI implemented w.e.f March 2005 (FY 2005-06) 1.6 Million ha area as on 31.03.09
  25. 25. Trends in adoption of Sprinkler Irrigation Micro Irrigation Scheme of GoI implemented w.e.f March 2005 (FY 2005-06) 2.7 Million ha area as on 31.03.09
  26. 26. Salient Findings of Impact Evaluation Study on Micro Irrigation Conducted by NABCONS May’09
  27. 27. Objectives <ul><li>Study the efficiency of implementing agencies & enumerate best practices </li></ul><ul><li>Impact of scheme on productivity, WUE etc </li></ul><ul><li>Identify procedure deficiencies & operational constraints </li></ul><ul><li>To ascertain technical/ financial feasibility </li></ul>States surveyed - 6 Andhra Pradesh Punjab Madhya Pradesh Gujarat Karnataka Orissa Salient Findings <ul><li>The systems were found intact in the field & nearly zero level mis- utilization </li></ul><ul><li>SMIC / DMIC operational in all states </li></ul>Impact Evaluation Study on MI Findings
  28. 28. <ul><li>Sprinkler - 35-40% </li></ul><ul><li>Drip (Orchards) - 40-65% </li></ul><ul><li>Drip (Vegetables) - 30-47% </li></ul><ul><li>Significant reduction of labour </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction in power consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Only 30% sample beneficiaries used fertigation </li></ul><ul><li>Productivity enhancement by 20-42% </li></ul><ul><li>Uniform pod filling in ground nut </li></ul><ul><li>Better shine in sweet orange </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ranged from 6 to 14 months </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>30-50% IRR depending upon crop </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Quality Improvement Payback period in groundnut, potato & cotton Water saving Impact Evaluation Study on MI Findings
  29. 29. <ul><li>Horizontal spread of MI in West Bengal, Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa & Uttar Pradesh – need of the hour : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrations at Taluka Level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marketing network/ Suppliers’ offices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training/ awareness programmes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Publicity / Media </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inter cropping has really paid & need be promoted </li></ul><ul><li>Integration with applications under NHM has benefitted MI adoption </li></ul><ul><li>Agronomic and post-sales support by a system suppliers helped MI penetration & net realization thereof </li></ul>Lessons from the scheme progress
  30. 30. <ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Easy installation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prevention of water logging and salinity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Makes cultivation possible in saline lands </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Status in India </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>16000Ha is under sub-surface drainage </li></ul></ul></ul>Potential: 15 Million Ha can be covered under sub-surface drainage Transformation cost Rs. 45000 to 50000 per Ha. Sub-Surface Drainage WATERLOGGED Fertile field
  31. 31. Government Intervention to Promote Micro Irrigation & other Plasticulture Applications
  32. 32. Government Schemes <ul><li>Centrally Sponsored Scheme on Micro Irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>National Horticulture Board (NHB) </li></ul><ul><li>Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY) </li></ul><ul><li>Technical Mission for Integrated Development in NE states </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated Scheme of Oilseeds, Pulses, Oil-palm & Maize (ISOPOM) </li></ul><ul><li>National Food Security Mission (NFSM) </li></ul><ul><li>National Horticulture Mission (NHM) </li></ul>
  33. 33. GOI MI Subsidy Scheme <ul><li>Drip/ Sprinkler 40 % System cost by GOI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10 % System cost by State </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50 % System cost by farmers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Demonstration 75 % System cost by GOI </li></ul><ul><li>25 % by beneficiary </li></ul>GoI implemented Centrally Sponsored Scheme on Micro Irrigation in March 2005 Karnataka : 100% for districts Kolar/ Bijapur for 2 ha & then 50% 75 % for all farmers upto 2 ha & then 50% MP : 70 % for General category : 80 % for SC/ST/S&M/Women Andhra Pradesh : 70% for all farmers Bihar : 60% for all farmers Chhattisgarh : 60% for General Category, 70% for SC/ST/ Women/S&M Gujarat : Subsidy as per state norms Punjab : 75% for all farmers Rajasthan : 70 % for Drip TN : 65% for General category`
  34. 34. <ul><li>Agriculture is the biggest consumer of water accounting for about 79% of the total consumption </li></ul><ul><li>RKVY scheme was launched to increase the production & productivity of various components of agriculture & also to maximize the returns of farmers </li></ul><ul><li>RKVY aims to achieve 4% annual growth in the agriculture sector during 11 th plan </li></ul><ul><li>Under RKVY scheme the assistance has given for nursery development, horticulture activities including drip/sprinkler irrigation </li></ul>Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY)
  35. 35. Technology Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture Scheme applicable for North Eastern States, Sikkim, J&K, Himachal Pradesh & Uttarakhand. Technology Mission would have four componennts:
  36. 36. Integrated Scheme of Oilseeds, Pulses, Oil-palm & Maize (ISOPOM) Scheme Components related to Water Conservation To be implemented through the State Nodal Agency
  37. 37. National Food Security Mission (NFSM) <ul><li>The National Food Security mission have three components: Rice, Wheat, Pulses </li></ul><ul><li>The main objective of NFSM is increasing production of Rice, Wheat and Pulses </li></ul><ul><li>At least 33% allocation of the fund is to be made for small, marginal and women farmers </li></ul><ul><li>NFSM - Implemented in 171 districts in 14 states of the country </li></ul><ul><li>The financial assistance under Sprinkler sets for Wheat and Pulses will be 50% of the cost for all categories of farmers </li></ul><ul><li>It is predicted to increase irrigated area under Sprinkler from the existing 16% to 21% under Pulses and Wheat </li></ul>
  38. 38. NHM Subsidy Pattern- Plasticulture components
  39. 39. National Horticulture Board <ul><li>Back Ended capital investment Subsidy @ not exceeding 20% of project cost with a maximum limit of Rs 25 lakh. Rs 30 lakh for hilly/ tribal areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High density plantation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tissue culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poly house, Greenhouse, net house </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rain-fed production thru’ mulch, drip irrigation, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sprinkler irrigation, water harvesting structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nursery management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organic farming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of plastics in Horticulture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plastic crates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold storages </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Role of NCPAH in Promoting Plasticulture
  41. 41. Mandate of NCPAH <ul><li>Prepare plans and recommend policy measures for accelerated adoption of plasticulture applications. </li></ul><ul><li>Assisting MoA in Implementation of Micro Irrigation Scheme & plasticulture Components under National Hoprticulture Mission(NHM) </li></ul><ul><li>Organise research and development in the area of Plasticulture. </li></ul><ul><li>Assist in prescribing quality standards for plastics used in agriculture sector. </li></ul><ul><li>Supervise and monitor performance of Precision Farming development Centers (PFDCs). </li></ul><ul><li>Supervise and monitor development of plasticulture in the country. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Precision Farming Development Centers (PFDCs) Solan Lucknow Bhubaneswar Kharagpur Banglore Hyderabad Delhi Pantnagar Hissar Bikaner Navasari Rahuri Tavanur Raipur Coimbatore Jorhat Samastipur PFDCs Ludhiana Imphal Bhopal Ranchi Leh New PFDCs
  43. 43. <ul><li>Technology Development </li></ul><ul><li>Solution to operational problems </li></ul><ul><li>Development of package of practices </li></ul><ul><li>Assisting state government in identifying suitable plots/ crops for Technology Demonstration. </li></ul><ul><li>Training and awareness programmes for farmers, officials, entrepreneurs </li></ul><ul><li>Technical advise/ consultancy to the state government in promoting precision farming techniques as well as Micro Irrigation </li></ul>Mandate of PFDCs
  44. 44. Path Forward <ul><li>Integration of Canal Irrigation with Micro Irrigation. </li></ul><ul><li>Integration of Micro Irrigation with NHM applications </li></ul><ul><li>Policy should be water oriented. </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate financial assistance for technology adoption. </li></ul><ul><li>Priority electric connections </li></ul><ul><li>Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) on APMIP/ GGRC pattern. </li></ul><ul><li>Availability of soft term loan </li></ul><ul><li>Plasticulture to be included in SAUs curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Organizing extension & awareness programmes for various stake holders. </li></ul><ul><li>Publicity through media </li></ul>
  45. 45. Thank You