Iirs- Opensources software solutions and Data services for Domain

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Opensources software solutions and Data services for Domain – Dr Harish Karnatak, NRSC, Hydrabad

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Iirs- Opensources software solutions and Data services for Domain

  1. 1. Open Source Software Solutions and Data Services for GI Domain Dr. Harish Karnatak National Remote Sensing Centre, Hyderabad Harish_k@nrsc.gov.in
  2. 2. Outline of the presentation • Technological Issues. • Definition and background of open source GIS. • Important International organizations. • Why open source GIS? Who is using open source GIS? • List of various open source GIS tools. • Practical utilizations. • Various components of GIS and role of open source GIS tools? – Quantum GIS – GRASS – OSSIM – PostGreSQL+PostGIS – GDAL/OGR – Emerging GIS Servers – Open Layer – MapServer – GeoServer • Free and Open data Sources. • Case Study‐ Bhoosampada. Study‐ Bhoosampada. • Conclusions.Training Programme on “Remote Sensing: An Overview for Decision Makers”- IIRS Dehradun- June 2010- harish_k@nrsc.gov.in
  3. 3. Enabling Technologies Data [ [Process] Information ] [ [Model] ] DSS/SDSS [ [Knowledge Discovery ( ) ] Expert System g y (AI) p y Faster Hardware Open source solutions l i Distributed Computing Mobile/Wireless GIS Services Oriented Architecture Pervasive Computing Virtual reality‐3D modeling reality‐ Large d t b L database h dli handling Modeling‐ Modeling‐ DSS/SDSS Knowledge Discover –ES Capacity In 10 Years • 100x Computing • 1000x Storage • 5000x Networks Terabyte/second data communicationsTraining Programme on “Remote Sensing: An Overview for Decision Makers”- IIRS Dehradun- June 2010- harish_k@nrsc.gov.in
  4. 4. What is open source? Open source software is software where the source code is made available under a license that allows the modification, and re-distribution of the software at will. re- will. The distribution terms of open-source software must comply with the following open- p py g criteria: criteria: Free redistribution; redistribution; Source code; code; Derived works; works; Integrity of the authors source code; code; No discrimination against persons or groups; groups; No discrimination against fields of endeavor; endeavor; Distribution of license; license; License must not be specific to a product; product; License must not restrict other software; software; License must be technology-neutral. technology-neutral.Training Programme on “Remote Sensing: An Overview for Decision Makers”- IIRS Dehradun- June 2010- harish_k@nrsc.gov.in
  5. 5. Open source GIS- A Collaborative Efforts GIS- Community MapBuilder OSSIM initial revision GEOS initial revision Quantum GIS initial revision GRASS GIS for window OS PostGIS started OpenLayers PROJ4 library- Development started JTS Topology Suite Community project was initiated MapBuilder Geographical Resources Analysis Support GDAL/OGR MapBender System (GRASS) Atlantis development Scientific Map Overlay and Statistical System UMN MapServer MapGuide launched (MOSS) project Open Source OpenEV project 1980 1990 1995 2000 2005 Moving toward Client/Server SystemTraining Programme on “Remote Sensing: An Overview for Decision Makers”- IIRS Dehradun- June 2010- harish_k@nrsc.gov.in
  6. 6. Open source GIS- Groups & Organizations GIS- • 1992: "Open GRASS Foundation" (OGF) • 1994: OGF was re-structured as the Open Geospatial Consortium p p (OGC) • 2006: Open Source Geospatial Foundation (OSGeo) – established whose mission is to support and promote the collaborative development of open geospatial technologies, data and educational material. The Open Source Geospatial Foundation, abbreviated as"OSGeo" ,is an independent ,non profit organization established to support growing g g g requirements of the open source geospatial community. The foundation will serve as an organizing body, a public technology commons, a development g g y p gy p community manager, and event sponsor.Training Programme on “Remote Sensing: An Overview for Decision Makers”- IIRS Dehradun- June 2010- harish_k@nrsc.gov.in
  7. 7. Why Open source GIS ? Advantages FOSS4G: • Cost effective Free and Open Source • Flexibility Software for Geospatial • Editable • Full control of developer OSGEO: • Open to all…. The Open Source Geospatial Foundation Best way to create geo-spatial enterprise at grassroots level. Very effective to enhance the range and application of geo-spatial data… All of the products well talk about today are both free and open-sourceTraining Programme on “Remote Sensing: An Overview for Decision Makers”- IIRS Dehradun- June 2010- harish_k@nrsc.gov.in
  8. 8. Why Open source GIS ? Few facts Marketable skills In this ever‐changing job market it is a huge benefit to be able to bring a ever‐ total GIS package to the table Supported by huge development & support community Community is very passionate about helping each other but and continually improving software Low start‐up costs start‐ It is now possible to install a complete GIS stack without paying anything ‐ LEGALLY Security Arguably more secure than proprietary software; software; Backed by large open minded development community; community; Bugs are found and fixed quickly by number of experts in open discussionsTraining Programme on “Remote Sensing: An Overview for Decision Makers”- IIRS Dehradun- June 2010- harish_k@nrsc.gov.in
  9. 9. Why Open source GIS ? Few facts Works on all major platforms (Mac, Linux, Windows) Complimentary business model Theres nothing missing Desktop GIS, Spatial Database Storage, Server... p , p g , Thousands of analysis tools (No licensing worries) Community developed add‐ons add‐ Works with existing GIS data Import .shp files, most major formats; .shp Export to most major formats; ArcSDE now connects to PostGIS (OS Database) No file format lock‐in lock‐ Cost effective Potentially save enough money on software to save jobsTraining Programme on “Remote Sensing: An Overview for Decision Makers”- IIRS Dehradun- June 2010- harish_k@nrsc.gov.in
  10. 10. Who uses open source GIS ? A few examples… examples… • ArcGIS 9.2 uses GDAL • United Nations‐ One of the most important and known user; Nations‐ user; • In India: BHOOSAMPDA‐ An Information System of ISRO on LULC of India‐ National level data (~1 India: BHOOSAMPDA‐ India‐ (~1 TB) is shared in public domain with extensive GIS ‐http://applications.nrsc.gov.in:15001/ http://applications.nrsc.gov.in:15001/ • Indian Bio‐resource Information Network (IBIN) developed by NRSC‐IIRS, UAS is in open source Bio‐ IBIN) NRSC‐ GIS; GIS; • UCSB Marine Map http://www.marinemap.org/marinemap/ http://www.marinemap. Many case studies here: http://postgis.refractions.net/documentation/casestudies/ here: http://postgis.refractions. More case studies: http://wiki.osgeo.org/wiki/Case_Studies studies: http://wiki.osgeo. Big projects gp j like Linux, Apache, Mozilla Firefox and OpenOffice are supported by Fortune 500 companies like IBM and Sun and in GIS OSGeo is supported by Autodesk. Autodesk.Training Programme on “Remote Sensing: An Overview for Decision Makers”- IIRS Dehradun- June 2010- harish_k@nrsc.gov.in
  11. 11. Open source Geospatial tool list Desktop Applications – GRASS GIS: is a Software for performing spatial analysis. It consists of more than GIS: analysis. 350 modules for processing vector (2D/3D), D/3 raster and voxel data. data. http://grass.osgeo. http://grass.osgeo.org/ – OSSIM: Open Source Software Image Map (OSSIM) is a high performance engine for OSSIM: remote sensing, sensing image processing, processing geographical information systems and photogrammetry. http://www.ossim.org/OSSIM/OSSIMHome. photogrammetry. http://www.ossim.org/OSSIM/OSSIMHome.html – Quantum GIS: is a user friendly Open Source Geographic Information System (GIS) GIS: that runs on GNU/Linux, Unix, Mac OSX, and Windows. http://www.qgis.org/ Windows. http://www.qgis. – gvSIG: is a desktop tool designed to manage geographic information gvSIG:Training Programme on “Remote Sensing: An Overview for Decision Makers”- IIRS Dehradun- June 2010- harish_k@nrsc.gov.in
  12. 12. Open source Geospatial tools Web Mapping – deegree: Supplies the building blocks of a Spatial Data Infrastructure, while deegree: implementing the standards of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and ISO/TC p g p p ( ) 211. 211. – Mapbender: Is the tip of the iceberg, a meta layer of software providing access to the Mapbender: OSGeo SDI stack. stack. – MapBuilder: is a powerful, standards compliant geographic mapping client that runs MapBuilder: in a web browser – MapGuide Open Source: MapGuide Open Source is a web-based platform that Source: web- enables users to quickly develop and deploy web mapping applications and geospatial web services. services. – MapServer: MapServer is an open source development environment for building MapServer: spatially- spatially-enabled web mapping applications and services. services. – OpenLayers: OpenLayers makes it easy to put a dynamic map in any web page. It OpenLayers: page. can di l map til and markers l d d f display tiles d k loaded from any source. htt :// source. http //openlayers.org/ http://openlayers.org/ l – GeoServer- GeoServer- Server for Online Publishing/ Data Sharing http://geoserver. http://geoserver.org/display/GEOS/Welcome Continue…Training Programme on “Remote Sensing: An Overview for Decision Makers”- IIRS Dehradun- June 2010- harish_k@nrsc.gov.in
  13. 13. Open source Geospatial tool list Geospatial Lib i G ti l Libraries FDO: FDO: FDO Data Access Technology is an API for manipulating, defining and analyzing geospatial information regardless of where it is stored. stored. GDAL/OGR: GDAL/OGR: Geospatial Data Abstraction Library (GDAL/OGR) is a cross platform C++ translator library for raster and vector geospatial data formats- http://www.gdal.org/ formats- http://www.gdal. GEOS: GEOS: GEOS (Geometry Engine - Open Source) is a C++ port of the Java Topology ( y g p ) p p gy Suite (JTS). (JTS). GeoTools: GeoTools: GeoTools is an open source Java GIS toolkit providing implementations of many Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) specifications as they are developed. y ( ) y developed. MetaCRS: MetaCRS: MetaCRS is a project encompassing several projections, and coordinate system related technologies. technologies. Enterprised Databases- PostgreSQL/ PostGIS - Spatial Database-http://www.postgresql.org/ Databases- PostgreSQL/ Database-http://www.postgresql.org/ and POST GIS http://postgis.refractions.net/ http://postgis.refractions.net/ Metadata Catalog GeoNetwork: GeoNetwork: GeoNetwork opensource is a catalog application to manage spatially referenced resources. It provides powerful metadata editing and search functions as well resources. as an embedded interactive web map viewer. viewer.Training Programme on “Remote Sensing: An Overview for Decision Makers”- IIRS Dehradun- June 2010- harish_k@nrsc.gov.in
  14. 14. Open Source S/W Licensing Issues S/W • The Th GPL allows anyone t use th program and modify it b t prevents ll to the d dif it, but t code from becoming proprietary once distributed and it also forbids proprietary programs from “linking” to it. • The MIT and BSD-new licenses let anyone do almost anything with the code except sue the authors. One minor complication: there are actually two “BSD” licenses, sometimes called “BSD-old” and “BSD-new”; new programs should use BSD-new instead of BSD-old. • The LGPL is a compromise between the GPL and the MIT/BSD-new approaches, and was originally i t d d f code lib i h d i i ll intended for d libraries. Lik th GPL Like the GPL, LGPL-licensed software cannot be changed and made proprietary, but the LGPL does permit proprietary programs to link to the library, like the MIT/BSD-new licenses. • Note that all of these licenses (the GPL, MIT, BSD-new, and LGPL) permit the commercial sale and the commercial use of the software, and many such programs as sold and used that way. See Perens’ paper for more information comparing these licenses.Training Programme on “Remote Sensing: An Overview for Decision Makers”- IIRS Dehradun- June 2010- harish_k@nrsc.gov.in
  15. 15. Practical utilizations…Training Programme on “Remote Sensing: An Overview for Decision Makers”- IIRS Dehradun- June 2010- harish_k@nrsc.gov.in
  16. 16. GIS Activities in Problem Solving EnvironmentEmpowering Human Take to Activities Action Plan Complex Data Modeling Analyze Interactive Mapping Integration Measure Observe Visualization Vi li ti Modeling . . . Application of this science is multi-disciplinary
  17. 17. Major Components of GIS and Role of open source s/w Data Creations Vector, Raster & attribute Data organizations & Management Complete Data query, processing, GIS analysis and modeling Solutions Data presentations and visualizations is ali ations OpenLayers Data sharing and g disseminations
  18. 18. Quantum GIS (QGIS) • Desktop application – very user friendly; • Can work directly with many formats like .shp file, WMS, .tiff etc. • Work in any Platform – Windows, Mac, Linux; • FREELY available for use and re-distributions; ; • Plugins available (Similar to Firefox add-ons); • Allow spatial analysis, 3 D analysis statistical analysis analysis 3-D analysis, analysis... • User interface for GRASS tools; • OGR interface allows use of TONS of formats; • PostGIS interface for enterprise GIS; • MapServer export. www.qgis.orgTraining Programme on “Remote Sensing: An Overview for Decision Makers”- IIRS Dehradun- June 2010- harish_k@nrsc.gov.in
  19. 19. GRASS http://grass.osgeo.org/ Geographic Resources Analysis Support System Commonly referred to as GRASS, this is a Geographic Information System (GIS) used for geospatial data management and analysis, image processing, graphics/maps production, spatial modeling and visualization modeling, visualization. GRASS is currently used in academic and commercial settings around the world, as well as by many governmental agencies and environmental consulting companies. GRASS is an official project of the Open Source Geospatial Foundation. • Geospatial data management • Geo-spatial analysis • Image processing • Graphics/ maps production • S i l modeling Spatial d li • Visualization • Tons of tools + functions = Very complex analysis • Now theres a simple user interface through QGISTraining Programme on “Remote Sensing: An Overview for Decision Makers”- IIRS Dehradun- June 2010- harish_k@nrsc.gov.in
  20. 20. OSSIM Open Source Software Image Map • C++ software library that provides advanced remote sensing, image C so t a e b a y t at p o des ad a ced e ote se s g, age processing, and geo-spatial functionality; • Includes orthorectification, precision terrain correction, rigorous sensor models, very large mosaics, and cross sensor fusions, a wide range of map projections and datums, and a large range of commercial and government data formats; g g g • OSSIM Planet - an accurate 3D global geo-spatial viewer that is built on top of OSSIM;Training Programme on “Remote Sensing: An Overview for Decision Makers”- IIRS Dehradun- June 2010- harish_k@nrsc.gov.in
  21. 21. PostgreSQL + PostGIS • PostgreSQL is a powerful, open source object‐relational database system‐ A true spatial database; • Conforms to Open Geospatial Consortium standards; • The most kno n commercial GIS gate a i e ArcSDE can connect to it known gateway i.e. it; • Secure storage for both spatial and non spatial data; • Column level permissions granularity ; • PostGIS " "spatially enables" the PostgreSQL server, allowing it to be used as a " backend spatial database for (GIS), much like ESRIs SDE .Training Programme on “Remote Sensing: An Overview for Decision Makers”- IIRS Dehradun- June 2010- harish_k@nrsc.gov.in
  22. 22. GDAL, OGR • GDAL is a translator library for raster geospatial data formats...I • I also comes with a variety of useful It l ih i f f l commandline utilities for data translation and processing. The OGR Simple Features Library is a C++ open source library (and commandline tools) providing read (and sometimes write) access to a variety of vector file formats including ESRI Shapefiles, S‐57, SDTS, PostGIS, Oracle Spatial, Spatial and Mapinfo mid/mif and TAB formats.Training Programme on “Remote Sensing: An Overview for Decision Makers”- IIRS Dehradun- June 2010- harish_k@nrsc.gov.in
  23. 23. Full GIS Servers are Emerging using open source Solutions Providing Centralized GIS Services Standard Web Services • Standards-Based Standards Based Open • Cross-Platform Platform • IT Focused GIS Server Mapping - Data Geoprocessing Catalog EditingVisualization Services Services Services Geo- Geo-database XML Standards Distributed Computing Centralized & Distributed GIS Development and Processing
  24. 24. OpenLayers http://openlayers.org/ http://openlayers org/ OpenLayers makes it easy to put a dynamic map in any web page. It can display map tiles and markers loaded from any source… OpenLayers is a pure JavaScript library for displaying map data in most modern web browsers, with no server-side dependencies. OpenLayers implements a (still-developing) JavaScript API for building rich web-based geographic applications, similar to the Google Maps and MSN Virtual Earth APIs, with one important diff i t t difference -- O OpenLayers i F L is Free S ft Software, d developed f and b th O l d for d by the Open S Source software community. • J JavaScript Lib S i Library, i l di API including API; • Similar to Google Maps API; • Makes building dynamic mapping webpages VERY easy; • Provides the tools needed to easily add a map to a webpage; • Allows overlaying your own data; • Can display map tiles and markers loaded from any source .Training Programme on “Remote Sensing: An Overview for Decision Makers”- IIRS Dehradun- June 2010- harish_k@nrsc.gov.in
  25. 25. MapServer http://mapserver.org/ http://mapserver org/ MapServer is an Open Source platform for publishing spatial data and interactive mapping applications to the web. Originally developed in the mid-1990’s at the University of Minnesota, and runs on all major platforms (Windows Linux Mac OS X) (Windows, Linux, X). • On-the-fly projection (w/Proj.4) • Feature annotation including scaling, rotation, outlines and drop shadows • TrueType labels and symbols (w/FreeType) • Scale dependent display and query • Query by point, area or feature across multiple layers • Quad-tree spatial indexing for shapefiles • Support for tiled datasets (raster or vector) • OpenGIS specification support for WMS, Context and WFS (partial) • Programmatic access to underlying C API- MapScript (available for Perl, Python, Tk/Tcl, PHP and Java) • 24-bit output support, including GDAL-based output (e.g. GeoTIFF) … and many moreTraining Programme on “Remote Sensing: An Overview for Decision Makers”- IIRS Dehradun- June 2010- harish_k@nrsc.gov.in
  26. 26. GeoServer http://geoserver.org/display/GEOS/Welcome http://geoserver org/display/GEOS/Welcome GeoServer is an open source software server written in Java that allows users to share and edit geospatial data. Designed for interoperability, it publishes data from any major spatial data source using open standards standards… GeoServer is the reference implementation of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Feature Service (WFS) and Web Coverage Service (WCS) standards, as well as a high performance certified compliant Web Map Service (WMS). GeoServer forms a core component of the Geospatial Web. • Outputs: WMS, WFS, KML, GeoJSON GeoRSS more WMS WFS KML GeoJSON, GeoRSS, more.. • Share and edit geospatial data • Open standards allow publishing from any major spatial data source including: shapefiles, SQL Server, PostGIS, DB2, Oracle, WFS, TIFF Images, MySQL; • Integrates with existing APIs (Google, yahoo, etc.) • Connects to ArcGIS Server‐ WMS can be easily added into existing ArcMap .mxd s Server mxdsTraining Programme on “Remote Sensing: An Overview for Decision Makers”- IIRS Dehradun- June 2010- harish_k@nrsc.gov.in
  27. 27. Free and Open D F dO Data S SourcesTraining Programme on “Remote Sensing: An Overview for Decision Makers”- IIRS Dehradun- June 2010- harish_k@nrsc.gov.in
  28. 28. Free and Open Data Sources• Raster Data • LANDSAT‐TM‐ Landsat Thematic Mapper Data (TM). A Landsat‐4 or ‐5 TM scene LANDSAT‐TM‐ (TM). Landsat‐ has an instantaneous field of view (IFOV) of 30 meters by 30 meters (900 square ( ) y q meters) in bands 1 through 5 and band 7, and an IFOV of 120 meters by 120 meters (14,400 square meters) on the ground in band 6. 14, http://landsat.gsfc.nasa. http://landsat.gsfc.nasa.gov/• Vector Data • DCW‐ Digital chart of World. The original data for DCW were developed by the DCW‐ World. Defence Mapping Agency and are available through the National Imagery and Mapping Agency. It is now called "Vector Map Level 0". The latest edition (#03) Agency. (#03) was produced in 1998 and is thus more current than those data available here. here. However these data are not available in ARC/INFO format. They are in Vector format. Product Format, and can be viewed with VPVIEWER. VPVIEWER. http://www.maproom.psu. http://www.maproom.psu.edu/dcw/ • OpenStreet Map‐ is a free editable map of the whole world. It is made by people Map‐ world. like you. OpenStreetMap allows you to view, edit and use geographical data in a you. collaborative way from anywhere on Earth. http://www.openstreetmap.org/ Earth. http://www.openstreetmap.
  29. 29. Free and Open Data Sources• Elevations Data • SRTM‐The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) is an international research SRTM‐ effort. effort. The elevation models are arranged into tiles, each covering one degree of g , g g latitude and one degree of longitude, named according to their south western corners. corners. It follows that "n45e006" stretches from 45°N 6°E to 46°N 7°E and "n45e006" 45° 46° "s45w006" "s45w006" from 45°S 6°W to 44°S 5°W. The resolution of the cells of the source 45° 44° data is d t i one arc second, b t 1" ( d but (approx. 30 meter) d t h (approx. meter) data have only b t l been released over l d United States territory; for the rest of the world, only three‐arc‐second (approx. 90‐ territory; three‐arc‐ approx. 90‐ meter) data are available.[3] Each one arc second tile has 3,601 rows, each meter) available. consisting of 3,601 16 bit bigendian cells. The dimensions of the three‐arc‐second cells. three‐arc‐ tiles are 1201 x 1201.‐ http://www2.jpl.nasa..gov/srtm/ . For data‐ http://srtm.csi..cgiar..org/ 1201. http://www2 jpl.nasa data‐ http://srtm.csi cgiar • ASTER‐ On 29 June 2009, the Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) was released ASTER‐ 2009, to the public. A joint operation between NASA and Japans Ministry of Economy, public. Trade and Industry (METI). It was created by compiling 1.3 million VNIR images (METI). taken by ASTER using single‐pass stereoscopic correlation techniques, with terrain single‐ elevation measurements taken globally at 30 meter. meter. http://asterweb.jpl.nasa.gov/content/03_data/01_Data_Products/release_DEM_relative.htm h // bj l / /03 d /01 d / l l i h
  30. 30. Free and Open Data Sources• Web Services • BHUVAN‐ 3D geo‐visualizations over Indian region. http://bhuvan.nrsc.gov.in BHUVAN‐ geo‐ region. • G Google M l Maps, Y h M Yahoo Maps, Vi t l E th‐ Gl b l M services on raster as well Virtual Earth Global Map Earth‐ i t ll vector maps. • Bhoosampada‐ Web Map services of LULC of India. Bhoosampada‐ http://applications.nrsc.gov.in:15001 http://applications.nrsc.gov.in:15001/ htt // li ti i 15001/ • Open Street Maps‐ Free web map services for vector data generated in Maps‐ celebrating mapping project. project.• Open API • Google API‐ Free customizable web map API for client applications. API‐ • Yahoo Maps API‐ Free customizable web map API for client applications. API‐• Collaborative Mapping • Open Street Maps
  31. 31. Application of Open Source GIS- GIS- A Case Study
  32. 32. BHOOSAMPADA: AC Case study using open source GIS f web mapping t d i for b i http://applications.nrsc.gov.in:15001/ Technology used Components Type Source Operating System Software Microsoft Windows 2003 Map server p Software UMN Mapserver p Web server Software Apache Data server Software File based , Postgre SQL Spatial Database E i S ti l D t b Engine Software S ft Post P t GIS Programming Language Software PHPTraining Programme on “Remote Sensing: An Overview for Decision Makers”- IIRS Dehradun- June 2010- harish_k@nrsc.gov.in
  33. 33. BHOOSAMPADA Web enabled Land use/ Land cover Information System f y BHOOSAMPADA provides interactive GIS environment in internet domain to its user for LULC data visualization, querying and analysis. analysis. The temporal data on LULC-250K, Water bodies and Snow LULC-250K, cover are available with d l bl h dynamic l k linkage of socioeconomic d . f data. data BHOOSAMPADA is developed as an in-house S/W development in- efforts of NRSC using open source GIS solutions. solutions.Training Programme on “Remote Sensing: An Overview for Decision Makers”- IIRS Dehradun- June 2010- harish_k@nrsc.gov.in
  34. 34. In Conclusion • In geo-spatial domain the use of open source tool and data is quite mature and geo- widely adopted in world wide for various applications including under commercial model. model. • The Awareness and well documentation is only bottleneck in popularizations and best utilizations of these tools and techniques. techniques. q • Please come forward to contribute in this movement for betterment of the society. society. • For furhter details please refer to following important white papers: papers: – The OpenGeo Architecture’ http://opengeo.org/publications/opengeo-architecture/ http://opengeo.org/publications/opengeo- – open source as a di disruptive t h l ti technology’ WARNING: 25MB htt :// 3.cleverelephant.ca/2008- ’ WARNING: 25MB http //s cleverelephant.ca/2008 http://s3 l l h t /2008- kansas-keynote. kansas-keynote.pdf – Geospatial, An Open Source Microcosm’ http://opengeo.org/publications/opensource-as-vertical/ http://opengeo.org/publications/opensource-as-Training Programme on “Remote Sensing: An Overview for Decision Makers”- IIRS Dehradun- June 2010- harish_k@nrsc.gov.in
  35. 35. For any further Query Please contact me at: harish_k@nrsc.gov.in harish k@nrsc gov inTraining Programme on “Remote Sensing: An Overview for Decision Makers”- IIRS Dehradun- June 2010- harish_k@nrsc.gov.in

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