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Iirs lecturers & gis for regional planning
 

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    Iirs lecturers & gis for regional planning Iirs lecturers & gis for regional planning Document Transcript

    • REMOTE SENSING AND GIS FOR REGIONAL PLANNING1.0 INTRODUCTIONRegional planning is a sub-national planning in which economic and social activitiesare coordinated in space. In fact, it acts as a link between local planning and nationalplanning. The concept of regional planning in India has been in practice since thebeginning of the planning era. However, the implementation of regional plans hasmainly remained at policy formulation level for development except in case ofregional plans for city regions like Delhi, Mumbai, Calcutta, etc., that have becomeoperational. In a multi-tiered planning process, district at the micro level is a viableunit of planning in which both urban and rural components are taken care of in anintegrated manner. In fact, district planning is an area based sub-state regionalplanning within the framework of national/state plans in which detailed programmesof development, suiting the needs of the district with physical and financialimplications are identified.Further, increasing emphasis is being laid on scientific management of naturalresources in a manner that ensures its optimal utilization keeping in viewconservation, environmental and socio -economic needs at district/regional level. It isnecessary to develop land use systems that are both economically viable in the short-run and also environmentally friendly in the long run. Besides, the need for increasingfood production to feed the increasing population, the urgency of meeting fuel, fodderand timber cannot be under estimated. High population growth put heavy demands onnatural resources and the production system. There is land, which is not suitable forcultivation, brought under cultivation resulting in further degradation.During recent years few attempts have been made for assessment and management ofnatural resources by integrated approach using soil, land, water and socio-economicconditions of the area by the multi-disciplinary research and extension teams. A teamof specialists aiming at a task to be transacted into project work is conductingintegrated surveys. The integration of resource data gathered by various specialists inthe areas of geology, geomorphology, soil, forests, wastelands, land use, groundwater,etc. can lead to identification of homogeneous land units having unique combinationsof characteristics and hence specific suitability in terms of scientific land utilization toincrease the productivity without resulting in degradation of the environment andresources.As a consequence of this, a new awareness about the man-environment relationshipshas come into existence. On the other hand, one is able to realize that in planningprograms at various levels, especially in developing countries, more emphasis is nowlaid on ‘Sustainable Resource Development Planning’ with integrated multi-disciplinary approach at regional scale. In order to effect priority to plan integratedsustainable and effective utilization of natural resources, watershed approachcompared to district / region has assumed special significance in recent years forformulation of regional plans. Watershed is a natural entity having homogeneity ingeomorphic process. Thus, regional planning on watershed basis needs detail 229
    • information on land and water resources as well as socio -economic conditionsprevailing in the region.2.0 NEED FOR STUDY OF RESOURCES AT REGIONAL LEVELAerial variations are very common in the distribution of resources, their development,and consumption pattern. This is being further intensified by the spatial variation inthe utilization of resources found both at macro as well micro levels. Therefore, it isessential for planners to perceive the spatial pattern of resource distribution,utilization and conservation to have a rational approach on res ource planning andappraisal. No doubt, the ultimate aim of such study is to know about the nature andcauses of poverty, backwardness or under-development and to formulate policyguidelines along which development might logically be pursued. In the process ofanalysis, the foremost aim is to identify the practical problems that arise from theexistence in a specific area setting of a unique combination of natural and humanresources. All these arguments clearly indicate the urgent need for more knowledgeabout the natural resources in developing countries. Without such information alldevelopment schemes can be undertaken only with a risk of failure. It is a fact thatresources are considered important factor in planning and decision-making.3.0 DATA NEEDS FOR REGIONAL PLANNINGFor effective planning and development exercises at regional level, variety of data onphysical, demography, economic and social aspects are required and integrated.Keeping in view of the scope and content of plan and from overall development needsof the region, data needs for the regional planning can broadly be grouped intofollowing data sets:A) Resource data in terms of area, land use, cropping area, water bodies & drainage, soil, mineral resources, etc.,B) Demographic data relating to population, sex ratio, age structure, urban & rural population, scheduled castes & scheduled tribe population, occupational structure, migration, etc.,C) Agro-economic data comprising information about cropped & irrigated area, agricultural production, land holdings, livestock population, etc.,D) Socio-economic activities relating to industrial, fishing activities, tourism development as well as beneficiary of various schemes and programmes of development,E) Infrastructure data relating to availability and level of various facilities, utilities & services such as education, health, power, transport network, drinking water supply, drainage, etc.The above information for each sector may be categorized into 3 types as follows:i) Information related to the present state of development / resources for each sector, that would be derived as resource availability themes – indicators of developmentii) Information related to projected needs of the plan periodiii) Information related to the ‘gaps’ in each sector 230
    • Based on these three aspects, the plan for future development can be decided upon inthe overall context of the national/state/regional plan guidelines.4.0 BASIC SPATIAL UNIT FOR REGIONAL PLANNINGConventionally, the regional planning process at various levels of planning employedstandard areal/spatial units mainly due to convenience of data availability and tofacilitate computation and management of data for inference. The planning unit i.e.the basic spatial unit (BSU) to be selected at various levels in regional planningexercise is shown below. The total canvas of the sectoral approach for the regionalplanning involves many sectors and is a major continuous activity. The constraints ofdata availability have also been a major aspect in the project formulation.LEVEL OF PLANNING REGION BASIC SPATIALPLANNING UNITMacro National/Sub-National State/DistrictMeso State/Intra-State/Region District/Taluk/BlockMicro District/Taluk/Block/Waters Panchayat/Village hed5.0 INTEGRATION OF VILLAGE BOUNDARIESOne of the important aspects of integrated regional and area-level planning fordistricts/regions/watershed is the combined analysis of the tabular socio-economicdata with the thematic natural resources data. These two discrete datasets havedifferent characteristics. The socio-economic and developmental data is mainlycollected by the Census, available on a village basis. This dataset is arranged on avillage-taluk-district hierarchy and is mainly tabular. As against this, the thematic dataon natural resources is based on a spatial framework that follows the SOItopographical mapping system. An integrated planning exercise would requireintegrating these data sets to derive meaningful plan inputs. The integration would beto:a) Merge the attributes of the village and the natural resources for generating plan scenariosb) Spatial representation of the non-spatial tabular attributes of the villagec) Generate village/taluk/district level information of natural resources for tabular updation6.0 SPATIAL DATA ELEMENTSIn order to obtain the information sets, different types of input data sets have beenidentified. These input data would be mainly thematic maps. The primary elements ofthe spatial thematic database are given below:a) Administrative map showing the boundaries of district/taluk/village for the study area 231
    • b) Drainage Map showing details of drainagec) Transport Network map showing the details of railways, road/highway, etc.d) Slope mape) Land use / land cover Mapf) Soil Mapg) Ground water potential maph) Hydrogeomorphologica l map7.0 ROLE OF REMOTE SENSING AND GIS FOR INTEGRATED REGIONAL PLANNINGRemote sensing and GIS as tools have got very significant role to play in theintegrated regional planning. Remote sensing data products both aerial photos andsatellite imageries give information about different resources depending upon level,extent and accuracy of information required for the region. Having the capability ofgiving repetitive coverage, it is also helpful to record the extent of resources, theirlevels of utiliza tion, environmental impact, etc. Geographical Information System(GIS) has become a versatile tool for mapping these resources and linking oneinformation with others for integrated planning purposes. A common geographicalunit, a common scales provided by GIS and Remote Sensing has necessitated forintegrated planning and development. Remote Sensing and GIS can play importantrole in.i) Identification and mapping and estimation of resourcesii) Conservation development and management of resourcesiii) Monitoring environmental problems due to unscientific exploitation of resourcesiv) Integration of resources for balanced regional development.8.0 CASE STUDY: UPPER BETWA WATERSHED, OBAIDULLAH GANJ BLOCK, RAISEN DISTRICT (M.P)To study the integrated resource planning for regional sustainable development, theupper Betwa watershed in Obaidullahganj block of Raisen district, Madhya Pradesh,India has been selected. The Raisen district is situated in the central part of MadhyaPradesh and falls under central plateau and hill region. The district lies mostly on theplateau and partly in the Narmada valley. The study area lies between 22o 52` to 23o 7`North latitude and between 77o 20` to 77o 47` East longitude covering an area of 68400ha., which is 45% of the total g eographical area of the Obaidullahganj block. Thewatershed forming the upper part of river of Betwa hence it is named as upper Betwawatershed (2G2C7). The northern boundary of the watershed cuts at confluence ofriver Kaliasot near Mandideep town of Oba dullahganj block. The area bounded in theNorthwest by Sehore and Bhopal district, in the south by Sehore, in the east byGoharganj tehsil of Raisen district. The area is well connected by rail and roadtransport. The upper Betwa watershed comprises of 126 villages. Majority of thepopulation is engaged in agriculture sector. The land holding varies in size. The areais ecologically fragile and prone to unstable productivity levels. Crop production iscarried out in an unbalanced manner that accelerates the run-off, soil erosion andother degradation process causing damage to the natural ecosystem. The watershedapproach aims to optimize the use of land, water and vegetation in an integrated 232
    • manner for curtailing soil erosion, improving water availability and increasingvegetative cover on a sustained basis. A development strategy based on integratedmanagement of land and water for sustainable development in context to resourcemanagement to achieve economic and sustained agricultural production and to meet adiverse requirement of farm household while preserving the resource base.8.1 METHODOLOGYA detail database on natural resources, terrain condition, socio-economic status anddemography is generated to facilitate integrated spatial analysis. Various theme basedaspect maps prepared for the study are drainage, watershed and surface water bodies,hydrogeomorphological, slope, soil, land use/land cover, transport network,settlement location, etc. The sequence of activities adopted for this study is describedin methodology chart (Fig. 1). In the present study, Integrated Land and WaterInformation System version 1.4 (ILWIS) has been used, which is a raster based GISpackage for creation, organization, storage, retrieval, analysis, display, and query andfor making cartographic outputs in the form of maps and generation of statisticaltabular report. 233
    • OBJECTIVES Economic Growth, Basic Needs, Ecological Balance INFORMATION NEEDNATURAL / PHYSICAL CONTEMPORARY SOCIO -ECONOMIC &RESOURCES TECHNOLGY D EMOGRAPHIC DATA• Soil • Agriculture• Geology • Water Management SPATIAL ANALYSIS• Geomorphology • Water Harvesting OF• Groundwater • Groundwater SOCIO -ECONOMIC• Land use/Land cover Exploration DATA• Rainfall & Climate • Animal Husbandary• Drainage • Fisheries • Social Profile• Watershed • Mineral Exploration • Demographic Profile• Slope map • Housing & Construction • Cultural Profile• Transportation Network • Energy & Power Engg. • Economic Status & Settlements • Health & Sanitation THEMATIC MAP INFORMATION PEOPLES/ PROGRAMMES NEEDS REGION IDENTIFICATION INFORMATION OF MULTI- • Socially Backward Areas/People THEMATIC INFORMATION • Economically Backward Areas(Composite Land Development Unit) • Areas lacking basic amenities NATURAL/PHYSICAL RESOURCE BASED DEVELOPMENT PLAN POSSIBILITY RESOURCE REGIONS RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SITE ACTION PLANS IMPLEMENTATION EVALUATION Fig. 1 Methodology Flow Chart 234
    • 8.2 DATA SOURCEThe primary source of data used in the present study includes IRS-1B LISS IIgeocoded data of the year 1994 and Landsat TM data of Path 145-44 for the year1988, Survey of India (SOI) topographical map on 1:50,000 scale and other collateraldata in the form of report.8.3 DATA BASE CREATIONVarious thematic maps were prepared by visual interpretation of the satellite images& after data collected from ground survey. These thematic maps were digitized &converted into digital form using ILWIS 1.41 software. Various attribute data werealso attached to these maps (like village wise census information etc.). ILWIS GISpackage provides a combination of the different parameters of criterion-based analysisby weighted index method and Binary method for change detection between sets oftwo different map attributes. The most significant disadvantage of the system is that itwould not provide symbols for cartographic representation of maps. Maps can bepresentedi) Location map of study area (Fig. 2)j) Drainage Map showing details of drainage (Fig. 3)k) Transport Network map showing the details of railways, road/highway, etc. (Fig. 4)l) Slope map (Fig. 5)m) Land use / land cover Map (Fig. 6 & 7)n) Soil Map (Fig. 8)o) Ground water potential map; (Fig. 9)p) Hydrogeomorphological map. (Fig. 10)Various information generated in the form of thematic maps and during fieldobservation has been integrated in a GIS environment using ILWIS s/w. Followingsectoral development plans are prepared for the region.• Agriculture resource development• Water resource development8.4 AGRICULTURE RESOURCES DEVELOPMENTThe databases generated earlier are used for preparation of integrated resourcedevelopment plan. The objective of this study is to develop an alternative systembased on cropping pattern, which fulfill the aspiration of farmer besides producingenough to feed the burgeon population. The system aims at enhancing theproductivity per unit of land and water without endangering ecological balance. Thefollowing themes were integrated for the above purpose.• Land use/land cover• Hydro-geomorphology• Soil• Drainage density• Groundwater potential• Water resources development 235
    • The thematic factor for measuring agriculture development is mainly dependent uponthe factors, which directly related to agriculture. These factors are termed asindicators for agricultural development. There are number of inter-related parametersconsidered for preparation of agriculture resource development. These indicators aretermed as composite land development unit (CLDU). The method is a compositefunction of its indicators like soil suitability, groundwater potential, existing croppingpattern and proposed water harvesting structure, etc. GIS integration was carried outfor each of the value associated with the type of activity to be taken up on a parcel ofland for sustainable agriculture activity. The integration of these parameters with landuse, groundwater, and soil capability would provide a total picture of the aspectrelated to land development planning based on following criteria:1. Categorization of agriculture development into different gr oup2. Area requiring different conservation measures3. Land having high capability, very good to good groundwater potential mainly in agriculture land4. The land that are not suited for agriculture development and have some limited parameters. The development is based towards arresting the further degradation to get better economic return.8.4.1 AGRICULTURE SENARIOThe agriculture is the main occupation of the people in the region. Due to variabilityin the fertility of soil, irrigation practices, and depth of water table disparities arenoticeable in the cropping pattern. The variations every year largely depend uponrainfall. Net area sown is 28291.16, which is 41.36% of the total geographic area.The gross cropped area is much higher accounting 69.74%. The area under fallow isabout 1.45%. The category wise distribution of agricultural land is present in TableNo.1. The irrigation facility has been greatly developed in NW and NE of thewatershed. Dahod and Ratapani are the two -measure reservoir from where the canal isdistributed. The area around Imaliya Gondi, Norganj, Dhaod, Goharganj and Tamotare well developed in terms of irrigation facility. Taking Rural and Urban area as awhole higher participation rate with respect to cultivation is observed inObaidullahganj, Tamot and nearby Dhaod settlement. These areas are falling in VIthclass having cultivator more than 300 persons (Fig. 11). A large number of villageshave cultivators between less than 50 – 100 persons. However in the case ofagriculture labour Obaidullahganj and Tamot are falling in highest category havinglabourer more than 400 persons. These trends indicates that Obaidullahganj andnearby settlement are the core areas from where the agricultural activity are beinggoverned. The main workers are those who have worked during major part of theyear. An agriculture labour has no risk in the cultivation and he doesn’t have any rightto land on which he works. Nearly 50% of the cropped area is under wheat. The nextmost important crop is soyabean and gram covering 30% and 15% of the cropped arearespectively. Other crops are Til, Tur pulse and paddy. Good fertile soil cover andgood to moderate ground water potential characterize the area. The rainfall is erraticand rainy days are very few res ulting into crops failure and low crop yield. Theagriculture is not economically viable to sustain economically. An integrated farmingsystem based on livestock and appropriate combination on different land holdingsupport a variety of non-farm activities. Such farming system provides food and 236
    • economic security to the rural work force. The following activities are recommendedfor agriculture resource development (Fig. 12):• In-situ soil and moisture conservation• Double cropping with water management• Soil moisture conservation with vegetative barriers• Agro-horticulture• Agro-forestry• Horticulture plantation• Horticulture/Agro-horticulture• Vegetable cultivation• Farm forestry• Plantation for farmbund Table No. 1: CATEGORIWISE DISTRIBUTION OF CROPLAND Sl.no. Category Area in Ha. Percentage to total area CROPLAND (27602.75) (96.13) 1.1 Kharif 3230.75 11.25 1.2 Rabi 4613.50 16.06 1.3 Rabi + Kharif 19416.75 67.65 1.4 Fallow 3415.75 1.19 CROPLAND IN (1109.50) (3.86) FOREST 2.1 Kharif in Forest 443.25 1.54 2.2 Rabi in Forest 587.00 2.00 2.3 Fallow land 79.25 0.27 28712.25 100.00 237
    • 8.5 WATER RESOURCES DEVELOPMENTThe purpose of this study is to generate the site-specific action plan by integratingnatural resource information with other collateral and socio-economic information forwater resources development and soil conservation activities. This action plan wouldindicate the suggestive measures for optimal utilization of present water resources forsustainable development in the watershed. In the present analysis, the followingthematic information were integrated for groundwater prospective zone demarcation:• Hydro-geomorphological map showing different landforms and lineaments influencing groundwater movement and occurrences.• Land use/land cover map (since land use/land cover types will be influenced by the groundwater availability of the region).• Hydrological data obtained from field (like pre -monsoon and post-monsoon water level, fluctuation, yield of the tube well (gph).The problem related to water resources development and conservation activities are:i) Scarcity of water for domestic and irrigation purpose.ii) Degradation of vegetative cover due to biotic presence.iii) Lake of awareness among the farmers regarding availability of water resources, mode of exploitation and adverse effects of over exploitations, etc.iv) The capacity of existing tanks has reduced due to siltation.The ground water potential zone map for the watershed has been made based onlithology, lineament, geomorphology, regional hydrology, and field parameters suchas water table, seasonal fluctuation, etc. The area has been divided into four potentialzones, such as good to very good, good to moderate, moderate to poor and poor.Construction of water harvesting structures such as Nala bunds, check dams, stopdams, trenches/pits, percolation tanks, boulder bund, sub-surface dyke, desiltation oftanks are proposed in action plan to provide water to agricultural field, horticulture,forest plantation and also for drinking water supply. The proposed water harvestingstructures (fig. 13) will lead to:• Increase in soil moisture• To reduce the run-off and soil erosion• Increase in groundwater level• Desiltification of existing tanks would increase the stor age capacity of the tanks.After identification of problem of ground water development in the study area, site-specific action plan should be evolved. The groundwater availability occurs inshallow aquifers and is mostly tapped by open dug wells. The existing dug well canalso be converted to dug cum bore wells to enhance the exploitation of groundwater.The areas suitable for shallow tube well and dug cum bore well have been proposed inthe water resources development map. 238
    • 9.0 CONCLUSIONTo sustain and enhance productivity of land management technique related toconservation and utilization of rainwater and soil resource are most important. It isdesirable to use the land as per its inherent capability to optimize potential withminimum cost and damage. Adaptation of improved practices will reduce the risk oftotal crop failure and to bring greater stability to production. Depending upon the landuse capability class and other resource combination, the land should put under arablecrop, agro forestry, agro-horticulture, farm forestry and horticultural activity. Thefollowing observation we made from the study:a) Present land system and the constraints under which farmer are operating can be diagnosed to improve the existing land use pattern rather than transformation of land use.b) Appropriate soil conservation and management practices play a key roll to maintain over all productivity in a watershed.c) Suitable crop and their varieties matching with rain fall distribution and soil moisture condition could be selected for agro-horticulture practices.d) Bunding of fields is required to improve conservation of surface run-off during rainy season.e) Inter-cropping, mixed cropping and agriculture live stock practice should be adopted to sustain crop production. f) Motivation of people is required to switch over to intensive farming system.g) Specific studies should be taken up to demonstrate the various activities on Govt. lands and later to transfer the knowledge to local farmer.h) Nala bunds, check dams, stop dams and other water harvesting structures should be constructed to stop further soil erosion to conserve soil moisture and to raise the water table of the area.Based on the assessment and integration of resources, action plans for sustainabledevelopment of land and water resources are drawn. District authorities under theguidance of the State Government should undertake implementation of the actionplan. Expert committees can be constituted for the purpose to review the day-to-dayimplementation of action plans.REFERENCES:Katare, K.V., Khare, K.A., Tanwar, B., Bharadwaj, P.S. (1997), Integrated ResourceDevelopment for Sustainable report in Upper Betwa Watershed Obaidullahganj BlockRaisen Distt., Unpublished Report submitted for P.G. Diploma Course in HUSAGDiv., of IIRS.ILWIS 1.41 User mannual, ILWIS Deptt. ITC, The NetherlandsLillesand, T.M. and Kiefar, R.W., 1994. Remote Sensing & image interpretation.John Wiley & Sons, Inc.IMSD – Technical Guidelines 1988, All India Soil & Land use Survey, New Delhi.Manual of Nation wide Land use / Land cover Mapping, 1989, Vol. Part. I, NRSA,Hyderabad. 239
    • MADHYA PRADESH RAIS EN DISTRICT OBAIDULLAH GANJ BLOCK UPPER BETWA WATERSHED (OBAIDULLAH GANJ BLOCK) Fig.2 Location mapDRAINAGE AND SURFACE WATERBODIES MAPUPPER BETWA WATERSHED, OBAIDULLAHGANJ BLOCK, RAISEN DISTRICT N LEGEND RIVER STREAMS WATERBODY 0 8 Fig.3 Kms 240
    • TRANSPORT NETWORK MAPUPPER BETWA WATERSHED, OBAIDULLAHGANJ BLOCK, RAISEN DISTRICT N LEGEND METTALED ROAD UNMETALLED ROAD FOOTPATH RAILWAY LINE 0 8 Kms Fig.4SLOPE MAPUPPER BETWA WATERSHED, OBAIDULLAHGANJ BLOCK, RAISEN DISTRICT LEGEND N <1 1-3 3-5 5-10 10-15 15-35 35-50 0 8 >50 Kms Fig.5 241
    • LANDUSE LANDCOVER MAP (1988)UPPER BETWA WATERSHED, OBAIDULLAHGANJ BLOCK, RAISENDISTRICT N LEGEND TOWN VILLAGE IND. WITH PLANTATION IND. WITHOUT PLANTATION AGRICULTURE DENSE FOREST OPEN/ DEGRADED FOREST SCRUB FOREST FOREST PLANTATION CROP LAND IN FOREST LAND WITH SCRUB LAND WITHOUT SCRUB 0 8 Kms STONY WASTE WATERBODY Fig.6LANDUSE/LANDCOVER MAP (1994)UPPER BETWA WATERSHED, OBAIDULLAHGANJ BLOCK, RAISENDISTRICT LEGEND KHARIF CROP RABI CROP DOUBLE CROP FALLOW LAND N KHARIF IN FOREST RABI IN FOREST DOUBLE CROP IN FOREST FALLOW IN FOREST DENSE FOREST OPEN/ DEGRADED FOREST SCRUB FOREST FOREST PLANTATION LAND WITH SCRUB LAND WITHOUT SCRUB WATERLOGGED LAND STONY WASTE BRICK KILN TANK/RESERVOIR TOWN / CITY 0 8 Kms VILLAGE IND. WITH DENSE PLANTATION Fig.7 IND. WITH SPARSE PLANTATION 242
    • SOIL MAP UPPER BETWA WATERSHED, OBAIDULLAHGANJ BLOCK, RAISEN DISTRICT N LEG END VALLEY FILL TYPIC HAPLUSTERTS FINE VERTIC USTOCHREPTS FINE TYPIC HAPLUSTALFS LOAMY SKELTAL HAPLUSTOLL TYPIC HAPLUSTALFS TYPIC USTOCHREPTS LITHIC USTORTHANTS 0 8 WATER BODY Kms Fig.8GROUND WATER POTENTIAL MAPUPPER BETWA WATERSHED, OBAIDULLAHGANJ BLOCK, RAISEN DISTRICT NLEGEND VERY GOOD TO GOOD GOOD TO MODERATE MODERATE TO POOR POOR WATERBODY GOOD AT LINEAMENT INTERSECTION 0 8 Kms Fig.9 243
    • HYDROGEOMORPHOLOGICAL MAPUPPER BETWA WATERSHED, OBAIDULLAHGANJ BLOCK, RAISENDISTRICT NLEGEND GOOD -GOOD GOOD -MODERATE MODERATE-POOR MODERATE-POOR POOR VERY POOR WATERBODY 0 8 LINEAMENT Kms ESCARPMENT Fig.10 DIP SLOPE VILLAGEWISE DISTRIBUTION OF AGRI. LABOURERS (1991) UPPER BETWA WATERSHED OBAIDULLAHGANJ BLOCK, RAISEN DISTRICT N LEGEND < 50 50-100 100-150 150-200 200-400 0 8 Kms >400 Fig.11 244
    • AGRICULTURE RESOURCE DAVELOPMENT MAPUPPER BETWA WATERSHED, OBAIDULLAHGANJ BLOCK, RAISENDISTRICT LEGEND HORTICULTURE AGROFORESTRY PLANTATION N AGROHORTICULTURE VEGETABLE CULTIVATION FARM FORESTRY PLANTATION ON FARM BUNDS NO ACTION NEEDED WASTELAND FOREST LAND SOIL/MOISTURE CONSR- PRESENT SYSTEM DOUBLE CROP PING WITH WATER MANAGEMENT SOIL/MOISTURE CONSR-VEGETATIVE BARRIER 0 8 Fig.12 KmsWATER RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT MAPUPPER BETWA WATERSHED, OBAIDULLAHGANJ BLOCK, RAISENDISTRICT N LEGEND NALA BUND CHECK DAM BOULDER BUND SUB-SURFACE DYKE STOP DAM PERCOLATION TANK TANKS FOR DESILTIFICATION SUITABLE FOR PITTING 0 8 Kms SUITABLE FOR DUG / BORE WELL SUITABLE FOR SHALLOW TUBE WELL Fig.13 245