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Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
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Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
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Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
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Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
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Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
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Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
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Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
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Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
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Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
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Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
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Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
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Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
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Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
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Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
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Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
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Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
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Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
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Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
Design Aspects of Gates of Dam
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Design Aspects of Gates of Dam

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DESIGN ASPECT OF VARIOUS TYPES OF GATAES - PAPER BY ER. A.P. PANDEY C.D.O. GANDHINAGAR, Gujarat …

DESIGN ASPECT OF VARIOUS TYPES OF GATAES - PAPER BY ER. A.P. PANDEY C.D.O. GANDHINAGAR, Gujarat

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  • please kindly send me this document. hokpanha9@gmail.com
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  • Greetings,
    This is very nice material.
    Please, send me, if possible at : ing.zizic@aol.com
    All the best.
    Milutin
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  • email this to me ON JIGARMECH.SHAH@GMAIL.COM
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  • Please send me this to srksh43@gmail.com
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  • It is quite helpful for an introduction. I prefer a purely technical platform to interact and discuss problems, raise issues in Designing, Fabrication, Erection, Testing and Maintenance>>>>including preventive maintenance as these are important installations and have to be taken care of. TKU! ravi700@gmail.com.
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  • 1. ONE DAY WORKSHOP ON DAM’S GATES ORGANISED BYNARMADA, WATER RESOURCES, WATER SUPPLY & KALPSAR DEPARTMENT GANDHINAGAR SUPPORTED BY WALMI - ANANAD
  • 2. SUB:-DESIGN ASPECT OF VARIOUS TYPES OF GATAES PAPER BY ER. A.P. PANDEY C.D.O. GANDHINAGAR
  • 3. Being vital components of dams, gates are installed on spillway to store water and create reservoir  behind them. They regulate the release of water for various  purposes for which they are  planned. The spillway gates regulate and control the flood discharge., Outlet gates control the release  water for irrigation, penstock gates release water for power generation.
  • 4. Basic requirements to be satisfy by the gates     are as under: (1) Water tightness (2) Can be operated by hoist at specified speed. (3) Alternative operation device in case of power    operated gate. (4) Regulating gate should be held in any partials  operation position to pass required discharge   without cavitations and undue vibration.
  • 5. • The unobstructed operation of the flood  gates of any water project is of utmost  importance.• The choice of the type of gate and its  operating mechanism is critical for that  reason• For low head flood gates of dams, which are  usually quite wide, the conventional choice  includes Vertical Lift, Radial, Automatic or  Needle type gates.
  • 6. • The operation And maintenance of each  type is unique and each type presents  certain advantages and disadvantages.• The primary considerations for the  selection  of the gate type include gate size  requirement, expected flows, efficiency of  discharge and initial cost.
  • 7. There are so many classifications for designating the types of gates. Out of that following three most commonly used.TYPES OF GATES(1) On the bases of design head:(2) On the bases of location and purpose(3) On the basis of their operation and shape.
  • 8. (1) On the bases of design head: • High head – above 30m • Medium head‐ between 15m to 30m • Low head – less than 15m
  • 9. 2  On the bases of location and purpose 1.Crest gates : » Spillway crest gates and » Barrage crest gates 2. Outlet gates : » By pass outlet gates » H.R. Gates » Penstock intake gates » Sluice gates Construction sluices Scouring sluices Under sluice
  • 10. 3 On the basis of their operation and shape.– Radial gate/ Taintor gate– Vertical lift gates – Automatically lifting gates – counter wt. operated – Float operated – Counter wt. and flood operated – Flap shutters – Automatic tilting gates/ Godbole gates
  • 11. Most common type of gate used for hydraulic    structure i.e. vertical lift gates. 1. Stoney gates 2. Cater piller gates 3. Fixed wheel gates 4. Sliding gates Vertical lift gates provide with wheels on sides to reduce the friction are known as fixed wheel gates and without wheel is known as sliding gate.
  • 12. AUTOMATIC TILTING GATE (GODBOLE GATE)
  • 13. • In spillway with high Tail water, Vertical Lift Gates are  generally superior to Radial Gates . Trunnion assembly  under water is not desirable because of the possibility  of debris impinging upon it and causing damage .• Bigger gates require bigger wheels or rollers which in  turn necessiate bigger gate groove. Bigger groove  create turbulent flow by  the side of the piers and also  there is a tendency for the floating debris or trees to  lodge in these gate grooves. This will prevent smooth  operation of gates during flood.• Higher gates are also necessiate in increased height of  piers.
  • 14. • The radial shape provides efficient transfer of  hydrostatic loads through the trunnion.• A lower hoist capacity is required.• Radial gates have a relatively fast operating speed  and can be operated efficiently.• Side seals are used, so gate slots are not required.  This reduces problems associated with cavitations,  debris collection, and buildup of ice.• Radial gate geometry provides favorable hydraulic  discharge characteristics.
  • 15. Disadvantages[ 1]To accommodate location of the trunnion, the  pier and foundation will likely be longer in the  downstream .Larger piers increase cost due to  more required concrete and will usually result  in a less favorable seismic resistance due to  greater height and mass.(2) End frame members may encroach on water  passage. This is more critical with inclined end  frames.(3) Long strut arms are often necessary where  flood levels are high to allow the open gate to  clear the water surface profile.
  • 16. Vertical Gates Involves  design of • Skin plate• Vertical And Horizontal Stiffeners And Main girder• Wheels• Seals And Accessories• Guide Rollers• Wheel track And Track base• Sill beam• anchorages
  • 17. SKIN PLATET‐VERTICALS STIFFNERS BRACING
  • 18. Skin plate and Stiffeners • Skin plate and Stiffeners  shall be designed  together in composite manner• It shall be designed  in bending across the  stiffeners or Horizontal girders as  applicable. To take care of corrosion the  actual thickness of skin plate shall be  provided at least 1.5 mm. more than the  theoretical thickness computed.• The stiffeners may be of a built up section or  of standard rolled  section. 
  • 19. Horizontal/Vertical Stiffeners and Main Girder • The Horizontal and Vertical Stiffeners Shall be  designed as simply supported or continuous  beam depending upon framing adopted for  gate.• The spacing between main horizontal girders shall be preferably such that all the girders carry almost equal load.• Maximum deflection of gate under normal condition of loading shall be limited to 1/800 of the span.
  • 20. T‐ VERTICAL BRACING
  • 21. Wheels And Wheel Track • The gate wheels shall be suitable to  withstand the stresses developed due to  hydrostatics  loads, which they will carry.
  • 22. GUIDE ROLLER TRACK VERTICAL GROOVE
  • 23. Wheel Track and Track base • The wheel track shall provide a true and  smooth machined surface for the wheels to  roll and transmit the loads through the  wheels to track base.
  • 24. END VERTICAL ROLER PINMAIN ROLLER
  • 25. Seals And Accessories • Seal shall be fixed by means of seal clamps  or S.S.bolts so as to ensure a positive water  pressure between the seal and gate and to  bear tightly on the seal seat to prevent  leakage.
  • 26. GUIDE ROLLER TRACK SIDE SEAL TRACKVERTICAL  GROOVE EQUILIZER PLATE END  LIFTING BRACKET VERTICAL  STIFFNER PLATE
  • 27. Guide Rollers • Gate Guide Rollers shall be provided on the  sides of the gates to limit the lateral motion  of the gate to not more than  6  mm. in either  direction.• A minimum of two guide rollers should be  provided on each side of the gate to resist  the transverse and lateral movement of the  gate at same time to prevent the gate for  jamming.
  • 28. Sill Beam • The minimum Width of Seal seat shall be  80   mm. excluding the required chamfer. • The Minimum Thickness of the S.s. plate for  low head gates be  6 mm. and  for medium  and high head gate is  8  mm.• The sill beam may be provided with the  corrosion resistant steel flats welded or  screwed with corrosion resistant steel  sheets. The surface of sill beam may be  machined smooth.
  • 29. SILL BEAM
  • 30. Anchorages/ anchor Plates • Anchorages shall be provided in first stage  concrete, with suitable block out openings  to hold the embedded parts of second stage  concrete. The minimum size of Anchor Bolts  shall not be less than  16 mm. and anchor  plate thickness shall not be less than 8 mm.
  • 31. 1. CREST  LEVEL2. F.R.L.3. H.F.L.4. T.W.L.5. TYPES OF SPILLWAY
  • 32. SIZE OF GATE SHALL BE SPECIFED AS THE CLEAR WIDTHOF OPENING & THE VERTICAL HEIGHT ABOVECREST/SILL OF GATE UPTO THE F.R.L. EXCLUDING FREEBOARD.
  • 33. • NORMALLY, RADIAL GATE HAS AN UPSTREAM SKIN PLATE BENT TO AN ARC WITH CONVEX SURFACE OF ARC IN U/S SIDE.• THE CENTRE OF ARC IS AT THE CENTRE OF TRUNNION PIN, ABOUT WHICH THE GATE ROTATES.• THE SKIN PLATE IS SUPPORTED BY SUITABLY SPACED STIFFENERS EITHER HORINZONTAL OR VERTICAL . IF VERTICAL STIFFENERS ARE USED, THESE ARE SUPPORTED BY SUITABLY SPACED HORINZONTAL GIRDERS WHICH ARE SUPPORTED BY RADIAL ARMS.• THE ARMS TRANSMIT WATER LOAD TO THE TRUNNION/ANCHOR GIRDER.• SUITABLE SEALS ARE PROVIDED ALONG CURVED ENDS OF GATE & ALONG BOTTOM.• GUIDE ROLLERS ARE ALSO PROVIDED TO LIMIT SWAY OF GATE DURING  RAISING/LOWERING. • TOTAL  WATER  THRUSTS ON  GATE ARE TRANSMITTED THROUGH  TRUNNION WHICH ARE FASTENED WITH ANCHOR GIRDER.• ANCHOR GIRDER TRANSFERS ALL LOADS TO PIER THROGH HORIZONTAL  AND VERTICAL ANCHORAGES.
  • 34. :1. GATE SHALL  BE  WATER  TIGHT. 2. MAX. PERMISSIBLE  LEAKAGE  SHOULD NOT BE     MORE  THAN  “5 LTRS./MIN./M. LENGTH OF SEAL”.3. GATE SHALL BE CAPABLE OF BEING  RAISED/LOWERED BY HOIST AT SPECIFIED SPEED.4. POWER OPERATED GATES SHALL NORMALLY BE  CAPABLE OF OPERATION BY ALTERNATIVE MEANS  IN CASE OF POWER SUPPLY FAILURE.5. GATE SHALL BE CAPABLE OF BEING HELD IN  POSITION WITHIN RANGE OF TRAVEL TO PASS  REQUIRED DISCHARGE WITHOUT CAVITATION &  UNDUE VIBRATION.
  • 35. (A) FIXING THE PARAMETERS LIKE (1) LOCATION OF SILL (2) LOCATION OF TRUNNION (3) TOP OF GATE (4) RADIUS OF GATE (5) LOCATION OF HOIST
  • 36. THE SILL OF GATE SHALL PREFERRABLY BE  LOCATED  SLIGHTLY  D/S  OF CREST  TO AVOID CAVITATION  OF  D/S  GLACIS .IN GENERAL  PRACTICE , WE PROVIDE  0.25  TO  0.35 m  BELOW  CREST  TOWARDS  D/S.
  • 37. IT SHOULD BE AT LEAST 1.5 M. ABOVE WATER PROFILE  (UNDER  H.F. L. CONDITION.)RESULTANT  HYD. THRUST  IN  GATE POSITION  FOR F.R.L. CONDITION  LIES  AS  CLOSE TO  HORI. AS  POSSIBLE. (1/3 HEIGHT OF GATE)NOT ALLOWED IN SUBMERGED CONDITION. T.W.L. SHALL BE BELOW 1.0 M.NONE OF ANY PARTS OF CIVIL STRUCTURES INTERFERE  WHILE  RAISING/LOWERING  GATE.
  • 38. FOR EFFECTS OF WAVE, FREE BOARD SHALLBE PROVIDED ABOVE F.R.L.NORMALLY, TI WILL BE 0.3 M.TOP OF GATE = F.R.L.+0.3 M.
  • 39. RADIUS OF GATE IS  THE  DISTANCE  FROM  CENTRE  OF TRUNNION  PIN  TO  INSIDE  OF  SKIN  PLATE.IT SHOULD  BE 1.0  TO  1.25  OF  HEAD  OF  WATER.  i.e. H TO 1.25 H.LARGE  RADIUS  SHALL  INCREASE   PIER DIMENSION.
  • 40. HOIST SHALL BE SO LOCKATED THAT, ASFAR AS POSSIBLE, HOISTING FORCE ISAPPLIED TO GATE AT LARGEST POSSIBLERADIUS & HOISTING ANGLE DOES NOTCHANGE MUCH DURING TRAVEL OF GATE.
  • 41. (1)  SKIN PLATE & STIFFENERS(2)  HORINZONTAL GIRDER(3)  ARMS(4)  TRUNNION ASSEMBLY (a)   TRUNNION HUB (b)  TRUNNION PIN (C)  TRUNNION BUSH (d)   TRUNNION BRACKET (5)  LOAD CARRYING ANCHORAGES— ANCHOR GIRDER
  • 42. COMPONENT RECO.    MATERIALS I. S. NO.Skin Plate, Stiffeners,  Structural Steel 808, 2062, 8500Horizontal Girder, Arms, Anchor Girder, Anchor rodsGuide Rollers Cast Steel 1030 Structural Steel 2062 Forged Steel 1875Trunion hub & Brackets Cast Steel 1030 Structural Steel 2062Pin Structural Steel 2062 Corrosion resisting  6603 SteelBushing Bronze/ Self lubricating  305,306,318 bushingSeal Steel Stainless Steel 6911Seal base & Seal beam Structural Steel 2062,8500
  • 43. Type of Stresses Nature Allowable valuesBending stresses Tension 1260 kg/cm2 kg/cm2 Compression 1260 kg/cm2 Shear 945Combined bending stress 1400 kg/cm2 (Biaxial) Stress in weld Bearing 1020 kg/cm2 kg/cm2 Shear 785 kg/cm2 Stress in rivets Shear 1025 Bending 1890 kg/cm2 Bearing stress Bronze- 220 kg/cm2 Bushing Stress in Bolts Shear 945 kg/cm2 Bearing 2115 kg/cm2
  • 44. :RADIAL GATE CONSIST OF SKIN PLATESUPPORTED BY VERTICALS WHICH INTURN REST ON HORIZONTAL GIRDER.THE HORINZONTAL GIRDERS ARE MOUNTEDON END ARMS WHICH TRANSMIT HYD.PRESSURE TO ANCHOR TIES (RODS)THROUGH ANCHOR GIRDER.ANCHOR GIRDER TRANSMIT THE LOAD TOPIER THROUGH ANCHOR TIES.THUS HYD. PRESSURE RESISTED BY SKINPLATE IS ULTIMATELY TRANSMITAD TO PIERCONCRETE.
  • 45. THE SKIN PLATE & STIFFENERS SHALL BE DESIGNED TOGATHER IN  A COMPOSITE MANNER.THE STIFFENERS GENERALLY USED ARE TEES, ANGLES OR CHANNELS.THE  MINIMUM THICKNESS USED IS  “ 8 “ mm. TO TAKE CARE OF CORROSION , THE ACTUAL THICKNESS OF SKIN PLATE  BE PROVIDED  AT LEAST  1.5 mm. MORE THAN THICKNESS REQUIRED.
  • 46. MINIMUM  NOS. BE USED TO SIMPLIFY  THE FABRICATION , ERECTION  &  MAINTANANCE OF GATES.NOS. TO BE FINALISED BY FOLLOWING CRITERIA : GATE HEIGHT NO. OF GIRDERS UP TO 8.0 M. 2 8.0 TO 12.5 M. 3 ABOVE 12.5 M. 4MAY BE SPACED AS B.M. IN VERTICAL STIFFENERS AT GIRDER SUPPORT ARE NEARLY EQUAL.IT SHOULD BE SUITABLY BRACED TO ENSURE RIGIDITY.IT SHALL BE CHECKED FOR SHEAR AT POINTS WHERE THEY ARE SUPPORTED BY ARMS.
  • 47. THE NO. OF PAIR OF ARMS SHALL BE EQUAL TONO. OF HORI. GIRDERS.ARMS MAY BE STRAIGHT OR INCLINED.FOR BIGGER SPAN OF GATE, INCLINED ARMS AREPREFFERED.IT SHOULD BE DESIGNED AS COLUMN FOR AXIALLOAD TRASMITTED BY HORI. GIRDER.THE ARMS ARE SUITABLY BRACED IN SUCH WAYTHAT L/R RATIO OF ARM IN LONGITUDINAL &TRANSVERSE DIRECTION IS NEARLY EQUAL.IF THERE IS DIFF. IN H.F.L. & F.R.L., SIDE SHIELDSON TOP OF GATE LEAF ARE PROVIDED TOPROTECT END ARMS AGAINST IMPACT OF WATER.
  • 48. IT CONSIST OF TRUNNION HUB, TRUNNION PIN,TRUNNION BEARING & TRUNNION BRACKET. TRUNNION HUB: IT SHALL ROTATE @ TRUNNION PIN. ARMS ARE RIGIDLY CONNECTED TO HUB BY WELDED OR BOLTED CONNECTION. IT MAY BE CAST STEEL OR M.S. TRUNNION PIN: IT SHALL NORMALLY BE SUPPORTED AT BOTH ENDS OF TRUNNION BRACKET IT SHALL BE OF CAST STEEL OR FORGED STEEL WITH CHROME PLATING.
  • 49. TRUNNION BUSH: IT SHOULD BE OF HIGH TENSILE BRONZE. THICKNESS OF BUSH = .08 D + 3 MM., “D” IS PIN DIA. HOWEVER, THICKNESS OF BUSHING IS NOT LESS THAN 12 mm.TRUNNION BRACKET: IT SHALL BE RIGIDLY FIXED TO ANCHOR GIRDER BY BOLTS. IT SHALL TRANSFER TOTAL LOAD FROM TRUNNION TO THE ANCHORAGES. IT SHALL BE OF CAST STEEL.
  • 50. HUBANC BRACKETH GUSSETO PLATERGIRD TRUNION PINER LOCK PLATE
  • 51. IT SHALL BE DESIGNED TO WITHSTAND THE TOTALWATER LOAD ON GATE & TRANSFER INTO PIERS.GENERALLY, COMMON ANCHOR GIRDER SYSTEM ISUSED.IT SHALL BE DESIGNED FOR MAX. LOAD , WHENONE GATE IS FULLY CLOSED & ADJACENT GATE ISIN FULLY OPEN POSITION.NOS. OF ANCHORAGES & ROOT DIA. OF THREADEDEND OF ANCHORAGES ARE WORKED OUT AGAINSTTOTAL TENSILE LOAD.
  • 52. ANCHORAGES TRUNION  ASSEMBLY
  • 53. THE EMBEDED LENGTH ARE WORKED OUT FOR BONDSTRESS REQUIREMENT. HOWEVER, MINIMUM LENGTHOF ANCHORAGES SHALL BE 2/3 OF RADIUS OF GATE.WHEN TRUNNION IS KEPT 1/3 HEIGHT OF GATE,ANCHOR GIRDER IS KEPT IN HORIZONTAL POSITION.IF TRUNNION IS KEPT ABOVE 1/3 HEIGHT OF GATE,ANCHOR GIRDER IS KEPT INCLINED AT AN ANGLE “θ”,SO AS TO KEEP THEM PARALLEL IN DIRECTION OFRESULTANT LOAD PASSING THROUGH TRUNNION.
  • 54. VERY ACCURATE DESIGN,FABRICATION & ERECTIONARE REQUIRED TO BE DONE AS TELESCOPIC FAILUREOF ALL THE GATES WILL TAKES PLACE IN CASE OFFAILURE OF ANY ONE ANCHOR GIRDER.TO AVOID CRACKING OF FACE CONCRETE,THEYSHOULD BE INSULATED TO A MINIMUM OF 500 mm.LENGTH FROM THE FACE CONCRETE.
  • 55. SILL BEAM: R.S.J. WITH S.S. CLADE PLATE ISPROVIDED ON OGEE.BOTTOM RUBBER SEAL : USUALLY, WEDGE TYPESEAL & IS FIXED ON THE GATE LEAF WITH CLAMPS.SIDE RUBBER SEAL : “Z“ TYPE OR MUSICAL KNOTETYPE IS USED.IN BOTH SIDES OF PIER, WALL PLATE WITHS.S.CLADE PLATE IS PROVIDED.3 TO 6 mm. CONPRESSION IS GIVEN TO RUBBERSEALS TO MAKE IT WATER TIGHT.
  • 56. WALL PLATE SILL BEAM
  • 57. Z‐ TYPE RUBBER SEAL
  • 58. WIRE ROPE WALL PLATE SKIN PLATE TOP PLATEZ TYPE RUBBER SEAL
  • 59. NORMALLY, ROPE DRUM HOIST IS USED.IT COMPRISES OF TWO END REDUCTION UNITS(ERU) & ONE CENTRAL DRIVE UNIT(CDU).E.R.U. CONSIST OF DRUM & 2 TO 4 SETS OF SPURGEARS.C.D.U. CONSIST OF ELECTRIC MOTOR, MAGNETICBRAKE & WORM REDUCTION UNIT. STARTER,RELAYES, CONDUCTORS ETC. ALSO INCLUDED.
  • 60. NORMALLY, OPERATED BY ELECTRIC POWER FROMGRID SUPPLY.DIESEL GENERATOR IS PROVIDED IN CASE OF GRIDPOWER FAILED.MANNUAL OPERATION THOUGH VERY SLOW ISALSO POSSIBLE .
  • 61. CONSTRUCTION STAGE OF SPILLWAY PIER : EMBEDED PARTS: – LINE LEVEL:  1. LINE LEVEL IN SILL BEAM & WALL PLATE SHOULD BE  PROPERLY MAINTAINED AS PER SPECIFIED  TOLERANCES.  2. IF THE FACE TO FACE DIMENSION IS LESS THAN  REQUIRED, THE GATE COMPONENT LIKE SKIN PLATE,  HORI. GIRDER MAY FAUL WITH WALL PLATE & THE  SKIN PLATE WILL HAVE TO BE CUT & THE RUBBER  SEAL HOLES FOR FIXING WILL GET DISTURBED. 
  • 62. CONCRETING OF SPILLWAY PIERS : WHILE CONCRETING SPILLWAY PIER AS  NECESSARY ALLOWANCE SHOULD BE KEPT FOR  BULGING OF CONCRETE. IF CARE IS NOT TAKEN,  THE PIER WILL GET BULGED AT SOME PLACES &  THE HORI. GIRDERS, ARMS & TRUNNION BRACKET  WILL GET FOULED WITH ADDITIONAL CONCRETE. 3 TO 4 INCHES BULGING / UNEVENNESS HAS BEEN  OBSERVED IN SOME OF CASES, WHICH REQUIRES  ENORMOUS CONCRETE CHIPPING &  CONSEQUENTLY COSTS MORE & HINDERS  ERECTION TIME SCHEDULE.
  • 63. STAGE CONCRETE : NORMALLY, CONCRETING FOR EMBEDDED PARTS ARE  DONE IN STAGES TO ERECT 1ST & 2 nd  STAGE EMBEDDED  PARTS. THE SURFASCE OF PREVIOUS STAGE CONCRETE  SHOULD BE KEPT ROUGH  & THE  CONCRETING OF NEXT  STAGE SHOULD BE VIBRATED TO HAVE PROPER BOND  BETWEEN STAGE CONCRETE. SOMETIMES, DOWEL BARS  BETWEEN STAGE CONCRETE MENTIONED IN DRG ARE  NOT PROVIDED. IN THAT CASE, IT IS FEARED THAT DUE  TO INSUFFICIENT BOND, THE LAST STAGE CONCRETE  MAY GET COLLEPSED. IF NOT COLLAPSED, LEAKAGE  MAY OCCUR THROUGH STAGE CONCRETE SURFACE, IF  PROPER BOND IS NOT ATTAINED BETWEEN TWO STAGE  CONCRETE.
  • 64. IN CASE OF BONDED MAIN ANCHORAGES, THE INITIAL 1.5 TO 2.0 m LENGTH NEAR ANCHOR GIRDER IS REQUIRED TO BE INSULATED WITH GREESE & POLYTHELENE PAPER OR WITH COARK MASTIC OR ASPHALT TO AVOID SURFACE CRACKING IN THE PIER. HOOKS ARE PROVIDED IN BONDED MAIN ANCHOR RODS AT END.AS FAR AS POSSIBLE, THE JOINTS IN RODS SHOULD BE AVOIDED. IF AT ALL IT IS PROVIDED, IT SHOULD BE DONE WITH PROPER DESIGNED COUPLING & NOT WITH THE WELDING.
  • 65. STAINLESS STEEL SHEETS/ PLATES ARE CLADED TO WALL PLATE & SILL BEAM TO HAVE SMOOTH & NON CORREDED SURFACE FOR RUBBER SURFACE. THE WELDING SHOULD BE DONE SUCH THAT THERE WILL NOT BE ANY BURR ON SURFACE. ANY UN EVEN SURFACE OF CLAD PLATE SHOULD BE AVOIDED , OTHER‐WISE, IT WILL DAMAGE RUBBER SEAL.
  • 66. WALL PLATES.S. CLADING PLATE
  • 67. (1) SKIN PLATE BENDING :  The bending of skin plate should be done true to its radius. Instances have been noted of gate failure because of non‐similarity in radius of gate & skin plate bending. In such case the load will not be transferred through trunion centre & gate may get failed from arm assembly.(2) BENDING OF VERTICAL STIFFENERS : T‐verticals of gate leaf are bend to get correct radius through‐out length of vertical height with T‐ bending machine, not with screw jack.
  • 68. (3) TRUNNION HUB : Shape/size of trunion hub should be correctly casted/ fabricated with correct angle.(4) casting : All casting of rollers, trunion assembly, gears etc. should be free from any defects like blow holes, cracks, gas inclusion etc.
  • 69. Important attendance during erection forsmooth function of gates: Concreting of sill beam & wall plate block‐out should not be done before erection of gate leaf other‐wise there will not be any chance of adjustment in alignment. Seals over the gate leaf should not be fixed before erecting wall plate & seal beam. Erection of hoist should be completed before on set of monsoon if the gates are erected. Otherwise, some latching arrangement has to be installed to keep gates in fully open position.
  • 70. A no. of occasions questions has been raisedregarding whether we should go for u/s ord/s suspension type of hoist in case of RadialGates.In Gujarat, all the Radial Gates have beendesigned with up‐stream suspension type ofHoist only, except that for Ukai Project , amulti purpose project, where in far 51 ft. x 46ft. size gates down –stream suspension typeof hoist have been designed.
  • 71. Clause 6.5.3 of I. S. 4623 – 2000 regarding“Recommendations for structural design ofRadial Gates. “ suggest that “ The hoist shall beso located , that , as far as possible, the hoistingforce is applied to the gate at the largestpossible radius and hoisting angle does notchange much during travel of gate”. Thiscondition gets satisfied in case of u/ssuspension only.
  • 72. Where as in down stream suspension type of hoist, the rope is required to be fixed towards thetrunion and during the travel of the gate thehoisting angle goes on changing a considerableextent.Cl. 6.5.4 of the same I.S. 4623‐2000 , also suggeststhat “ In the case of hydraulic hoist the connectionto the gate is on d/s of skin plate while in case ofrope drum hoist, the same is generally preferredon the u/s of skin plate”.
  • 73. Favorable  Aspects For U/S Suspension Type of Hoists:          Lifting efforts on hoist get reduced. Hoisting angle remains unchanged during travel of gate. Pier length comparatively gets reduced.Unfavorable  Aspects : Not easily accessible for inspection and maintenance . Replacement of wire rope in emergent condition not possible.
  • 74. Precautionary Measures of U/S Suspension type hoist considered: Generally, wire ropes etc. are periodically inspected/maintained/replaced when reservoir gets depleted below crest level. Incase of big sized gates like, 51 ft. X46 ft., 49 ft. X35 ft., crest stop‐logs are generally being thought off depending upon low water level . In case of such an eventuality like failure of wire rope, which how‐ever being rare occurrence , stop‐logs can be lowered and wire ropes get replaced.
  • 75. Provision for 10 % gates as standby is alwaysbeing made. i.e. Contingency of certain gates beinginoperative is kept in view. Thus, When wire ropesgets snapped, this 10 % provision takes care of.While selecting for U/S suspension. The ropesselected should be galvanized one.The ropes should be well lubricated from time totime as per the manufacturer’s recommendation.
  • 76. The uninterrupted leakage of waterthrough side seals of gate which fallsdirectly on joint point of girder andarm resulting failure of joint andfinally entire project.
  • 77. GUIDE ROLLER
  • 78. SCALING AT CONECTION
  • 79. Accumulated debris/water/mud should beclean regularly to avoid corrosion orjamming at connection of arm and trunnionassembly.
  • 80. OIL CAP WAS MISSING
  • 81. Some of the bolts joining the arm andhorizontal girder are found missing whichmay result failure of gate due to insufficientstrength of joint .
  • 82. • Over size/additional holes driven during  erection have not been plugged after  completion of erection work. The same must  be immediately plugged to maintain integrity  of anchor girder.
  • 83. ACCUMULATED WATERACCUMULATED WATER
  • 84. • Due to short length, some of the main  horizontal anchor rods are not fastened with  anchor girders, which may ultimately resulted  into failure of anchoring arrangement of gate to  pier.
  • 85. • Some of the main anchor rods are not  extended/bolted up‐to D/S flange of anchor  girder which may be resulted into failure of  anchoring system of radial gates.
  • 86. The vertical anchor rods of gates are notproperly bolted with pedestal base plate ofanchor girder to the base plate of pier, ultimatelyup‐thrust/down‐thrust may overturn theanchoring system of radial gates. This point mayplease be immediately attended to compliedwith to ensure the safety of gate.
  • 87. • The pedestal connectivity of anchor girder  seemed to be weaker in terms of not  providing requisite no. of studs as specified by  designers on drawing.
  • 88. • Trunnion pin sheath cover is not  provided in most of the gates. It  should be provided to avoid  jamming of mud etc. 
  • 89. SHEATH COVER
  • 90. In some of the gates, the guiderollers are not properly fitted inposition. It should be rectified as perdrawing.
  • 91. • Lubrication of various parts of gate were not  properly done as per norms.
  • 92. In many projects various parts of gate, footbridge, hoist platform were heavily corroded due to lack of maintenance.
  • 93. In many projects hoist platform were not duly bolted to the anchorages embedded in to pier with their respective base plate. As a result undue vibrations shall occur in hoist platform
  • 94. • The base frame of ERU/CDU were not  directly rested on cross girders of hoist  platform. Due to that, excessive vibration  observed on hoist platform. 
  • 95. In many project dial gauge indicatorswere not properly working.
  • 96. SECOND STAGE CONCRETE FOR FIXING WALLPLATE WAS INFERRIOR QUALITY
  • 97. BASE PLATE WALL PLATE
  • 98. EQUILIZER PLATE
  • 99. TOLERENCES FOR COMPONENTS OF GATESCOMPONENTS TOLERENCES( 1 ) Guide roller/Guide Shoe: +1.00 mm.Distance between centre line of  gate   ‐‐ 2.00 mm& face of side seal.( 2 )  Side  Seal ;Distance between centre line of gate  &   + 1.00 mm. to – 1.00 mm.face of side seal( 3 ) Trunion  bearings : (a) Co linearity of centre lines of both  + 0.25 mm. to – 0.25 mm.the trunion bearings (b) Horizontality of centre lines of both the  trunion bearings + 0.25 mm. to – 0.25 mm. (c) Parallel distance of centre line of both the trunion bearings from  + 3.00 mm to – 3.00 mmupstream  bottom edge of skin plate (d) Tolerances in diameters of pin,  To suit diameters and required fitsbush hub and bracket of trunion assembly
  • 100. TOLERENCES FOR EMBEDED PARTSCOMPONENTS TOLERENCES(A) Wall Plate & Sill Beam(a) Distance Between  centre line of  +0.00 mmopening & face of wall plate at sill end. ‐2.00 mm.(b) Distance Between Centre line of  + 2.00 mm.opening & face of wall plate at top end. ‐ 0.00 mm.(c) Straightness of face of  wall plates &  Offset at joints to be ground smoothsill plates.(d) Normally of face of wall plates to  + 0,00 degreegate sill & centre line of trunion  ‐ 0.00 degreebearings.(e) Alignment of sill plate  in  horizontal  + 0.25 mm. TO – 0.25 mm.plane.

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