Chapter 13


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Chapter 13

  2. 2. 13-2 ANNOTATED OUTLINE INTRODUCTION Job design is a way of organising tasks, duties and responsibilities into a productive unit of the work. The early emphasis in HRM was to design jobs around high specialisation and standardisation The engineering approach The engineering approach, developed by F.W.Taylor, was built around certain well-known principlesJob Design, Work Scheduling And Motivation
  3. 3. 13-3 Principles of scientific management Work should be scientifically studied  Work should be arranged so that workers can be efficient  Employees selected for work should be matched to the demands of the job  Employees should be trained to perform the job  Monetary compensation should be used to reward successful completion of the job Problems with the engineering approach  Repetition  Mechanical pacing  No end product  Little social interaction  No inputJob Design, Work Scheduling And Motivation
  4. 4. 13-4 INTRODUCTION The human relations approach The human relations approach recognised the need to design jobs in an interesting manner. According to Herzberg, employees will be more satisfied with their jobs, if motivators such as achievement, recognition, autonomy, growth etc are introduced into the job content. The job characteristics approach According to Hackman and Oldham, employees will work hard when they are rewarded for the work they do and when the work gives them satisfaction. Hence, they suggested that motivation, satisfaction and performance should be integrated into the job design.Job Design, Work Scheduling And Motivation
  5. 5. 13-5 Core job dimension According to Hack and Oldham, any job can be described in terms of five core job dimensions:  Skill variety  Task identity  Task significance  Autonomy  Feedback The model states that core job dimensions are more rewarding when individuals experience three psychological states in response to job design.Job Design, Work Scheduling And Motivation
  6. 6. 13-6 Job characteristics model C o re J o b C r it ic a l C o re J o b D im e n s i o n P s y c h o lo g ic a l D im e n s i o n S ta te s S k i ll V a r ie t y M e a n in g f u ln e s s H ig h in te r n a l Ta s k I d e n tity o f w o rk w o r k m o t iv a t io n Ta s k S ig n ific a n c e H ig h q u a lit y w o rk p e rfo rm a n c e A u to n o m y R e s p o n s i b ilit y f o r H i g h s a t is fa c tio n o u tc o m e s o f th e w o r k w ith w o r k Feedback K n o w le d g e o f t h e H ig h a c t u a l r e s u lt s o f t h e w o r k e ffe c tiv e n e s s w o rk a c tiv itie s L o w a b s e n te e is m E m p lo y e e g r o w t h a n d tu rn o v e r n e e d s s tr e n g th Socio-technical approach According to this approach, jobs should be designed by taking a systems view of the entire job situation, including physical and social environment.Job Design, Work Scheduling And Motivation
  7. 7. 13-7 Work Scheduling Companies now a days have realised the importance of organising work in a flexible manner, so that employees (especially those possessing critical skills, knowledge and experience,) can come and do their work depending on their own convenience. The following alternatives are currently in use to facilitate this approach  Compressed work week: scheduling of work that allows a full time job to be completed in fewer than the standard five days  Flexible working hours: Flexitime may be defined as any work schedule that gives employees daily choice in the timing between work and non work activities.  Job sharing: This occurs when one full time job is assigned to two persons who then divide the work according to the agreements made between themselves and the employer.  Part time work: part time work is done on a schedule that classifies any employee as temporary and requires less than the standard 40- hour work week.Job Design, Work Scheduling And Motivation
  8. 8. 13-8 Techniques For Designing Jobs  Job simplification: Here jobs are divided into smaller components and subsequently assigned to workers as whole jobs  Job enlargement: it increases task variety by adding new tasks of similar difficulty to a job:  Job rotation: systematic shifting of employees among jobs involving tasks of similar difficulty;  Job enrichment: enhancing a job by adding more meaningful tasks and duties to make the work more rewarding or satisfying.Job Design, Work Scheduling And Motivation
  9. 9. 13-9 Quality Circles, Work Teams and Total Quality Management Quality circle: It is a small group of employees who meet periodically to identify, analyse and solve quality and work related problems in their area Work team: It is a small group of people with complementary skills, who work actively together to achieve a common purpose for which they hold themselves collectively accountable. Total quality management: This is another work design approach that was quite popular in USA in mid-1080s and that continues to have a major influence over organisations all over the world now. Simply stated, TQM is a set of principles and practices whose core ideas include understanding customer needs, doing things right the first time, and striving for continuous improvement.Job Design, Work Scheduling And Motivation
  10. 10. 13-10 Motivation Motivation is a process of stimulating people to action to accomplish desired results. Generally speaking, motivation results from a felt need. It is goal- directed. It persists until the satisfaction or reduction of a particular need. Moreover, it is a personal and internal feeling.  Multiple causes: different people may have different visions for behaving in the same manner  Multiple behaviour: Another important characteristic of motivation is that the same motive or drive may lead to different behaviour  Complex and difficult to explain: Motivation is a complex subject as it is not easy to explain and predict the behaviour of employees. Determinants of Motivation Three types of forces generally influence human behaviour;  The individual  The organisation  The environmentJob Design, Work Scheduling And Motivation
  11. 11. 13-11 Theories of Motivation A. Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory: According to Maslow, human needs can be arranged into five levels. He felt that there is a fairly definite order to human needs and until the more basic needs are adequately fulfilled a person will not strive to meet higher order needs Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs S e l f A c t u a l is a t i o n N e e d s H ig h e r-o rd e r n e e d s (th a t a re E s te e m s a tis fie d in te r n a lly ) Needs M an S eeks S o c ia l N e e d s G r o w th L o w e r-o rd e r S a fe ty N e e d s n e e d s (th a t a re s a t is f ie d e x t e r n a ll y ) P h y s io l o g ic a l N e e d sJob Design, Work Scheduling And Motivation
  12. 12. 13-12 Theories of Motivation Evaluation  It is an unstable theory  The classification scheme is somewhat superfluous  The chain of causation in the hierarchy is also questionable B. Herzberg”s Two Factor Theory: According to Herzberg, if managers wish to increase motivation and performance above the average level, they must enrich the job by concentrating on motivators (such as achievement, recognition, responsibility, interesting work, advancement, growth etc) and not the hygiene factors (mostly environment related factors)Job Design, Work Scheduling And Motivation
  13. 13. 13-13 Variables affecting motivation in an organisational setting H y g ie n e s M o tiv a to r s 1 . C o m p a n y p o lic y a n d a d m in is t r a t io n 1. A c h ie v e m e n t 2 . R e l a t io n s h ip w i t h s u p e rv is o r 2. R e c o g n it io n 3 . W o r k c o n d it io n s 3. W o r k it s e lf 4 . S a la r y 5 . R e l a t i o n s h ip w it h p e e rs 4. R e s p o n s ib ilit y 6 . P e r s o n a l lif e 7 . R e la t io n s h ip w it h s u b o r d in a te s 5. A dvancem ent 8 . S ta tu s 9 . S e c u r ity 6. G ro w th Evaluation  The critical incident method applied on a small sample is being questioned  The assumption that the two sets of factors work in only one direction is also attacked severely  Critics questioned the procedural deficiencies also; such as the subjective interpretation of the responses .Job Design, Work Scheduling And Motivation
  14. 14. 13-14 Theories of Motivation C. Achievement Motivation Theory: According to McClelland, some people have an intense desire to accomplish and show excellence, others are not concerned about achieving things. Three important needs, that is, power, affiliation, achievement, drive people towards excellence. Elements of achievement motivation theory  Power need (n pow): this is the need to dominate, influence and control people  Affiliation need (n Aff): this is the need for companionship and support, for developing meaningful relationships with people  Achievement need (nAch): this is the need for challenge, for personal accomplishment and success in competitive situations.Job Design, Work Scheduling And Motivation
  15. 15. 13-15 Theories of Motivation If the need of employees can be measured, organisations can put people on suitable jobs and thereby show superior performance. D. Theory X and Theory Y: Douglas McGregor proposed two distinct set of assumptions about what motivates people—one basically negative, labelled Theory X and other basically positive, labelled Theory YJob Design, Work Scheduling And Motivation
  16. 16. 13-16 Assumptions of Theory X and Theory Y T h e o r y X A s s u m p t io n s T h e o ry Y A s s u m p tio n s E m p lo y e e s in h e r e n t ly d i s l ik e w o r k a n d E m p lo y e e s c a n v ie w w o r k a s b e in g a s w ill t r y t o a v o id it . n a tu r a l a s re s t o r p la y. S in c e e m p lo y e e s d is lik e w o r k , t h e y m u s t P e o p l e w i ll e x e r c i s e s e l f d ir e c t io n a n d s e l f - b e c o e r c e d , c o n t r o lle d a n d t h r e a t e n e d c o n tr o l if t h e y a r e c o m m itte d to t h e w it h p u n is h m e n t t o a c h ie v e g o a ls . o b je c tiv e s . E m p lo y e e s w ill s h ir k r e s p o n s ib ilit ie s a n d U n d e r p ro p e r c o n d itio n s , e m p lo y e e s d o s e e k f o r m a l d ir e c t io n w h e n e v e r p o s s ib le . n o t a v o id r e s p o n s ib ilit y. M o s t e m p lo y e e s w a n t s e c u r it y a b o v e a ll P e o p le w a n t s e c u r it y b u t a ls o h a v e o t h e r in t h e ir w o r k a n d d is p la y lit tle a m b it io n . n e e d s s u c h a s s e lf- a c tu a lis a tio n a n d e s te e m . Based on managerial assumptions about people, for example, external control is appropriate for dealing with people who are assumed to be unreliable, irresponsible and immature.Job Design, Work Scheduling And Motivation
  17. 17. 13-17 Theories of Motivation E. Theory Z: W. Ouchi proposed a mixed US-Japanese model for modern organisations, popularly called Theory Z, having the following unique characteristics; Elements of Theory Z  Trust  Organisation employee relationship  Employee participation  Structure less organisation  Holistic concern for employeesJob Design, Work Scheduling And Motivation
  18. 18. 13-18 Theories of Motivation F. Process theories of motivation:  Equity theory: this is based on the premise that our levels of job satisfaction and motivation re related to how fairly we believe we are treated in comparison to others.  Expectancy theory: according to this theory, motivation is a function of a rational calculation. A person is motivated to the degree that he believes that effort will yield acceptable performance, performance will be rewarded and the value of the reward is highly positive.  Goal setting theory: this theory suggests that managers and subordinates should set specific goals that are moderately difficult to achieve. The goals should be of a type that the employee will accept and commit to accomplishing. Rewards should invariably be linked directly to reaching such goals.Job Design, Work Scheduling And Motivation
  19. 19. 13-19 How To Motivate Employees?  Recognise individual differences  Match people to jobs  Use goals  Individualise rewards  Link rewards to performance  Check the system for equity  Do not ignore money Non financial incentives: Apart from money, non-financial incentives such as status, promotion, responsible jobs, interesting work, job security, recognition etc also play an important role in motivating peopleJob Design, Work Scheduling And Motivation
  20. 20. 13-20 Morale And Productivity Morale refers to the positive feelings of an employee toward his work, colleagues, employer and the organisation. All About Morale  Components of morale Intrinsic job satisfaction Satisfaction with company Satisfaction with supervision Satisfaction with rewards Satisfaction with co-workers  Measurement of morale Not easy to measure morale Observation Surveys Records Suggestion boxes Cont…Job Design, Work Scheduling And Motivation
  21. 21. 13-21 All About Morale  Factors affecting morale The organisation Leadership Co-worker The nature of work Work environment The employee  Morale building Remuneration Job security Participation Job enrichment Organisation structure Grievance redressal Employee counsellors Sound leadershipJob Design, Work Scheduling And Motivation
  22. 22. 13-22 Morale And Productivity Morale and Productivity: There is always not a positive correlation between the two. There can be low productivity with morale levels. According to Rensis Likert, there can be different combinations of morale and productivity in actual practice such as high morale and low productivity, high morale and high productivity, low morale and high productivity and low morale and low productivity.Job Design, Work Scheduling And Motivation