Ch 5

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Ch 5

  1. 1. Block: Two Human Resource ProcurementUnit:5 Job Analysis and Job Design Unit 5 Job Analysis and Job Design Copyright © 2006, Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya 5-1 Human Resource Management (2nd Edition) Dipak Kumar Excel Books
  2. 2. Block: Two Human Resource ProcurementUnit:5 Job Analysis and Job Design Introduction For HRM in an organisation, effective information and documentation on job analysis, job description and job evaluation are important prerequisites. All these processes help in identifying job requirements and suitably describing the job and job-families, skill sets, skill mapping and developing skill inventories in an organisation. In HRM, these are critical inputs to decide about manpower requirement to meet present and future needs. Although we have briefly discussed these concepts in other chapters, here we will be discussing these in detail to understand their importance in HRM. Copyright © 2006, Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya 5-2 Human Resource Management (2nd Edition) Dipak Kumar Excel Books
  3. 3. Block: Two Human Resource ProcurementUnit:5 Job Analysis and Job Design Objectives of Job Information  The first objective of job information is to communicate duties and responsibilities attached to a job to the employees for their clear understanding. This also helps employees to understand organisational expectations from them.  Another objective of job information is organisational analysis. It helps in work flow analysis with respect to a job and also helps in identification of redundant work elements in a job and thus facilitates in job restructuring.  For HRP, job information helps in analysing the scope for internal hiring and the requirements of external hiring for staffing various positions in the organisation.  In setting performance standards and establishing job objectives, job information is essential both in qualitative and quantitative terms. This also facilitates in appraising performance of an employee against such set standards more scientifically.  For other HR related decisions like; promotion, transfer, relocation, redundancy and compensation designing, job information provides critical inputs. Copyright © 2006, Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya 5-3 Human Resource Management (2nd Edition) Dipak Kumar Excel Books
  4. 4. Block: Two Human Resource ProcurementUnit:5 Job Analysis and Job Design Job Analysis Job analysis is the process of gathering information about the job and evaluating such information in terms of what is necessary and relevant. Essentially, job analysis involves three questions: What is a job? What should be analysed? What methods of analysis should be used? A job is a group of essentially similar activities or tasks performed by a person or a group of persons. These activities or tasks together become a job. Obviously tasks or activities of jobs need not be identical. They may be performed in different places, with different equipment, in a different sequence. Also, some employees may perform certain activities in addition to the main job. Or some employees may perform a job occasionally or temporarily, normally to fill in for persons who are absent or on vacation. This definition of a job is typically used in compensation designing and for other management practices. Copyright © 2006, Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya 5-4 Human Resource Management (2nd Edition) Dipak Kumar Excel Books
  5. 5. Block: Two Human Resource ProcurementUnit:5 Job Analysis and Job Design Job Questionnaire A job questionnaire is a special tool for consolidating job information. It is a printed form, in which essential information about the job may be listed either by the employee or by his supervisors. The major advantage of the job questionnaire is that it uses the knowledge of those who are proximate to the job. In addition, it gives each employee an opportunity to participate and contribute by giving responses to the questionnaire, which facilitates immediate compilation of job information. The Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) Recently there has been increased concern about quantification of the process of job analysis. A structured Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) can help the process. The PAQ was developed in the early 1970s through the efforts of McCormick and others. It consists of 194 job elements of a “worker‑oriented” nature which are divided into six major categories. The job elements are normally rated by the analyst on a scale of 0 to 5. However, administering PAQ is not at all simple. Copyright © 2006, Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya 5-5 Human Resource Management (2nd Edition) Dipak Kumar Excel Books
  6. 6. Block: Two Human Resource ProcurementUnit:5 Job Analysis and Job Design Job Descriptions Compiled job information is translated to job descriptions. Job descriptions are written records of job duties and responsibilities and they provide a factual basis for job evaluation. Job descriptions are recorded on a standard form in a uniform manner. For the obvious requirement of writing skill in the preparation of job descriptions, many organisations assign this task to trained and professional job analysts. However, this by itself cannot guarantee flawless job descriptions. This is because a professional job analyst may not have specific job knowledge. Therefore, despite engaging an analyst, it is always better to involve the in-house people for scientific description of jobs. In terms of format, the job description should first name the job, using the title which accurately summarises duties assigned. While naming a job, it is always better to consider the job family. Copyright © 2006, Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya 5-6 Human Resource Management (2nd Edition) Dipak Kumar Excel Books
  7. 7. Block: Two Human Resource ProcurementUnit:5 Job Analysis and Job Design Job Specifications In addition to providing information about duties associated with job assignments, job descriptions also outline basic specifications of the job. Such specifications include education or experience, required to do the job and special knowledge and skill set necessary to carry out the job. In addition, specifications also identify the soft skills like interpersonal skills, analytical ability, problem-solving skills or decision-making skill, etc., which are required to perform the duties assigned. This exercise of processing job information is known as developing job specification. It helps in the evaluation of jobs and at the same time it defines the attributes required for a job position, which are required while going for recruitment. Therefore, job specifications list out all those attributes, like education, experience, age, physical fitness, etc. along with other soft skills required for performing a job. Copyright © 2006, Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya 5-7 Human Resource Management (2nd Edition) Dipak Kumar Excel Books
  8. 8. Block: Two Human Resource ProcurementUnit:5 Job Analysis and Job Design Objectives of Job Description Job descriptions help in getting the things done through people and it helps management to accomplish following objectives: 1. Efficient organisation of jobs. 2. Proper recruitment or staffing in the organisation. 3. Assigning jobs to people by communicating to them their duties and responsibilities and by setting job standards. 4. Reviewing performance of the people. 5. Improving performance through appraisal and training. 6. Rewarding employees. Cont…. Copyright © 2006, Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya 5-8 Human Resource Management (2nd Edition) Dipak Kumar Excel Books
  9. 9. Block: Two Human Resource ProcurementUnit:5 Job Analysis and Job Design A central peripheral relational model of job analysis is given below: Skills and Competency Mapping Human Industrial Resource Relations Planning Setting Safety and Health Recruitment Standards Job Analysis Job Descriptions Compensation Selection Designing Job Specifications Training and Development Performance Appraisal Management Development and Succession Setting Performance Career Standards Planning and (KRA/KPAs) Development Copyright © 2006, Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya 5-9 Human Resource Management (2nd Edition) Dipak Kumar Excel Books
  10. 10. Block: Two Human Resource ProcurementUnit:5 Job Analysis and Job Design Job Evaluation Job evaluation originated in the United States in 1971. In 1909, the Civil Service Commission and the Commonwealth Edison Company in Chicago pioneered the field. In 1926, Merill R. Lott wrote a book on Wage Scales and Job Evaluation, describing methods used in his company, the Sperry Gyroscope Co., Inc. A survey of British Institute of Management indicated the following reasons for its use: 1. To reduce layout turnover, 2. To increase output, 3. To improve morale, 4. To reduce loss of time due to wage negotiation and disputes, 5. To reduce the complaints regarding wages, 6. To reduce wage and salary anomalies. Cont…. Copyright © 2006, Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya 5-10 Human Resource Management (2nd Edition) Dipak Kumar Excel Books
  11. 11. Block: Two Human Resource ProcurementUnit:5 Job Analysis and Job Design Steps in Job Evaluation 1. Thorough examination of the job (job assessment), 2. Preparation of job description (recording its characteristics to suit assessment of method). 3. Preparation of job analysis to set out the requirements of the job under various factor headings, 4. Comparison of one job with another, 5. Arrangement of jobs in a progression, 6. Relating the progression of jobs to a money scale. Copyright © 2006, Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya 5-11 Human Resource Management (2nd Edition) Dipak Kumar Excel Books
  12. 12. Block: Two Human Resource ProcurementUnit:5 Job Analysis and Job Design Types of Job Evaluation Schemes There are four basic types of job evaluation, which can be enumerated as follows: 1. Ranking 2. Classification 3. Points Rating 4. Factor Comparison Copyright © 2006, Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya 5-12 Human Resource Management (2nd Edition) Dipak Kumar Excel Books
  13. 13. Block: Two Human Resource ProcurementUnit:5 Job Analysis and Job Design Limitations of Job Evaluation Job evaluation alone cannot establish a wage scale. For wage fixation, we need to take into cognizance statutory requirements, like Minimum Wages Act, 1948. Similarly, other factors of wage fixation like, capacity to pay, inter-industry wage variation, inter-regional wage variation, collective bargaining agreement, if any, also need to be given importance. Job evaluation is highly subjective (being based on judgemental estimate). Similarly, it cannot take into account the cyclical effect of market value of occupations. For example, finance jobs were highly priced in the market at one point of time (now IT and marketing has taken its place). However, with the failure of NBFC, finance jobs are not that highly priced in the market, at least, at this point of time, even though no material change in the job profile of finance professionals has taken place in between. Despite such limitations, job evaluation technique is considered very useful for reasons explained earlier. Copyright © 2006, Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya 5-13 Human Resource Management (2nd Edition) Dipak Kumar Excel Books
  14. 14. Block: Two Human Resource ProcurementUnit:5 Job Analysis and Job Design Job Design 1. Job specialisation and repetitive operations, 2. Changing technology, 3. Labour-union policies, 4. Abilities of present personnel, 5. Adequate availability of potential personnel, 6. Interaction among jobs with the system, and 7. Psychological and social needs that can be met by the job. Copyright © 2006, Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya 5-14 Human Resource Management (2nd Edition) Dipak Kumar Excel Books
  15. 15. Block: Two Human Resource ProcurementUnit:5 Job Analysis and Job Design Job Assessment At this stage information about each job is made available to the assessors. Every job, whether manual or not, is closely observed and inspected in actual operation by the assessors. If required, assessors question the operators and their supervisors to collect further details about the job to clear doubts if any. To keep pace with the changing job content, due to technological changes, it is necessary to make periodic assessment of the job keeping in view the old job description. Copyright © 2006, Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya 5-15 Human Resource Management (2nd Edition) Dipak Kumar Excel Books
  16. 16. Block: Two Human Resource ProcurementUnit:5 Job Analysis and Job Design Pricing Job Value The purpose of job evaluation is to establish the relative job value within the organisation in terms of points or rankings and in terms of pay levels. The next step is to translate these data into a pay structure through job-co-relation. This, therefore, involves first deciding the pay grades and then developing pay ranges for each grade. Steps in Job Pricing The initial process of pricing the job and fitting them into a pay structure calls for translating the points into different job grades. Thereafter jobs have to be grouped as per different pay grades and the result is related with comparable jobs in other companies. Copyright © 2006, Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya 5-16 Human Resource Management (2nd Edition) Dipak Kumar Excel Books
  17. 17. Block: Two Human Resource ProcurementUnit:5 Job Analysis and Job Design Other Methods of Job Assessment There are various other methods of job assessment for pricing a job value, which is essential for compensation designing. At the same time such methods ensure job simplification and humanisation of jobs. Even though some of these method do not directly contribute to job pricing, these are still useful for achieving productivity and efficiency.  Work Study  Method Study Copyright © 2006, Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya 5-17 Human Resource Management (2nd Edition) Dipak Kumar Excel Books
  18. 18. Block: Two Human Resource ProcurementUnit:5 Job Analysis and Job Design Work Measurement ILO defined work measurement "as the application of techniques designed to establish the work content of a specified task by determining the time required for carrying it out at a defined standard of performance by a qualified worker.“ There are different techniques of work measurement. However, the following are the principal techniques: 1. Time study 2. Ratio-delay study (statistical sampling technique) 3. Synthesis from standard data 4. Predetermined motion time standard 5. Analytic estimating Cont…. Copyright © 2006, Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya 5-18 Human Resource Management (2nd Edition) Dipak Kumar Excel Books
  19. 19. Block: Two Human Resource ProcurementUnit:5 Job Analysis and Job Design Time Study ILO defined time study as "a technique for determining as accurately as possible from a limited number of observations the time necessary to carry out a given activity at a defined standard of performance." For carrying out a time study, equipment like stopwatch, study board, pencils, slide rule, etc., are required. Other Techniques of Work Measurement Since carrying out time study for each job is a time-consuming task, statistical techniques, i.e., ratio-delay study is often carried out. Ratio-delay is a sampling technique. Instead of going for the complete job study under ratio-delay techniques, a sufficiently large number of readings are taken at random intervals. Like all other sampling techniques, under this method also there are bound to be some errors. Copyright © 2006, Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya 5-19 Human Resource Management (2nd Edition) Dipak Kumar Excel Books
  20. 20. Block: Two Human Resource ProcurementUnit:5 Job Analysis and Job Design Concept and Definition of Ergonomics Ergonomics is derived from two Greek words; ergon, meaning work and enomos, meaning laws. It is the study of the effects of work system on workers and it aims at fitting the work to the men to increase their efficiency, comfort and satisfaction. ILO defined ergonomics as: The application of human biological sciences in conjunction with engineering sciences to the worker and his working environment, so as to obtain maximum satisfaction for the work which, at the same time, enhances productivity. Some of the areas where ergonomics has been successfully applied are as under: a. Design of equipment, power and hand tools. b. Design of displays and warning systems. c. Design of furniture, seats, rests and steps for operators. d. Design of tools, jigs and fixtures. e. Plant layout. Copyright © 2006, Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya 5-20 Human Resource Management (2nd Edition) Dipak Kumar Excel Books
  21. 21. Block: Two Human Resource ProcurementUnit:5 Job Analysis and Job Design Impact of Ergonomics on Work Study Work study, which aims at scientific analysis of a work system to increase productivity and satisfaction at work, is dependent on ergonomics for the research data on many facets of human reaction to a given work situation. Such input information makes the task of the work study practitioner more scientific and result- oriented. These input information/data mostly relate to the following areas: a. Limits of sustained physical endurance, normal speeds of movement and optimum method of handling of controls. b. Receptivity to sensory inputs and time required for perception of deviations. c. Reaction time for motion output and time required for evaluation and decision- making. d. Anthropometric data to guide the design and layout of equipment, work place and furniture. e. Effects of different types of environmental conditions on the human being in order to generate improvements. Copyright © 2006, Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya 5-21 Human Resource Management (2nd Edition) Dipak Kumar Excel Books
  22. 22. Block: Two Human Resource ProcurementUnit:5 Job Analysis and Job Design Ergonomics and Management Ergonomics is a discipline at the service of management from the very planning and design stage of a work system. In the organisation and control of human effort directed to specific ends, management needs to have an appreciation of the human factors involved in a work system. Working Areas The working area of an operator may be categorised into three groups; normal, immediate and maximum working areas. Copyright © 2006, Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya 5-22 Human Resource Management (2nd Edition) Dipak Kumar Excel Books
  23. 23. Block: Two Human Resource ProcurementUnit:5 Job Analysis and Job Design Motion Economy Motion economy is the process of minimising the physical and perceptual loads imposed on people engaged in any type of work; whether it be in the office, the shop floor, the kitchen or at the driving wheel. It leads to better design of equipment, jigs and fixtures, hand tools, furniture and labour-saving devices. Also it facilitates better layout of offices, warehouses, plants and operating areas like office desk, work bench, aircraft, cockpit and crew compartments of armoured fighting vehicles. Application of the principles of motion economy eliminates or minimises wasteful and fatiguing movements and increases the productivity of the workers. Copyright © 2006, Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya 5-23 Human Resource Management (2nd Edition) Dipak Kumar Excel Books
  24. 24. Block: Two Human Resource ProcurementUnit:5 Job Analysis and Job Design Human Engineering Method study seeks to determine the effective combination of the man, the machine and the working environment. In doing so, it is necessary to determine which functions are better performed by men and which functions are better performed by machines. Both men and machines can surpass each other in certain ways. Human Engineering and Machine Design The designer of the machine should know the way the human being functions, his body dimensions, his physical limitations and so also the conditions under which a person performs perfectly. For performing a task, a person normally does the following three things: 1. Receiving the information (through different sense organs) 2. Making decisions (acting on perceived information) 3. Taking action (which results from decision) Copyright © 2006, Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya 5-24 Human Resource Management (2nd Edition) Dipak Kumar Excel Books
  25. 25. Block: Two Human Resource ProcurementUnit:5 Job Analysis and Job Design Value Analysis Value is the worth of an article/product/service. In terms of cost and function, value is determined. Value of product can be improved by: 1. Improving function (keeping function constant) 2. Reducing cost (keeping function constant) 3. Both by improving function as well as by reducing cost. There are different types of values of an industrial product, which may be classified as follows: a. Use Value b. Esteem Value c. Cost Value d. Exchange Value Cont…. Copyright © 2006, Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya 5-25 Human Resource Management (2nd Edition) Dipak Kumar Excel Books
  26. 26. Block: Two Human Resource ProcurementUnit:5 Job Analysis and Job Design Steps in Value Analysis Following steps are followed for value analysis: a. Collect full facts and information about the product b. Get the details of the cost break-up c. Determine the function d. Think creatively e. Compare and evaluate the alternatives To succeed in each step, it is necessary to take the following line of action: a. Eliminate the redundant parts b. Initiate action of cheaper substitutes without impairing the use value c. Standardise the parts d. Develop alternative methods e. Redesign, if necessary. Cont…. Copyright © 2006, Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya 5-26 Human Resource Management (2nd Edition) Dipak Kumar Excel Books
  27. 27. Block: Two Human Resource ProcurementUnit:5 Job Analysis and Job Design Advantages of Value Analysis We can get the following advantages from value analysis: a. Lowering of cost b. Better quality of product c. Increased efficiency d. High level of morale and team spirit e. Increased customer satisfaction f. Optimum resource utilisation g. Improved methods of production h. Increased job satisfaction and motivation to workers through use of their creative ability. Copyright © 2006, Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya 5-27 Human Resource Management (2nd Edition) Dipak Kumar Excel Books

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