Linux on Hyper-V
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  • 1. Linux on Hyper-VTudor Damian, Microsoft Virtual Machine MVP@tudydamian – www.tudy.tel
  • 2. Agenda • Short overview • Enlightened vs. emulated • A bit of history • What’s officially supported? • What actually works? • How does it work? • More about Linux Integration Services • Linux P2V conversions for Hyper-V • Backing-up Linux VMs • MAP Toolkit 6.5 • The future of Linux on Hyper-V
  • 3. Hyper-V architecture
  • 4. How does it work? • VSP (virtualization service provider) • Hyper-V component in the”parent partition” • Communicates with the hardware drivers • Gives access to the host resources • VSC (virtualization service client) • Drivers for”synthetic devices” installed in the enlightened guest OS • Exposes every virtual device and translates I/O requests • There’s always a VSP/VSC pair • VMBus (virtual machine bus) • A high-speed point-to-point in-memory bus • Allows the communication between VSPs and VSCs through Hyper-V • For Linux, every VSC has a DIM (Driver Interface Mapper) • DIMs interact with the Linux Kernel like any other driver • There’s also a “VSC core” based on each existing VSP
  • 5. Emulated vs. enlightened • Emulated drivers • Drivers are “emulated” • All requests targeting the hardware (HDD, network, etc) are not direct • “Translated” in both directions (VM-hw, hw-VM) by the hypervisor • They bring in a performance overhead • The emulated drivers are pretty similar to what we had in Virtual Server: • Video = S3 Trio64+ SVGA (VESA) • Network = Intel/DEC ”Tulip” 21x4x • IDE = Intel 440BX chipset MB • ”Enlightened” drivers • Also known as “synthetic drivers” • These make the VM ”hypervisor aware” • Written especially for virtualized environments => paravirtualization • They’re basically just pointers to the drivers in the ”parent partition” • Huge performance boost!
  • 6. The road so far • What’s been done so far? • July 2009 – Microsoft contributes with over 20.000 lines of code in the Linux kernel • December 2009 – The drivers (in staging) are included in the 2.6.32 Kernel • July 1st 2010 – Microsoft presents at the Red Hat Summit • Official support list: http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc794868(WS.10).aspx • Linux Integration Services 2.1 RTM (July 29th 2010) • SUSE Linux Enterprise Server (10 SP1/SP2/SP3, 11) • Red Hat Enterprise Linux (5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5) • Linux Integration Services 3.2 RTM (January 12th 2012) • Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.0 and 6.1 x86 and x64 (Up to 4 vCPU) • CentOS 6.0/6.1 x86 and x64 (Up to 4 vCPU) • Requirements • A Linux ISO or DVD, using distributions based on the 2.6.16-27 or 2.6.32+ Linux kernel • Linux Development Tools (gcc, kernel-devel / linux source) for older versions of the IS • Linux Integration Services for Hyper-V • (optional) Enlightened mouse driver • Total install duration: ~40-45 minutes
  • 7. Linux ”unofficial” support • There’s no need for the Integration Services to install Linux on Hyper-V • Most distributions work just fine in an emulated environment (lower performance) • So why don’t we have more supported Linux distros? • …such as Hannah Montana Linux - http://hannahmontana.sourceforge.net/ • The answer is simple: there are no companies to offer dedicated support • Support is usually offered by the community • Microsoft doesn’t have anyone to create a support agreement with • They don’t officially cover these under standard support incidents • They do recommend the communities for help (MVPs, Linux distro-related communities) • Users have reported successful installs of: • Ubuntu, Debian, Fedora, CentOS, other distros (e.g. Hannah Montana Linux) • Even FreeBSD and Open Solaris
  • 8. The road to “enlightment” • Driver support for synthetic devices (v1 – original distro code, created by Citrix) • Synthetic network controller & Synthetic storage controller (IDE/SCSI) • Fastpath Boot Support for Hyper-V (v2.0 – December 2009) • Block VSC – increased boot performance • Timesync (v2.1 – July 2010) • The clock inside the virtual machine will remain synchronized with the clock on the host • Integrated Shutdown (v2.1 – July 2010) • VMs can be cleanly shut down from Hyper-V • Symmetric Multi-Processing (SMP) Support (v2.1 – July 2010) • Supported Linux distributions can use up to 4 virtual processors (VP) per virtual machine • Heartbeat (v2.1 – July 2010) • Allows the host to detect whether the guest is running and responsive • Pluggable Time Source (v2.1 – July 2010) • A pluggable clock source module is included to provide a more accurate time source to the guest. • KVP (Key Value Pair) Exchange (v3.1 – July 2011) • Information about the running Linux VM can be obtained by using the Key Value Pair exchange functionality on the host (FQDN, Linux IS version, IP addresses, OS version/distro/kernel, CPU architecture x86/x64) • Integrated Mouse Support (v3.2 – January 2012) • The cursor is no longer bound to the VMConnect window when used with the Linux Graphical User Interface
  • 9. Project Satori • http://www.xen.org/products/satori.html • A collaboration project between Citrix and Microsoft • The main components of project Satori became Linux IS for Hyper-V • The old Linux IS did not have ”input devices” support • No mouse support in “non-enlightened” guests accessed through cascaded TS/RDP • Workaround: local Hyper-V Console (RSAT) or direct connection into the VM • The “captured mouse” experience on Linux guests is not fun • Most Linux installs don’t need a GUI • Project Satori brings in InputVSC • Enlightened mouse drivers • They require Linux IS 2.x to be installed • Root access required • Available under a GPL 2.0 license
  • 10. TechEd 2010 - WSV305Comparing to IS on Windows • Synthetic Drivers • IDE driver • SCSI driver • Network Drive • Mouse Integration • Video • Integration Services • Operating System Shutdown • Time Synchronization • Heartbeat • Data Exchange • Backup (VSS)
  • 11. TechEd 2010 - WSV305IS on Windows
  • 12. TechEd 2010 - WSV305IS on Windows
  • 13. TechEd 2010 - WSV305Linux IS v2.1 prerequisites • Red Hat updates – yum install kernel-devel – yum groupinstall "development tools" – yum update • SLES updates – yast –i kernel-devel – yast –i kernel-source – yast –i gcc
  • 14. TechEd 2010 - WSV305Installing Linux IS – RHEL 5 x64
  • 15. TechEd 2010 - WSV305Installing Linux IS – SLES 10 SP2
  • 16. Linux IS v2.1 installation • Copy the .iso content locally mkdir -p /mnt/cdrom mount /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom cp -rp /mnt/cdrom /opt/linux_is umount /mnt/cdrom • Install the drivers cd /opt/linux_is make make install • Before IS 2.1, the install was done using a Perl script ./setup.pl drivers • Reboot
  • 17. Linux IS v3.2 installation • Linux IS 3.x brings RPM support  • Install the drivers mount /dev/cdrom /media cd /media ./install.sh • Reboot the VM
  • 18. TechEd 2010 - WSV305Verifying the install - lsmod
  • 19. TechEd 2010 - WSV305Verifying the install - GUI
  • 20. TechEd 2010 - WSV305modinfo support (Linux IS 2.1+)
  • 21. TechEd 2010 - WSV305modinfo support (Linux IS 2.1+)
  • 22. Wrap-up: Linux IS components • hv_vmbus - VMBus • hv_storvsc – storage VSC • hv_netvsc – network VSC • hv_timesource – pluggable time source • hv_mouse – enlightened mouse • hv_utils – graceful shutdown, timesync, heartbeat
  • 23. TechEd 2010 - WSV305Linux IS on 2.6.32+ Kernel Example: Ubuntu 10.4 LTS
  • 24. TechEd 2010 - WSV305Linux IS on 2.6.32+ Kernel • Edit /etc/initramfs-tools/modules – sudo gedit /etc/initramfs-tools/modules • Add the following lines: – hv_vmbus – hv_storvsc – hv_blkvsc – hv_netvsc • Update – sudo update-initramfs –u • Reboot
  • 25. TechEd 2010 - WSV305Linux IS on 2.6.32+ Kernel • You can verify the install just like before – /sbin/lsmod | grep vsc
  • 26. Ubuntu Server 10.10 x64http://blogs.msdn.com/b/virtual_pc_guy/archive/2010/10/21/installing-ubuntu-server-10-10-on-hyper-v.aspx
  • 27. Ubuntu Server 10.10 x64
  • 28. Ubuntu Server 10.10 x64
  • 29. Ubuntu Server 10.10 x64
  • 30. Ubuntu Server 10.10 x64
  • 31. Ubuntu Server 10.10 x64
  • 32. Ubuntu Server 10.10 x64
  • 33. Ubuntu Server 10.10 x64
  • 34. Ubuntu Server 10.10 x64
  • 35. Ubuntu Server 10.10 x64
  • 36. Ubuntu Server 10.10 x64
  • 37. Ubuntu Server 10.10 x64
  • 38. Ubuntu Server 10.10 x64
  • 39. Ubuntu Server 10.10 x64
  • 40. Native PowerShell support and in-box meteringSCRIPTING EVERYTHING
  • 41. Hyper-V Resource Meters • Historic Resource utilization information • Persistent through live migrations Network • Incoming & Outgoing Traffic per IP Address Range Storage • High Water-Mark Disk Allocation Memory • Low & High Water-Mark Memory Utilization • Average Memory Utilization CPU • Average CPU Utilization
  • 42. Converting Linux physical machines to Hyper-V VMsLINUX P2V
  • 43. Linux P2V conversion TechEd 2010 - WSV305 http://blogs.technet.com/b/enterprise_admin/archive/2010/05/13/linux-p2v-with-dd-and-vhdtool-easy-and-cheap.aspx • You can use DD and VHDtool – DD works both on Windows and Linux – One case: you attach the Linux HDD on a Windows machine
  • 44. TechEd 2010 - WSV305Linux P2V (DD) • From a command line, you convert the HDD into a RAW image format (.img) • dd if=?DeviceHarddisk1DR2 of=D:rhel54.img bs=1M --progress
  • 45. TechEd 2010 - WSV305Linux P2V (VHDTool) http://archive.msdn.microsoft.com/vhdtool • A command-line tool, open-source – Includes functions to manipulate VHD files (create, convert, extend, repair) – An excelent P2V conversion tool for Linux machines – It convers RAW images into VHDs
  • 46. DD on Linux to NTFS/USB drive
  • 47. DD on Linux over the network
  • 48. System Center Data Protection ManagerBACKING UP LINUX VMS
  • 49. DPM for Hyper-V ONLINE OFFLINE OS supports VSS OS without VSS Recursive VSS call Save VM state Linux DPM AGENT
  • 50. DPM, non-VSS aware guests 1. DPM marks the start of the backup 2. Save OS state (<1 min) OFFLINE (hibernate, save RAM) 3. VSS snapshot (~10 sec) 4. Resume OS 5. Actual DPM backup is taken
  • 51. Heterogeneous network-wide inventory toolMAP TOOLKIT 6.5
  • 52. MAP Toolkit 6.5 http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/bb977556.aspx • Secure, agentless, network-wide inventory • Windows XP Professional, Vista, 7 • Office 2010 and previous versions • Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2008 R2 • Windows Server 2003 or Windows Server 2003 R2 • Windows 2000 Professional or Windows 2000 Server • Windows Internet Explorer 9 and previous versions • VMware vSphere, vCenter, ESX, ESXi, Server • Selected Linux distributions • LAMP application stack discovery • SQL Server • MySQL • Oracle • Sybase • Hyper-V
  • 53. TechEd 2010 - WSV305MAP Toolkit
  • 54. TechEd 2010 - WSV305MAP Toolkit
  • 55. THE FUTURE OF LINUX IS
  • 56. Upcoming Functionality • Dynamic Memory for Linux guests • Ballooning only for first implementation • Bi-Directional KVP • Jumbo Frames • VLAN Tag support (requires Win8) • 802.1q support (requires Win8) • Ubuntu 12.04 LTS support
  • 57. Driver Status Drivers getting out of staging: • Kernel v3.2: hv_vmbus, hv_utils • Kernel v3.3: hv_netvsc; hv_mouse • Kernel v3.4: hv_storvsc Net Result: • All Hyper-V drivers out of staging and part of the mainline Linux kernel by v3.4 • Linux = first-class citizen on Hyper-V
  • 58. Q&A
  • 59. Don’t forget to submityour feedback and win agreat Nokia smartphoneand Kindle e-reader!