Lesson patterns and their
• There are different types of lessons and a teacher
can use one or more different types of lessons in
order to be effective in the classroom. The types
include information lessons, practice lessons,
appreciation lessons and revision lessons. We are
going to discuss the pattern, which is structure of
the lesson from the introduction, through the
presentation to the conclusion. We will look at
characteristics of these lessons and also the
teaching skills with a special emphasis on how
teachers can utilise them for effective teaching.
• In an information lesson, new knowledge is
gained. The teacher should have a clear idea
of what is to be learnt by the children and
how it is going to be learnt. In this type of
lesson the teacher must be careful not to talk
The development of an information
An information lesson is started by an
introduction. There are five types of
introduction that can be used, namely
a) Questioning: - This is done in order to
stimulate interest or marshal facts from
previous knowledge. Such questions are very
important and should be carefully thought out
beforehand and written out in the lesson
b)Visual Aids: - A lesson may start by way of showing
something of interest because this focuses the
attention of the pupils and stimulates their interest.
c)Demonstration : -has the same value as visual aids
in that concentrates the attention of the children, it
however has the added value of giving them a clear
idea of what is wanted, for example in Maths where a
new concept is to be taught, a teacher begins with
d)Activity: - This can be done through a race round
the play ground before introducing the next lesson.
(Applicable in Primary Schools).
e)Mystery: - This is when an object to be used
in the lesson is brought concealed perhaps in
the teacher’s pocket.
•The curiosity of the children is immediately
• The lesson should be a record of the facts to be
taught and methods to be used. In order for this
relationship to be clear in the lesson notes, the
content should be written under headings or
steps with good spacing between each, so that
the eye can see at a glance what the next step is.
• Some teachers like to divide the page into two
vertical columns named matter and method
•The teaching of information may be taught in
various ways/ methods.
•Every teaching aid is at your disposal for this kind
of lessons as well as teaching skills,
for example story-telling, discussion and
questioning. Individual study,
written work and dramatisation can be employed
• This does not matter as long as the aim of the
lesson is achieved and the lesson ends in an
orderly way. Some teachers like recapitulation
of main points as well as introducing the next
lesson’s subject matter.
2. PRACTICE LESSONS
• These are the lessons that place emphasis on the
practice of skills that the teacher has shared with the
children. In practice lessons pupils attempt to actually
do what they have learnt. The golden rule of practice
lessons is anchored in the adage, “Practice makes
perfect.” A teacher that seeks to be effective and
wants good results from his/ her children should
dedicate some lessons or part of lessons in which
pupils practice the skills they are learning. This is true
of every subject. Although not all subjects will require
a full period for practice alone, those which for the
greater part use this type of lesson may follow this
• Return of the children’s books: - Often
teachers tend to take for granted the return of
the children’s work after it has been marked
but this should be a chance to reinforce
important points from the work given.
Teachers should be sensitive to the children’s
emotions and avoid passing negative
comments about those that performed poorly.
These comments are best kept private.
Writing out corrections: -This is another opening
for a practice lessons. Students should be
encouraged to work on their corrections prior to
starting new practice. This introduction should be
presented in a positive manner and teachers
should instil a sense of importance to writing out
corrections and avoid using it in punitive ways
•Mental Exercises: - A refreshing method of
introducing a lesson as mental work sharpens
pupil’s minds before they undertake the lesson’s
practice. Mental work is not limited to mathematics
but can be used in languages,
spelling and history, short quiz on important events,
dates and names of important people that students
have studied. Mental exercises should be used
creatively so as to stimulate and maintain the interest
of the pupils during the practice lesson.
Practical preparation: In some situations the introduction can simply be
the issuing of instructions that the children prepare
for an activity.
The teacher can put them in groups,
ask them to get their stationery ready, highlight
the challenges of the work he/ she is giving them
or a brief them on what is to be done in the lesson.
• There is no rigid structure to how this lesson is
presented. Flexibility is therefore a
characteristic of this lesson.
• If a textbook is used for the children’s exercise,
direct and clear instruction should be given to
the children. The teacher should mention the
page number and the questions that they
want the children to do.
•Taking into account, a mixed ability class the
teacher should accommodate the different
abilities, good average and weak students and
give them separate practice materials.
• The danger of giving uniform materials lies in
that the weak pupil is not likely to improve at all
because that material is beyond their
comprehension at that particular point in time.
•Teacher should circulate when children are
writing their work, marking and commenting
on the children’s work. This is the opportune
time to correct errors and to evaluate the
•When one finds common mistakes, stop the
children and explain to them the areas that
they are getting wrong in such a way that they
see that they are wrong.
• The way you wrap up your lesson depends on
your review of the children’s work during the
lesson. You can either tell the pupils to stop
writing or depending on the need draw
attention again to the mistakes that are
3. APPRECIATION LESSONS
• This lesson can be introduced by rousing the
interest and imagination of the children with a
well told story.
• It may also be through a suggestion that
children look or listen carefully.
• First presentation
• Present the poem, music or pictures for study
without comment. The presentation is
followed by questioning and discussion,
getting children’s expressions of thoughts or
emotions roused by the presentation.
This might also be given by the teacher or if it is a
poem, children might read it for themselves. The
purpose is to allow closer study- following insight
gained in the first presentation. It also must be
followed by further questioning and discussion
aimed at centring the children’s attention on the
stated aim of the lesson.
Appreciation lessons should always be
concluded with an activity designed to pursue
on the aims of the lesson. The following are
• Miming: - Movement appropriate to the mood
or rhythm of the poem or song helps drive the
•Drawing or modelling: - Self expression of this
kind by the child calls for clear concept of what he
is trying to do. The need to draw or model helps
to clarify the children’s thoughts and ideas on the
•Practical performance: - Activities like verse
speaking, singing or accompaniment by
percussion instruments are of value.
•Making anthologies: - Children like to collect in a
notebook of their own, new songs or poems they
•Private research: - With a suitable library,
children can look up more information for
themselves about composers, authors or artists
whose work they have enjoyed
• Most revision should be carried out on
individual basis since the weaknesses of the
pupils may vary. Lessons are devoted to
revision to ensure that what has been taught
has been learnt thoroughly and well
understood. After a lesson has been
conducted, the teacher has a responsibility to
ask the pupils to retell what they understood.
Gaps in children’s knowledge
• When revision lessons reveal that they are
gaps in children’s knowledge, the solution is
not to teach the children again, but to use a
new approach. Simply to repeat the lesson in
the same way as before is foolish, for if the
children failed to grasp it the first time, the
same lesson taught again in the same way is
likely to have the same results.
•Repetition plays a part in revision lessons. The
repetition should be done by the children
rather than the teacher. The teacher will find
that if by making children act in a specific way,
he compels them to draw on what they know.
•This may reveal to the children in the clearest
way possible the gaps that exist in their
knowledge and give them good reasons for
• This is usually brief as teacher gives an
explanation of what is being revised and is
done to make the children aware of the need
Presentation/approaches to revision lessons
• Pupils should be given some activity that will
help them remember what they have been
a) Expression work: - The pupils can be asked to
write about or draw or model what they have
learned. Weaknesses in their knowledge will
b) Creative work: - This involves helping children
to write plays or make workbooks on something
that they have learnt. The teacher is likely to see
the depth and extent of their knowledge. Such
creative work demands a good understanding of
the subjects and also provides the children with
c) Group Work: - This helps make revision by
making it social and enjoyable.
d)Games: - The quiz and other competitive team
games like spelling bees and reading
competitions can all be successful revision
e)Practice: - Pure repetition, such as working
more arithmetic examples or repeating verbally
things that have been learned, has more value
although older children soon get bored with this.
f) Generalisation: - If the teacher relates what
she has taught, the pupils remember better.
From the particular to the general and from
the concrete to the abstract, are the principles
that apply to the revision lesson.
• Type of conclusion will depend on the type of
presentation but should always be short. It
plays a role in showing the teacher clearly
how effective the revision has been.
Teaching is effectively conveying your
message in creative and understandable
terms so that others benefit from the
A successful teacher needs to possess several
skills in order for teaching to be effective.
• Communication is the process of passing an
understandable message from one person to
• It is a vital process in teaching and a successful
teacher should make every effort to develop
his/her communication skills.
• For success, the message should be put into a
suitable code, such as language or gestures and
transmitted by the sender to the receiver using
appropriate media such as correspondence,
broadcasting, and film among others.
There are four elements to effective
•Precise language- fluency of language
•Teachers uses precise and clear instructions
•Simple with appropriate explanations
•Teacher responds to students’ questions
Rules for good communication
• Choose a code that is known by everyone to
whom the message is sent
• Avoid using a code that is ambiguous or might
• Avoid using a medium that any of your
receivers might find unpleasant
• Choose a medium that is well suited to the
conditions under which the message is to be
Teaching skills related to communication in
Course and lesson planning
• The ability to prepare lessons that fulfil
objectives, employ appropriate methodology
and meet learners’ needs.
• This also means the ability to keep records.
• Demonstrates awareness of the learner needs
and responds to these in lesson planning
• This refers to the ability to control and
facilitate interaction in the classroom that is
appropriate to the activity. It promotes
learning and takes into account different
needs and abilities of learners.
• It demonstrates an awareness of equal
opportunities and diversity issues.
Important skills of classroom management
• Manage the learning environment- set up
class in a way that facilitates learning.
• Managing interaction- the teacher should be
aware of the need to balance talking time.
• Managing the lesson and the activities- give
• Managing relationships and behaviour- deals
appropriately with student problems when
Subject knowledge (Professional skills)
• This refers to the good command of the
subject by the teacher.
• It also means the ability to communicate this
knowledge effectively and in ways that are
appropriate to the learners.
Understanding learners needs (Inter-personal
• The teacher should be able to understand
learner needs and the learning process.
• He/ She should relate well with students- treat
students fairly and with love and respect. The
teacher should involve all learners in the class.
The teacher should be able to
Motivate him/ herself as well as the learners.
Make learners curious.
Enjoy being with children.
Recognize good behaviour.
Reward good work done.
• An effective teacher is emotionally intelligent,
that is has the ability to control his/ her
emotions. This teacher has the ability to
perceive, control and evaluate emotions.
• NB: Emotional Intelligence can be learnt and