Lesson patterns and their
characteristics.
Information lesson
Practice lessons
Appreciation lessons
Revision lessons
Teach...
Introduction
• There are different types of lessons and a teacher
can use one or more different types of lessons in
order ...
INFORMATION LESSON
• In an information lesson, new knowledge is
gained. The teacher should have a clear idea
of what is to...
The development of an information
lesson.
An information lesson is started by an
introduction. There are five types of
int...
b)Visual Aids: - A lesson may start by way of showing
something of interest because this focuses the
attention of the pupi...
e)Mystery: - This is when an object to be used
in the lesson is brought concealed perhaps in
the teacher’s pocket.
•The cu...
PRESENTATION/BODY
• The lesson should be a record of the facts to be
taught and methods to be used. In order for this
rela...
•The teaching of information may be taught in
various ways/ methods.
•Every teaching aid is at your disposal for this kind...
CONCLUSION
• This does not matter as long as the aim of the
lesson is achieved and the lesson ends in an
orderly way. Some...
2. PRACTICE LESSONS
• These are the lessons that place emphasis on the
practice of skills that the teacher has shared with...
Introduction
• Return of the children’s books: - Often
teachers tend to take for granted the return of
the children’s work...
Writing out corrections: -This is another opening
for a practice lessons. Students should be
encouraged to work on their c...
•Mental Exercises: - A refreshing method of
introducing a lesson as mental work sharpens
pupil’s minds before they underta...
Practical preparation: In some situations the introduction can simply be
the issuing of instructions that the children pre...
Presentation
• There is no rigid structure to how this lesson is
presented. Flexibility is therefore a
characteristic of t...
•Taking into account, a mixed ability class the
teacher should accommodate the different
abilities, good average and weak ...
•Teacher should circulate when children are
writing their work, marking and commenting
on the children’s work. This is the...
Conclusion
• The way you wrap up your lesson depends on
your review of the children’s work during the
lesson. You can eith...
3. APPRECIATION LESSONS
Introduction
• This lesson can be introduced by rousing the
interest and imagination of the childr...
Presentation
• First presentation
• Present the poem, music or pictures for study
without comment. The presentation is
fol...
Second presentation
This might also be given by the teacher or if it is a
poem, children might read it for themselves. The...
Conclusion
Appreciation lessons should always be
concluded with an activity designed to pursue
on the aims of the lesson. ...
•Drawing or modelling: - Self expression of this
kind by the child calls for clear concept of what he
is trying to do. The...
•Making anthologies: - Children like to collect in a
notebook of their own, new songs or poems they
have learned.

•Privat...
REVISION LESSONS
• Most revision should be carried out on
individual basis since the weaknesses of the
pupils may vary. Le...
Gaps in children’s knowledge
• When revision lessons reveal that they are
gaps in children’s knowledge, the solution is
no...
•Repetition plays a part in revision lessons. The
repetition should be done by the children
rather than the teacher. The t...
Introduction
• This is usually brief as teacher gives an
explanation of what is being revised and is
done to make the chil...
Presentation/approaches to revision lessons
• Pupils should be given some activity that will
help them remember what they ...
b) Creative work: - This involves helping children
to write plays or make workbooks on something
that they have learnt. Th...
d)Games: - The quiz and other competitive team
games like spelling bees and reading
competitions can all be successful rev...
f) Generalisation: - If the teacher relates what
she has taught, the pupils remember better.
From the particular to the ge...
Conclusion
• Type of conclusion will depend on the type of
presentation but should always be short. It
plays a role in sho...
TEACHING SKILLS
AN INTRODUCTION
Teaching is effectively conveying your
message in creative and understandable
terms so that others benefit from the
inform...
Communication skills
• Communication is the process of passing an
understandable message from one person to
another
• It i...
There are four elements to effective
communication:
•Precise language- fluency of language
•Teachers uses precise and clea...
Rules for good communication
• Choose a code that is known by everyone to
whom the message is sent
• Avoid using a code th...
Teaching skills related to communication in
the classroom
Course and lesson planning
• The ability to prepare lessons that fulfil
objectives, employ appropriate methodology
and mee...
Classroom management
• This refers to the ability to control and
facilitate interaction in the classroom that is
appropria...
Important skills of classroom management
• Manage the learning environment- set up
class in a way that facilitates learnin...
Subject knowledge (Professional skills)
• This refers to the good command of the
subject by the teacher.
• It also means t...
Understanding learners needs (Inter-personal
relationship)
• The teacher should be able to understand
learner needs and th...
Motivational skill
•
•
•
•
•
•

The teacher should be able to
Motivate him/ herself as well as the learners.
Make learners...
Intrapersonal skill
• An effective teacher is emotionally intelligent,
that is has the ability to control his/ her
emotion...
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Lesson patterns and their characteristics

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Lesson patterns and their characteristics

  1. 1. Lesson patterns and their characteristics. Information lesson Practice lessons Appreciation lessons Revision lessons Teaching skills
  2. 2. Introduction • There are different types of lessons and a teacher can use one or more different types of lessons in order to be effective in the classroom. The types include information lessons, practice lessons, appreciation lessons and revision lessons. We are going to discuss the pattern, which is structure of the lesson from the introduction, through the presentation to the conclusion. We will look at characteristics of these lessons and also the teaching skills with a special emphasis on how teachers can utilise them for effective teaching.
  3. 3. INFORMATION LESSON • In an information lesson, new knowledge is gained. The teacher should have a clear idea of what is to be learnt by the children and how it is going to be learnt. In this type of lesson the teacher must be careful not to talk too much.
  4. 4. The development of an information lesson. An information lesson is started by an introduction. There are five types of introduction that can be used, namely a) Questioning: - This is done in order to stimulate interest or marshal facts from previous knowledge. Such questions are very important and should be carefully thought out beforehand and written out in the lesson notes.
  5. 5. b)Visual Aids: - A lesson may start by way of showing something of interest because this focuses the attention of the pupils and stimulates their interest. c)Demonstration : -has the same value as visual aids in that concentrates the attention of the children, it however has the added value of giving them a clear idea of what is wanted, for example in Maths where a new concept is to be taught, a teacher begins with demonstration. d)Activity: - This can be done through a race round the play ground before introducing the next lesson. (Applicable in Primary Schools).
  6. 6. e)Mystery: - This is when an object to be used in the lesson is brought concealed perhaps in the teacher’s pocket. •The curiosity of the children is immediately aroused.
  7. 7. PRESENTATION/BODY • The lesson should be a record of the facts to be taught and methods to be used. In order for this relationship to be clear in the lesson notes, the content should be written under headings or steps with good spacing between each, so that the eye can see at a glance what the next step is. • Some teachers like to divide the page into two vertical columns named matter and method respectively.
  8. 8. •The teaching of information may be taught in various ways/ methods. •Every teaching aid is at your disposal for this kind of lessons as well as teaching skills, for example story-telling, discussion and questioning. Individual study, written work and dramatisation can be employed
  9. 9. CONCLUSION • This does not matter as long as the aim of the lesson is achieved and the lesson ends in an orderly way. Some teachers like recapitulation of main points as well as introducing the next lesson’s subject matter.
  10. 10. 2. PRACTICE LESSONS • These are the lessons that place emphasis on the practice of skills that the teacher has shared with the children. In practice lessons pupils attempt to actually do what they have learnt. The golden rule of practice lessons is anchored in the adage, “Practice makes perfect.” A teacher that seeks to be effective and wants good results from his/ her children should dedicate some lessons or part of lessons in which pupils practice the skills they are learning. This is true of every subject. Although not all subjects will require a full period for practice alone, those which for the greater part use this type of lesson may follow this pattern.
  11. 11. Introduction • Return of the children’s books: - Often teachers tend to take for granted the return of the children’s work after it has been marked but this should be a chance to reinforce important points from the work given. Teachers should be sensitive to the children’s emotions and avoid passing negative comments about those that performed poorly. These comments are best kept private.
  12. 12. Writing out corrections: -This is another opening for a practice lessons. Students should be encouraged to work on their corrections prior to starting new practice. This introduction should be presented in a positive manner and teachers should instil a sense of importance to writing out corrections and avoid using it in punitive ways
  13. 13. •Mental Exercises: - A refreshing method of introducing a lesson as mental work sharpens pupil’s minds before they undertake the lesson’s practice. Mental work is not limited to mathematics but can be used in languages, spelling and history, short quiz on important events, dates and names of important people that students have studied. Mental exercises should be used creatively so as to stimulate and maintain the interest of the pupils during the practice lesson.
  14. 14. Practical preparation: In some situations the introduction can simply be the issuing of instructions that the children prepare for an activity. The teacher can put them in groups, ask them to get their stationery ready, highlight the challenges of the work he/ she is giving them or a brief them on what is to be done in the lesson.
  15. 15. Presentation • There is no rigid structure to how this lesson is presented. Flexibility is therefore a characteristic of this lesson. • If a textbook is used for the children’s exercise, direct and clear instruction should be given to the children. The teacher should mention the page number and the questions that they want the children to do.
  16. 16. •Taking into account, a mixed ability class the teacher should accommodate the different abilities, good average and weak students and give them separate practice materials. • The danger of giving uniform materials lies in that the weak pupil is not likely to improve at all because that material is beyond their comprehension at that particular point in time.
  17. 17. •Teacher should circulate when children are writing their work, marking and commenting on the children’s work. This is the opportune time to correct errors and to evaluate the children’s performance. •When one finds common mistakes, stop the children and explain to them the areas that they are getting wrong in such a way that they see that they are wrong.
  18. 18. Conclusion • The way you wrap up your lesson depends on your review of the children’s work during the lesson. You can either tell the pupils to stop writing or depending on the need draw attention again to the mistakes that are commonly made.
  19. 19. 3. APPRECIATION LESSONS Introduction • This lesson can be introduced by rousing the interest and imagination of the children with a well told story. • It may also be through a suggestion that children look or listen carefully.
  20. 20. Presentation • First presentation • Present the poem, music or pictures for study without comment. The presentation is followed by questioning and discussion, getting children’s expressions of thoughts or emotions roused by the presentation.
  21. 21. Second presentation This might also be given by the teacher or if it is a poem, children might read it for themselves. The purpose is to allow closer study- following insight gained in the first presentation. It also must be followed by further questioning and discussion aimed at centring the children’s attention on the stated aim of the lesson.
  22. 22. Conclusion Appreciation lessons should always be concluded with an activity designed to pursue on the aims of the lesson. The following are examples. • Miming: - Movement appropriate to the mood or rhythm of the poem or song helps drive the spirit home.
  23. 23. •Drawing or modelling: - Self expression of this kind by the child calls for clear concept of what he is trying to do. The need to draw or model helps to clarify the children’s thoughts and ideas on the subject. •Practical performance: - Activities like verse speaking, singing or accompaniment by percussion instruments are of value.
  24. 24. •Making anthologies: - Children like to collect in a notebook of their own, new songs or poems they have learned. •Private research: - With a suitable library, children can look up more information for themselves about composers, authors or artists whose work they have enjoyed
  25. 25. REVISION LESSONS • Most revision should be carried out on individual basis since the weaknesses of the pupils may vary. Lessons are devoted to revision to ensure that what has been taught has been learnt thoroughly and well understood. After a lesson has been conducted, the teacher has a responsibility to ask the pupils to retell what they understood.
  26. 26. Gaps in children’s knowledge • When revision lessons reveal that they are gaps in children’s knowledge, the solution is not to teach the children again, but to use a new approach. Simply to repeat the lesson in the same way as before is foolish, for if the children failed to grasp it the first time, the same lesson taught again in the same way is likely to have the same results.
  27. 27. •Repetition plays a part in revision lessons. The repetition should be done by the children rather than the teacher. The teacher will find that if by making children act in a specific way, he compels them to draw on what they know. •This may reveal to the children in the clearest way possible the gaps that exist in their knowledge and give them good reasons for careful revision.
  28. 28. Introduction • This is usually brief as teacher gives an explanation of what is being revised and is done to make the children aware of the need to revise
  29. 29. Presentation/approaches to revision lessons • Pupils should be given some activity that will help them remember what they have been taught previously. a) Expression work: - The pupils can be asked to write about or draw or model what they have learned. Weaknesses in their knowledge will be evident.
  30. 30. b) Creative work: - This involves helping children to write plays or make workbooks on something that they have learnt. The teacher is likely to see the depth and extent of their knowledge. Such creative work demands a good understanding of the subjects and also provides the children with interesting revision. c) Group Work: - This helps make revision by making it social and enjoyable.
  31. 31. d)Games: - The quiz and other competitive team games like spelling bees and reading competitions can all be successful revision techniques. e)Practice: - Pure repetition, such as working more arithmetic examples or repeating verbally things that have been learned, has more value although older children soon get bored with this.
  32. 32. f) Generalisation: - If the teacher relates what she has taught, the pupils remember better. From the particular to the general and from the concrete to the abstract, are the principles that apply to the revision lesson.
  33. 33. Conclusion • Type of conclusion will depend on the type of presentation but should always be short. It plays a role in showing the teacher clearly how effective the revision has been.
  34. 34. TEACHING SKILLS AN INTRODUCTION
  35. 35. Teaching is effectively conveying your message in creative and understandable terms so that others benefit from the information. A successful teacher needs to possess several skills in order for teaching to be effective.
  36. 36. Communication skills • Communication is the process of passing an understandable message from one person to another • It is a vital process in teaching and a successful teacher should make every effort to develop his/her communication skills. • For success, the message should be put into a suitable code, such as language or gestures and transmitted by the sender to the receiver using appropriate media such as correspondence, broadcasting, and film among others.
  37. 37. There are four elements to effective communication: •Precise language- fluency of language •Teachers uses precise and clear instructions •Simple with appropriate explanations •Teacher responds to students’ questions
  38. 38. Rules for good communication • Choose a code that is known by everyone to whom the message is sent • Avoid using a code that is ambiguous or might be misunderstood • Avoid using a medium that any of your receivers might find unpleasant • Choose a medium that is well suited to the conditions under which the message is to be sent.
  39. 39. Teaching skills related to communication in the classroom
  40. 40. Course and lesson planning • The ability to prepare lessons that fulfil objectives, employ appropriate methodology and meet learners’ needs. • This also means the ability to keep records. • Demonstrates awareness of the learner needs and responds to these in lesson planning
  41. 41. Classroom management • This refers to the ability to control and facilitate interaction in the classroom that is appropriate to the activity. It promotes learning and takes into account different needs and abilities of learners. • It demonstrates an awareness of equal opportunities and diversity issues.
  42. 42. Important skills of classroom management • Manage the learning environment- set up class in a way that facilitates learning. • Managing interaction- the teacher should be aware of the need to balance talking time. • Managing the lesson and the activities- give instructions clearly. • Managing relationships and behaviour- deals appropriately with student problems when they arise.
  43. 43. Subject knowledge (Professional skills) • This refers to the good command of the subject by the teacher. • It also means the ability to communicate this knowledge effectively and in ways that are appropriate to the learners.
  44. 44. Understanding learners needs (Inter-personal relationship) • The teacher should be able to understand learner needs and the learning process. • He/ She should relate well with students- treat students fairly and with love and respect. The teacher should involve all learners in the class.
  45. 45. Motivational skill • • • • • • The teacher should be able to Motivate him/ herself as well as the learners. Make learners curious. Enjoy being with children. Recognize good behaviour. Reward good work done.
  46. 46. Intrapersonal skill • An effective teacher is emotionally intelligent, that is has the ability to control his/ her emotions. This teacher has the ability to perceive, control and evaluate emotions. • NB: Emotional Intelligence can be learnt and strengthened.
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