Trinidad poultrybooklet

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Trinidad poultrybooklet

  1. 1. B1: Poultry BookletListen to your birds at night, the noises they make will tell you whether they are well or sick.Reduced Appetite: TreatmentUse any of the remedies below. All dosages are given for 10 adult birds and should be mixed fresh eachday. If there is no improvement after 3 days, call the Vet, or AHA.1) Give 3-4 cloves of crushed Garlic (Allium sativum) in the feed.2) Blend or boil a handful of leaves Zebapique (Neurolaena lobata). Put blend in drinkers, or put the boiled extract in a barrel.3) Give young Coconut water (Cocos nucifera) as the source of drinking water.4) Deprive the birds of water for a few hours. Boil vine of Caraaili (Momordica charantia) for 1 hour to make a syrup. Use 4 to 5 lbs of leaves in 3/11.4 litres gallons of water. Add the syrup to the drinkers directly.5) Blend Wonder of the World leaves (Bryophyllum pinnatum) [70 leaves for 2000 birds]. Extract the juice, add to the water, put the residue in the feed. Continue for 14 days.6) N.B. 8 lbs of Caraaili leaves boiled to 1 litre of syrup has been found to be toxic.Poisoning: TreatmentIf you suspect poisoning from Cedar bark (Cedrela odorata) shavings in the litter use one of thefollowing:1) Molasses will cause diarrhea and flush out the birds.2) Charcoal pills absorb poisons.3) Let the birds get thirsty, put ground sap from aloes (Aloe vera) in water and put in drinker. Switch back to plain water after a few hours.DewormingDraw the worm grass (Chenopodium ambrosioides) and give the birds the infusion to drink. Oneinformant combined the worm grass with epsom salts and soft candle (whale oil), made into a little balland pushed down the throat of the bird. The worm grass or pharamceuticals were given when theinformants saw worms or brown stool. Aloe vera is used to purge birds after deworming them. Someinformants take the green skin off of the Aloe leaf, others just cut off the end. Birds are also purged withsalt, lemon or egg whites.Respiratory problems are treated with honey and citrus (Citrus spp.).Coughs and Colds: Treatment 1
  2. 2. Proper water sanitation will prevent rolling infections. Contaminated water interferes with the immuneresponse to the vaccine. Some farms in Trinidad have Pseudomonas bacteria in their water.1) Use 50 fluid ounces of bleach to 400 gallons of water or 3 to 4 ounces of chlorine crystals to 400 gallons of water.2) Vinegar changes the pH of the water. Low pH improves feed conversion and improves gut absorption. Use 3-600 ml of 5% acetic acid per 50 imperial gallons of water.Colds and Respiratory ills: Treatment1) Garlic works better for bacterial than viral infections2) Make enough of the following extracts so that the birds drink all of it in 24 hours:3) Blend Wonder of the World leaves (Bryophyllum pinnatum) [70 leaves for 2000 birds]. Extract the juice, add to the water, put the residue in the feed. Continue for 7 days, or 14 days.4) Make Garlic extract by blending 1 lb or 4 to 5 heads of Garlic. All 1 litre of lime to 1 litre of the Garlic extract. Add Molasses for palatability. Use for 5 days, observe birds for their response.5) Put citrus (Citrus aurantifolia, Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta) peels in a stocking in the birds water.6) For mild infections prepare the following in 4 litre of water: Boil stems and leaves of wild Caraaili (Momordica charantia), [2 lbs of Caaraili and 20 Bay leaves (Pimenta racemosa) for 10,000 birds], add bayleaf, plus a little molasses for improved palatability. Put the mixture in the drinking water [100 gal/ 250 l] for 3-5 days. Change the water every day. Then give plain water for a few days. Start over if necessary.7) Put Garlic and Sour Orange (Citrus sinensis) in water for 5 days. Then use lime alone for 7 days.8) Chadron bénée leaves (Eryngium foetidum) can be boiled and added to the drinking water.9)Eye injuriesPlantago major leaves are also used for eye injuries.Diarrhea: PreventionKeep the housing, water, and feed clean.The yellow sap from the aloe leaf (Aloe vera) can cause diarrhea.Treatment1) Vinegar can clear up diarrhea caused by yeast and bacteria, since it lowers the pH of the water, and makes it harder for these organisms to survive.2) Give the water left after cooking rice (Mar in Trinidad), instead of drinking water. This helps bind the stomach and is used to rehydrate the sick birds. Unpolished rice is best.ConstipationBreeders can become constipated. 2
  3. 3. Treatment1) Take the gel and yellow film from the inside of 2 or 3 Aloe vera leaves. Mix with a pint of vinegar to help spread this film in the drinking water. Put all of this in a stocking in the water barrel so that the valves of the system do not become clogged.Ectoparasites (ticks, lice and mites): Treatment2) Cut up whole plant of Mardi gras (Renealmia alpinia). Put in nest boxes and sprinkle around the pen.3) Put leaves of Kojo root (Petiveria alliacea) in nest boxes.4) Put Caraaili (Momordica charantia) leaves in nest boxes. Or make a spray out of the fruit seeds and spray the boxes.5) Put 2 or 3 green Cedar (Cedrela odorata) leaves in nest boxes. In 2 or 3 days all the lice are gone and you can remove the leaves.6) Black sage (Cordia curassavica) leaves are put in the nest boxes or litter7) Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves are put in the nest boxes or litterFungal Diseases: Treatment for Aspergillosis1) Boil Caraili (Momordica charantia) down to a syrup. Add syrup to drinking water. Use for 7 days. Change water every day. For 10,000 birds use 5 lbs caraaili leaves in a 5 gallon pot. Add 1 litre of the resulting syrup to a barrel of water.2) For Candida, 3-600 ml. vinegar in the water will lower the pH and kill the organisms. Citrus juice will also serve the same purpose.Chicken Pox: Treatment1) These treatment help relieve the symptoms only.2) Ashes.3) Washing blue, salt butter and lime.4) Dab milk from Mango (Mangifera indica) leaves on blisters.5) Dab gentian violet on blistersEnhance livabilityThese treatments are used in the first two weeks of the chicks life in an attempt to enhance livability orTo achieve better performance based on weight/age1) Take 0.5 large Aloe Vera leaf, peel, cut in pieces, put in a perforated bag in water for 1 day only prior to or after vaccinations for 4000 chickens. Or the aloe gel is blended and added directly to the water tank2) Grind Wonder of the World, (Bryophyllum pinnatum) extract juice, add to drinking water for 5 days after the vaccination. 3
  4. 4. 3) Give garlic in feed, blend the cloves of garlic, extract the juice and dry it in the sun or in the oven before adding to the feed. Or use 454 g of garlic blended in water to produce a liter of liquid and combine with 1 liter of lime juice. This mixture was put in the drinking water with molasses for increased palatability.4) Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum)Wounds: Treatment1) Use juice from wonder of the world leaves.2) Use scrapings from young cocoa (Theobroma cocoa) pods on wound.3) Use sap from the banana (Musa paradisiaca) tree to coat wound.Heat Stress: Treatment1) Give water from young coconuts (Cocos nucifera) as drinking water2) Encourage water consumption by mixing 4 teaspoons of sugar in 1 liter of water and giving as drinking water.3) Put ice in the drinking water4) Put juice of Limes (Citrus aurantifolia) in drinking water. Also put rind, pulp and Lime skin in stocking and put in drinking water. Change daily for 3 days, skip for 2 days. If feather loss occurs due to long-term use of lime juice, compensate with milk in the drinking water. Lime juice adds Vit C, helps birds drink more water, stops bacterial growth in water tanks and improves eggshell quality.5) Put no more than 1 pint of molasses in a barrel of drinking water.Nutrition1) Any green plant material like kudzu and bhaji (Amaranthus dubius) will make yolks yellower, however Wonder of the World (Bryophyllum pinnatum) leaves may increase the percentage of fertile eggs.2) Ducks need more niacin than chickens which can be found in molasses.Taste In backyard systems chickens are kept housed for two to three weeks before being slaughtered andeaten. This is done so that they can be fed commercial feeds instead of picking up anything from the yard.During this housed period chickens can be fed with chadron bénée (Eryngium foetidum) to improve themeat quality and taste.Table 14. Medicinal plants used by poultry farmers and poultry keepersLatin name Family Common name Part UseKalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Crassulaceae Wonder of the Leaves Reduced appetitePers. worldMomordica charantia Cucurbitaceae Caraaili Vine Reduced appetite 4
  5. 5. Neurolaena lobata Compositae Zherbe à pique Leaves Reduced appetiteAllium sativum Liliaceae Garlic Bulb Reduced appetiteHippobroma longiflora (L.) Campanulaceae Ipecak PoxG. DonCitrus aurantifolia Rutaceae Lime YawsCoffee arabica L. / robusta Rutaceae Coffee Respiratory conditionsCitrus aurantifolia, Citrus Rutaceae Citrus spp. Juice, Respiratorylimonia, Citrus aurantium peel conditions, heat stressRicinus communis L. Euphorbiaceae Castor bean, Respiratory Corape, conditions CarapateMomordica charantia L. Cucurbitaceae Caraaili Vine Respiratory conditionsPimenta racemosa var. Myrtaceae West Indian Leaves Respiratoryracemosa (P.mill) J.W. Bay / Bay rum conditionsMooreAloe vera Liliaceae Aloe Gel Enhance livabilityOcimum sanctum Labiatae Tulsi Leaves Enhance livabilityKalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Crassulaceae Wonder of the Leaves EnhancePers. world livabilityPetiveria alliacea Phytolaccaceae Kojo root, Leaves Ectoparasite kudjuruk controlMomordica charantia Cucurbitaceae Caraaili Vine Ectoparasite controlAzadirachta indica Meliaceae Neem Leaves Ectoparasite controlCordia curassavica Boraginaceae Black sage Leaves Ectoparasite controlRenealmia alpinia Zingiberaceae Mardi gras Leaves Ectoparasite controlCedrela odorata Meliaceae Cedar Leaves Ectoparasite controlCitrus aurantium Sour Juice, pulp Toughen skin, orange cleanNot yet identified Eyebright* Leaves Eye injuriesPlantago major Plantaginaceae Planten Leaves Eye injuriesChenopodium ambrosioides Chenopodiaceae Worm grass Plant tops AnthelminticGossypium spp. Malvaceae Cotton Plant tops Anthelmintic bushAloe vera Liliaceae Aloes Gel Internal injuriesAloe vera Liliaceae Aloes Yellow Purge exudate from cut leafCitrus limonia Lemon Juice PurgeMtambo et al. (1999) evaluated the prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of a combination of Capsicumfrutescens (red pepper), Citrus limon (lemon) and Opuntia vulgaris (prickly pear) against Newcastle 5
  6. 6. disease in domestic fowl. The results indicated that there was no prophylactic or therapeutic value of theplant extract against Newcastle Disease. The plant extract also showed a negative effect on body weightsin domestic birds with Newcastle Disease (Mtambo et al., 1999).Momordica charantia contains the phytosterin glucoside, leurosine, vindoline and vendolinine alkaloidsand organic sulphur compounds (Bakhiet and Adam, 1995). Aerial parts have the triterpenesmomordicines I,II, and III (Robineau, 1991). Alpha-eleostearic acid, lineolenic acid and palmitic acid arepresent, and the plant contains nutritionally useful quantities of iron, calcium, vitamin B, phosphorus andamino acids (Yuwai et al., 1991; Robineau, 1991). Lal jawahar et al. (1990) extracted beta-sitosterol,glucose and potassium chloride from the whole plant excluding the roots. The ether insoluble fractionsshowed dose-related anti-inflammatory activity.Studies found that the petroleum ether and alcoholic extracts of Cordia francisci, Cordia myxa andCordia serratifolia leaves had a significant analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity in therat. Four flavonoid glycosides, robinin, rutin, datiscoside and hesperidin, one flavonoid aglycone,dihydrorobinetin, two phenolic derivatives, chlorogenic and caffeic acid, were present (Ficarra et al.,(1995).Compounds in Petiveria alliacea include triterpenes and free sulphur and derivatives of sulphurtrithiolaniacin (a trithiolane derivative), benzaldehyde, benzoic acid, trans-stilbeen andbenzylhydroxyethyltrisulphide (Robineau, 1991; Hegnuaer, 1990, p. 223). Sitosterol, allantoin and fattyacids have also been identified (Sousa, 1987). Active compounds in the root extract are coumarins (Rochaand Silva, 1969).Neurolaena lobata contains sesquiterpenoid lactones of the neurolenin and furanoheliangolide type thatare active in vitro against Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium berghei (Passreiter et al., 1995;Passreiter and Medinilla Aldana, 1998; Francois et al., 1996). Hexane and ethanol extracts ofNeurolaena lobata were tested in vitro against the trypomastigote form of Trypanosomoa cruzi and werefound to be active (Berger et al., 1998). Neurolaena lobata extracts were evaluated against bacteria,fungi and a protozoal infection (Cáceres et al., 1998; Lentz et al., 1998). The hexane, chloroform andaqueous fractions of a hydroalcoholic extract of Neurolaena lobata aerial parts produced a significantreduction of induced gastric lesions (Gracioso et al., 2000). The mechanism of this antiulcerogenic effectsmay be related to an increased activity of the defensive mechanisms of the stomach such as prostaglandinsynthesis and mucus production (Gracioso et al., 2000).The insecticidal activity of the four plants (except Neem) used for ectoparasite control may be similar tothat of the grasses investigated by Hassan et al. (1994) and Mwangi et al. (1995). Hassan et al. (1994)found that Rhipicephalus appendiculatus tick larvae are attracted to Acalypha fruticosa leaves. Theyconcluded that it was possible that the odor from the leaves contained a chemical that mimicspheromones. Mwangi et al. (1995) found total repellence of all instars of R.. appendiculatus on green 6
  7. 7. Melinis minutiflora. Olfactometer experiments suggested the presence of a strong volatile chemical whichis repulsive to the ticks (see also Thompson et al., 1978).Eugenol was discovered in Pimenta racemosa leaves (Seaforth, 1991).Kalanchoe pinnata leaves are used in India and Brazil or treatment of bruises, wounds, boils and insectbites (Nassis et al., 1992). The phenols coumaric, ferulic, syringic, caffeic and p-hyroxybenzoic acids arefound in Kalanchoe pinnata (Robineau, 1991). Some phenols are anti-inflammatory (Wagner, 1993).Also found were the flavonoids diarabinoside-3-quercetol and glucoside-3-kaempferol (Robineau, 1991).The latter is an anti-asthma compound (Wagner, 1993). A flavonoid fraction obtained by partitioning thejuice between n-butanol and water contained a substance responsible for antihistamine activity (Nassis etal., 2000). The antagonistic activity of the components of the juice is probably due to blockade of H 1receptors (Nassis et al., 2000). Acetic, malic, citric, iso-citric, lactic, fumaric, oxalic and succinic acidsare also present, as are calcium, chlorine, potassium, beta-sitosterol and mucilage (Robineau, 1991).Costa et al., (1994) fractionated the juice of fresh stems and leaves of Kalanchoe brasiliensis andidentified seven patuletin rhamnoside derivatives. Three of them were novel, and four were known.Morton (1990) claims that water-rich plant mucilages with high polysaccharide content may be protectiveof normal cells, stimulating regeneration when attacked, whether or not there are identifiable agentspresent that may have supportive action. Kalanchoe pinnata has in vitro anti-fungal, antibiotic,anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory and immunostimulatory activity (Robineau, 1991; Pal et al., 1989; Palet al., 1991; Silva et al., 1995). The methanolic fraction of Kalanchoe pinnata had significant analgesicactivity and possesses a potent CNS depressant action (Pal et al., 1999).Two insecticidal bufadienolides (1 and 2) were isolated from a methanol extract of the leaves ofKalanchoe pinnata by bioassay-guided fractionation. Compound 1 was identified as known bryophyllinA (bryotoxin C). A new bufadienolide 2 was found named bryophyllin C. Compounds 1 and 2 showedstrong insecticidal activity against third instar larvae of the silkworm (Bombyx mori), their LD50 valuesbeing evaluated as 3 and 5 microg/g of diet, respectively (Supratman et al., 2000).Isolation and chemical analysis of a fatty acid fraction of Kalanchoe pinnata with a potent lymphocytesuppressive activity. Almeida et al., (2000) demonstrated that Kalanchoe pinnata (KP) leaf extractsinhibited in vitro lymphocyte proliferation and showed in vivo immunosuppressive activity. From theethanolic extract a fraction (KP12SA) was purified that had a twenty-fold more potent action to blockmurine lymphocyte proliferation than the crude extract. This study provides evidence that fatty acidspresent in Kalanchoe pinnata (palmitic acid , stearic acid and traces of arachidic and behenic acids maybe responsible, at least in part, for its immunosuppressive effect in vivo.Research indicates that Aloe vera contains mannose-6-phosphate, phospatidyl choline and arachidonate,which have wound healing and anti-inflammatory properties (Davis et al., 1994; Serrame et al., 1995; Laljawahar et al., 1990; Afzal et al., 1991). Acemannan, a polydispersed (1-4)-linked acetylated mannan,is an extract of Aloe vera (Karaca et al., 1995). Chinnah et al. (1992) showed that the immune response 7
  8. 8. of chickens to Newcastle disease virus was enhanced by the addition of acemannan to the vaccine.Nordgren et al. (1992) showed that acemannan enhances the protective efficiency of a Mareks diseasevaccine. Karaca et al. (1995) used cultures of normal chicken spleen cells and HD 11 cell lines to showthat acemannan-induced nitric oxide synthesis may be mediated through macrophage mannose receptorsin vitro. The authors suggested that macrophage activation may be accountable for some of theimmunomodulatory effects of acemannan in vivo.Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) ethanolic extract showed a stress alleviating effect (Archana and Namasivayam,2000). Anabolic, hypotensive, smooth muscle relaxant and hypoglycemic effects of Ocimum sanctumplant extract have been observed (Chattopadhyay, 1993). The plant enhanced the physical endurance andsurvival time of swimming mice, prevented stress-induced gastric ulcers in rats and protected rats andmice against the hepatotoxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride (Sakina et al., 1990). The plants alsocauses prolongation of sleeping time in mice due to pentobarbital which suggests CNS activity that mayinvolve dopaminergic neurones (Sakina et al., 1990). The antiulcerogenic property of Ocimum sanctumLinn was confirmed against experimental ulcers; and the plants activity is due to its ability to reduce acidsecretion and increase mucous secretion (Mandal et al., 1993). The extract has also shown inhibition ofskin papillomas in mice and blocks or suppresses the events associated with chemical carcinogenesis byinhibiting activation of the carcinogen (Prashar et al., 1998).Eryngium foetidum is used against colds and fevers in Bolivia and Jamaica (Michie, 1992; Muñoz et al.,2000). Chadron bénée (Eryngium foetidum) leaves are rich in calcium, iron, riboflavin and carotene(Robineau, 1991). This plant is used in the Caribbean for the treatment of several anti-inflammatorydisorders. The hexane extract is rich in terpenic compounds, alpha-cholesterol, brassicasterol,campesterol, stigmasterol (the main component 95% ), beta-sitosterol, delta 5-avenasterol, delta (5)24-stigmastadienol and delta 7-avenasterol (Garcia et al., 1999). The anti-inflammatory effects of the leaveswere confirmed (Garcia et al., 1999).Citrus pulp contains citric and malic acids, pectin and flavonoids (Robineau, 1991). Bakhiet and Adam(1995) report that citrus species contain hesperidoside, naringoside and eryodictyoside which play a rolein vascular resistance. The essential oils from citrus peels show in vitro broad-spectrum anti-bacterialactivity (Robineau, 1991). Aqueous decoctions of citrus species have shown antimycotic, antihemorrhagicand antibacterial activity (Robineau, 1991). Lime and sour orange have more Vitamin A than the otherspecies. Vitamins A, C and E play a role in immune response (Latshaw, 1991).Garlic and its component allicine have anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activity (Robineau, 1991). Allicineacts as a bactericide up to dilutions of 1/100,000 against gram+ and gram- bacteria (Robineau 1991).Ziegler and Stichler (1989) found that alliin was an antibiotic precursor. Garlic showed anti-inflammatoryactivity comparable to certain steroid and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs according to Khobragadeand Jangde (1996). Weber et al. (1992) found virucidal activity of fresh garlic extract and four garliccompounds against six selected viruses. 8
  9. 9. Aloe vera Tourn. ex Linn (syn: Aloe barbadensis Miller) fresh leaves are used to obtain two components:(1) a bitter yellow juice (exudate) with high content of 1,8 dihydroxyanthraquinone derivatives (aloeemodin) and their glycosides (aloins), which are used for their cathartic effects and a mucilaginous gelfrom the parenchymatous tissue, which has been used for topical treatment of skin burns and wounds(Vázquez et al., 1996). The gel has antiinflammatory activity similar to the antiinflammatory agentsindomethacin and dexamethasone (Vázquez et al., 1996). Wound healing is a highly complex, butcoordinated flow of events which can be roughly divided into three overlapping phases - inflammation,granulation tissue formation and remodelling of the extracellular matrix. These events involve severalcellular phenomena such as migration, proliferation, adhesion, phenotypic differentiation, etc (Chitra etal., 1998). Immediately after injury there is clot formation and the earlier phases of wound repair involvesinflammation and synthesis of ground substance (Chitra et al., 1998). The ground substance consistsmainly of proteoglycans (PGs), which are the heterogeneous, non-fibrillar components of the extracellularmatrix. These complex macromolecules are made up of a protein core linked covalently to linearheteropolysaccharides, the glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) (Chitra et al., 1998). GAGs are the firstcomponents of the extracellular matrix to be synthesized during wound healing, and form the scaffold forcollagen and elastin deposition. Aloe vera has a significant influence on the PGs and GAGs in healingwounds and this healing may be related to the gel polysaccharides, for example mannose-6-phosphate andacemannan (Chitra et al., 1998). Aloe vera gel also increased the amount of hyaluronic acid and dermatansulphate in the wound which may result in the formation of a more stable scar and faster healing (Chitra etal., 1998).Chemical groups identified in Aloe vera gel extract with antiinflammatory activity are sterols,anthraquinones, anthraglycosides, reductor sugars, cardiotonic glycosides, mucilagus and pectins,carbohydrates, naftoquinones, saponins and triterpenoids (Vázquez et al., 1996). Cinnamoyl-C-glucosylchromone in Aloe barbadensis also contributes to its topical antiinflammatory activity (Hutter etal., 1996).An infusion of the fresh juice of Aloe barbadensis Mill. is used for urinary and bladder conditions and forcleaning the blood (Nicholson and Arzeni, 1993).The ethnoveterinary use of Psidium guajava for diarrhoea has transferred directly from the human use.Psidium guajava has been so well studied it is recommended for human use in diarrhoaeal cases(Robineau, 1991). Crataegolic, ursolic and oleanic acids have an activating effect on the humancomplement system which plays a role in the immune defense system (Wagner, 1990). Oleanolic andursolic acid were shown to have antiinflammatory properties in laboratory animals (Liu, 1995). Ursolicacid inhibits the human leukocyte elastase enzyme through the C-28 carboxy group. Oleanolic and ursolicacids have a protective effect against lipid peroxidation and have anti-oxidant potency (Recio et al.,1995). 9
  10. 10. Smith (1974) reported that weekly grooming of cattle with leaves of Cordia curassavica reduced tickpopulations. Cordia spp. contains phenolic compounds (Ficarra et al., 1995) and terpenoid quinones(Lachman-White et al., 1992). Branches are reported to be resinous and leaves are aromatic and have stiffhairs on their upper sides (Morton, 1981).Chenopodium ambrosioides is considered an effective and well-known antiparasitic remedy (Duke,1989; Heinrich et al., 1992; Guarrera, 1999).Anti-inflammatory agents have been classified into two types: cyclooxygenase inhibitors and lipoxygenaseinhibitors. The former are more effective during the early phase of inflammation but are less effective inthe late phase. Lipoxygenase inhibitors are more effective in the late phase of inflammation. Curcuminhas been reported to inhibit both lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase and to be effective in acute andchronic models of inflammation. It has also been reported to be a potent scavenger of oxygen free radicals(Anto et al., 1998). Curcumin is a potent scavenger of free radicals including nitrogen centred freeradicals, nitrogen dioxide and nitric oxide. Its therapeutic properties in inflammation and cancer might bepartly explained by its free-radical scavenging properties. Some curcuminoids have antioxidant activityand there is strong correlation between this activity and the anti-inflammatory activity of curcuminoids(Anto et al., 1998). Rhizomes of Curcuma longa Linn. Yielded 3 curcuminoids which displayedtopoisomerase I and II enzyme inhibition activity (Roth et al., 1998). Turmeric has been used as a feveralleviator and it has potential in cancer prevention (Roth et al., 1998). Curcumin has antiviral potential(Roth et al., 1998).In India the mucilaginous joints of Nopalea cochenillifera are split open and applied as a poultice torelieve burns, skin diseases, earacches and toothaches (Morton, 1990). In Italy and the Canary Islandsfleshy joints of other cacti called Opuntia ficus-indica and Opuntia dillenii are used as poultices (UnciniManganelli, Tomei, 1999; Loro et al., 1999). Intraperitoneal administration of the lyophilized aqueousextract of Opuntia dillenii exhibits central analgesic properties, associated with anti-inflammatory effectson acute inflammatory processes similar to the action of morphine (Loro et al., 1999).Kalanchoe pinnata leaf juice exhibited histamine-blocking activity. The juice contains flavonoidcompounds, carbohydrates and mineral salts. Flavonoid glycosides, alkanes, alkanols, sterols, phenoliccompounds, bufadienolides isolated from the plant. Antiallergic activity of the plant due to presence of aquercetin derivative. There are one or more compounds in the juice of the leaves which selectively blockH1 receptors apparently in a competitive fashion (Nassis et al., 1992). These findings provideexperimental support for the folk medicine use for allergic skin diseases of allergic origin that can berelated to the presence of an H1 antagonist in the leaf juice (Nassis et al., 1992). Antiinflammatory andhypotensive properties of Kalanchoe brasiliensis have been confirmed (Souza Brito and Souza Brito,1993; Morton, 1990). Kalanchoe pinnata aerial part has moderate in vivo antimalarial activity (Muñozet al., 2000). Plant also has antibacterial properties and significant CNS-depressant activity (Pal and NagChaudhuri, 1989). Kalanchoe spp. contain bufadienolides, terpenoids and flavonoids (Costa et al., 1994). 10
  11. 11. The crude lyophilized juice inhibited the lymphocyte proliferative response indicating curative propertiesof the plants associated with action on the immune system (Costa et al., 1994). The bufadienolide(bryophyllin B) showed anti-tumour activity (Costa et al., 1994). Seven flavonoids found in Kalanchoespp. (rhamnoside derivatives) have low, moderate and potent immunomodulatory activity (Costa et al.,1994). The methnolic extract of the leaves showed significant enhancement of the healing process inacetic acid-induced chronic gastric lesions in rats (Pal and Nag-Chaudhuri, 1991).Goda et al., (1999) found histamine release inhibitors in watercress (Nasturtium officinale) which wereisolated using a monitoring system with antigen-stimulated RBL-2H3 cells. Of the 15 compoundsisolated, flavonols and megastigmanes significantly inhibited histamine release (Goda et al., 1999).Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) which is released upon chewing of watercress (Nasturtium officinale)is a chemoprotective agent against lung cancer induced by smoking (Hecht et al., 1995). A study by Chenet al., (1996), found that consumption of watercress causes a decrease in the levels of oxidativemetabolities of acetaminophen, probably due to inhibition of oxidative metabolism of this drug (Chen etal., 1996). Chemicals found in the herb are alanine, arginine, ascorbic acid, aspartic acid, beta carotene,biotin, copper, cystine, diastase, folacin, gluconasturtin, glutamic acid, glycine, histidine, iron, isoleucine,leucine, magnesium, manganese, methionine, niacin, pantothenic acid, phenylalanine, phenylethyl-isothiocyanate, phosphorus, potassium, proline, serine, protein, riboflavin, thiamin, threonine, tryptophan,tyrosine, valine, vit B6, zinc (Duke, 2000).Plantago major fresh leaf juice or bath is used for opthalmic reasons in Venezuela, France and Mauritius(Novaretti and Lemordant, 1990; Jelager et al., 1998; Morton, 1975). Plantago major, according toliterature data, has expectorant, antiphlogistic, pain-relieving effects (Matev et al., 1982).Plantago major contains biologically active compounds such as polysaccharides, lipids, caffeic acidderivatives, flavonoids, iridoid glycosides, terpenoids, alkaloids and some organic acids (Samuelsen,2000). Hriscu et al., (1990) studied the leaves and seeds of Plantago major, Plantago media andPlantago lanceolata and separated a polyholozidic fraction. A statistically significant gastroprotectiveaction was found both in the case of the polyholozide obtained from seeds and leaves in two experimentalmodels. At higher doses a laxative action was also obtained (Hriscu et al., 1990).Water extracts (infusions) from planten (Plantago lanceolata L. and Plantago major L.) was studied interms of its activity enhancing the uterine tonus in a series of experiments with a preparation of an isolatedrabbit and guinea pig uterine horn (Shipochliev, 1981).The water extract of Plantago major and Plantago lanceolata showed activity at 4 mg/ml against Staph.aureus. The water extract of Plantago major was active against Staph. aureus at 2 mg / ml and againstSalmonella typhi at 8 mg/ml. In vitro screening of Plantago major showed that the plant extract inhibitedthree bacteria CDE Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri and Staph. aureus(Caceres et al., 1990; Navarro et al., 1996). Plantago major leaves in early spring Southern Ohio /Northern Kentucky contained 10,000 Vit A units / 100g and 19 mg / 100g ascorbic acid. Ursolic acid 11
  12. 12. isolated from a hexane extract of Plantago major showed a significant COX-2 inhibitory effect (Ringbomet al., 1998). Oleanolic acid in Plantago major was less active than ursolic acid but showed a similarCOX-2/COX-1 selectivity ratio (0.6) (Ringbom et al., 1998). A range of biological activities has beenfound from plant extracts including wound healing activity, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant,weak antibiotic, immunomodulating and antiulcerogenic activity (Samuelsen, 2000). Karpilovskaia et al.,(1989) administered Amidopyrine in combination with sodium nitrite to rats. This combination producesthe toxic damage of the liver and tumors in rats in long-term experiments, in connection with endogenicsynthesis of carcinogenic nitrosodimethylamine (Karpilovskaia et al., 1989). The inclusion into theanimal diet of the polyphenolic complex from Plantago major--plantastine as an inhibitor of thecarcinogen synthesis reduced the toxic damage of the liver. This was indicated by normalization ofbiochemical parameters and also decreased tumor yield from 87.5% to 33.3%. The data obtained may beindicate a role for the combined use of plantastine with nitrosated drugs that would contribute tocarcinogenesis prevention (Karpilovskaia et al., 1989).A clinical trial of a Plantago major preparation in the treatment of chronic bronchitis confirmed a spasticeffect upon the smooth musculature of bronchi produced by Plantago major (Matev et al., 1982).Hetland et al., 2000 examined the antibacterial effect of a soluble pectin polysaccharide, PMII, isolatedfrom the leaves of Plantago major, in inbred mice experimentally infected with Streptococcuspneumoniae serotype 6B. Their data demonstrated that the polysaccharide fraction PMII from P. majorprotects against pneumococcal infection in mice when administered systemically prechallenge, andsecondly that the protective effect is owing to stimulation of the innate and not the adaptive immunesystem (Hetland et al., 2000). 12

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