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Sept 19

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ethnoveterinary research

ethnoveterinary research

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  • 1. Herbal medicine used for animals in BC
  • 2. Summary
    • This research addresses the question of how institutions can organize to bring about community-based technological solutions to farmers’ animal health problems based on traditional knowledge. Institutions in agricultural areas are increasingly expected to act as catalysts (enablers) of development.
    • The research will document and validate (in a non-experimental way) the ethnoveterinary medicines used by livestock farmers in BC. We will produce a manual of (safe & effective) ethnoveterinary medicines that can be understood by the general public. The manual is not designed to replace standard veterinary information
    • As scientists we will not be designing new appropriate technology but evaluating technology (ethnoveterinary medicines) already developed by the community.
  • 3.
    • Ethnoveterinary medicine is the scientific term for traditional animal health care, and provides low-cost alternatives to allopathic drugs.
    • Research into ethnoveterinary medicine is often undertaken as part of a community-based approach that serves to improve animal health and provide basic veterinary services in rural areas.
    • Ethnoveterinary medicines can be considered a form of cultural capital , which can stimulate livestock production or at minimum provide economic alternatives to allopathic drugs.
    Definitions
  • 4. Participatory workshops
    • Ethnoveterinary medicine is a new research direction for the University of Victoria and needs multi-disciplinary understanding. The research activity is based on international collaboration and intellectual exchanges and it is expected that the research findings will be applicable internationally.
    • The research will also test the potential of participatory workshops as a dissemination activity or new way of transferring knowledge in ethnoveterinary medicine.
    • Workshops on ethnoveterinary medicine may be a new way to provide farmers with access to health care for their animals at a reasonable cost.
  • 5. Justification
    • In BC, 7,460 farmers with annual sales of over $10,000 have a low net farm income. The return to assets on these farms ranges from –1% for farmers with sales of $19,000 to $25,000 to 5.2% from farms with sales of over $250,000 (van Kessel, 2001). These figures are important because sustainable agriculture has been defined (by the Federal-Provincial Agriculture Committee on Environmental Sustainability) as that which is economically viable for the present generation of farmers and environmentally sustainable for the future generation (Dakers, 1992).
    • Ethnoveterinary alternatives are necessary for livestock farmers who cannot use allopathic drugs or whose economic circumstances prevent the use of veterinary services or drugs for minor health problems of livestock.
    • Social resilience is concerned with the stability of livelihoods (Adger, 2000). In this research, social resilience is the ability of farm communities to withstand external shocks (social, economic, political) and stresses like livestock diseases and illnesses.
    • Adger, W. Neil, 2000. Social and ecological resilience: Are they related? Progress in Human Geography 24 (3), 347 – 364.
    • Dakers, Sonya. 1992. Sustainable agriculture: Future dimensions. Ottawa: Library of Parliament, Research Branch.
  • 6. Justification
    • Sheep farmers in Ontario and BC have claimed that sustainable production is not economically viable because of internal parasites (Lans, 2001b). Conventional producers have stated that anthelmintics are expensive and that administration of them is time consuming (Lans, 2001b).
    • The use of anti-microbial drugs for non-therapeutic use in farm animals may be banned in future (Lans, 2001b). Since agriculture is a dynamic system, technology needs to keep up with changing consumer demand for food quality.
    • Van Kessel, Henry, 2001. B.C. farming at a disadvantage. Agri Digest 17 (4).
    • Lans, C. 2001b. ‘Novel use’ forages and management practices for parasite control in pastured sheep. Project proposal developed with Dr. Ann Clark for OMAFRA 2002 New Directions in Agri-Food and Rural Research Program.
  • 7. Expected outcomes
    • Validated ethnoveterinary knowledge will produce community-based technological solutions, based on environmentally sustainable practices, for livestock farmers. These solutions will be included in a manual.
    • The research can contribute to farm incomes, maintain the resilience of farm communities, promote self-reliance and contribute to an internationally recognized safe and good quality food supply. It can also strengthen rural community capacity building, leadership and skills development.
    • The success of this ethnoveterinary project will be the extent to which farmers can use the manual for improved livestock health.
  • 8. Objectives
      • o        To test the potential of participatory workshops as a dissemination activity.
      • o        To produce a manual on ethnoveterinary medicine in British Columbia through the workshop method.
      • o        To help agricultural rural communities to develop alternative solutions for animal health problems and; raise the appreciation for ethnoveterinary practices and medicinal plants in British Columbia.
  • 9. Methods
    • Data collection took place over a five-month period (March to July).
    • A purposive sample of livestock farmers was necessary to target key informants with the knowledge sought. The sample size was sixty.
    • Two visits were made to most participants. Information was collected during the first visit.
    • A draft outline of the farmer’s ethnoveterinary remedies was discussed at the second farm visit in order to establish that dosages were accurately noted, for input on content, and to clarify any points. In some cases draft outlines were posted or emailed back to participants.
    • The farmer-approved drafts were compiled into a draft manual to be discussed at the workshop.
    • Medicinal plant specimens were collected where possible and they were identified and deposited as vouchers in the University of Victoria herbarium by the student ethnobotanist Crystal Ross.
  • 10. Continuing education under the BCVMA
    • ry Dr Evelyn Mathias, Doctoral Degree in Veterinary Medicine, Institute of Tropical Veterinary Medicine, Justus-Liebig University, Giessen, West Germany.
    • Dr. Donna Kelleher, Washington State University College of Veterinary Medicine 1994. President of the Washington Chapter of the American Holistic VMA.
    • 2.30 – 2.35. Introduction to the program.
    • 2.35 – 3.00. Dr Mathias. Non-experimental validation of Ethnoveterinary medicine.
    • 2.50 – 3.50. Dr Mathias will discuss the ethnoveterinary treatments & practices of a goat farmer in Vancouver Island from a veterinary point of view.
    • 4.05 – 5.00. Dr Kelleher will discuss the herbs that could be used for the following systems in small animals: gastrointestinal (conditions: vomiting, diarrhea, constipation and megacolon) neurological (conditions: fear and anxiety and seizures) and urological (conditions: interstitial cystitis and urinary tract infections and estrogen deficient incontinence). If time allows: salves to heal sprains as well as hot spots. Presentation of cases on how to treat specific conditions in each system. How do the herbs work?
    • 5.00 – 5.30. Questions and discussion. Drs Mathias & Kelleher.
  • 11. Non-experimental validation
    • It is claimed that only drug companies with sales of US$5 billion can engage in traditional validation and drug discovery so this research will evaluate the ethnoveterinary plants used with a non-experimental method (Browner et al . , 1988; Heinrich et al., 1992). This method consists of: 1.   an accurate botanical identification, 2.   determining whether the folk data can be understood in terms of bioscientific concepts and methods,
    • 3.   searching the chemical / pharmaceutical/ pharmacological literature for the plant’s known chemical constituents and to determine the known physiological effects of either the crude plant, related species, or isolated chemical compounds that the plant is known to contain.
    • Browner, C.H., Ortiz de Montellano, B.R., Rubel, A.J., 1988. A methodology for cross-cultural ethnomedical research. Current Anthropology 29, 681 – 702.
    • Heinrich, M., Rimpler, H., Antonio-Barrerra, N., 1992. Indigenous phytotherapy of gastrointestinal disorders in a lowland Mixe community (Oaxaca, Mexico): Ethnopharmacologic evaluation. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 36, 63 - 80.
  • 12. Non-experimental validation for Aloe vera : Review of the ethnomedicinal literature
    • Published literature for Aloe vera
    • Karaca et al. , 1995. Chinnah et al. , 1992; Davis et al. , 1994; Lal jawahar et al. , 1990; Afzal et al. , 1991
    • Chemical constituents
    • Acemannan, a polydispersed  (1-4)-linked acetylated mannan, enhances the immune response to both Newcastle Disease Virus and Infectious Bursal Disease Virus.
    •   If ethnobotanical data, phytochemical and pharmacological information supports the folk use of a plant species like Aloe vera above, it can be grouped into the validation level with the highest degree of confidence.
  • 13. Heinrich et al . (1992) established four levels of validity:
    • 1.        If no information supports the use it indicates that the plant may be inactive.
    • 2.        A plant (or closely related species of the same genus), which is used in geographically or temporally distinct areas in the treatment of similar illnesses, attains the lowest level of validity, if no further phytochemical or pharmacological information validates the popular use. Use in other areas increases the likelihood that the plant is active against the illness.
    • 3.        If in addition to the ethnobotanical data, phytochemical or pharmacological information also validates the use in British Columbia, the plant may exert a physiological action on the patient and is more likely to be effective than those at the lowest level of validity.
    • 4.        If ethnobotanical, phytochemical and pharmacological data supports the folk use of the plant, it is grouped in the highest level of validity and is most likely an effective remedy .
  • 14. Abscess abcès (French),
    • Signs, Raised area, pus, loss of hair. Causes, Prevention
    • Treatment
    • Infusion of dried leaves of (1/2 teaspoon) goldenseal ( Hydrastis canadensis ), (1/2 teaspoon) myrrh ( Commiphora molmol ) infused for ½ hour in 2 cups water twice a day. Use clean cloth as fomentation, drip infusion on wound. Dog licked it up so got an internal dose as well. Clean hair from around wound. Myrrh increases the granulation of the skin. Healed in 3 days.
    • Wynn & Marsden pg 295. Goldenseal is a traditional antimicrobial. There is some evidence that supports this use against Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aueruginosa . Wynn & Marsden pg 190. Goldenseal is recommended for its antimicrobial, astringent, or antiinflammatory properties. Wynn pg 95. Goldenseal contains berberine which has antibacterial and antiamebic properties. Can be used for bacterial infections. Dogs have been administered 45 mg/kg berberine IV without ill effect. No potential interactions reported. Dose proportional. Wynn pg 103. Action of myrrh is not well described. It is a traditional remedy for inflammation. Contraindications – none described. Allergic contact dermatitis has been reported. Potential interactions – none described. Dose – topically.
    • (Topic author: SM-S)
  • 15. Workshop validation
    • At the end of each topic there will be a number in parentheses with these meanings:
    • 1. Standard veterinary practice, or equivalent
    • 2. Traditional practice supported by scientific knowledge
    • 3. Traditional practice that animal healers acknowledge and agree works.
    • Practices not rated according to 1, 2 or 3, will be rejected.
  • 16. Comments from the consultant
    • Take 0.5 teaspoon each of dried leaves of goldenseal ( Hydrastis canadensis ) and of myrrh ( Commiphora molmol ) and infuse the leaves for 0.5 hours in 2 cups water twice a day. Clean hair from around wound. Use a clean cloth as fomentation $$$DO PEOPLE KNOW WHAT THIS IS?, dip it in the infusion and drip infusion on wound. Dog licked it up so got an internal dose as well. Myrrh increases the granulation of the skin. Healed in 3 days. WHAT TO DO WITH SUCH STUFF? $$$QUESTIONS (FOR CHERYL/ THE WORKSHOP TO FOLLOW UP ON): IS THIS A WOUND TREATMENT RATHER THAN AN ABSCESS TREATMENT? OR DOES THE ABSCESS NEED TO BE OPENED BEFORE PUTTING THE MEDICINE ON? IF SO THEN WE NEED TO SAY SO.
    •  

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