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  • Stress

    2. 2. Presentation Outline <ul><li>Part 1 - General Awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Part 2 - Stress at Work </li></ul><ul><li>Part 3 - Self - help </li></ul>
    3. 3. Part 1 <ul><li>General Awareness </li></ul>
    4. 4. What Is Stress ? <ul><li>Stress is the reaction people have to excessive pressures or other types of demand placed upon them. It arises when they worry that they can’t cope. </li></ul>HELP ME!
    5. 5. What Is Stress ? <ul><li>Stress is the “wear and tear” our minds and bodies experience as we attempt to cope with our continually changing environment </li></ul>I HATE YOU
    6. 6. Definition S = P > R Stress occurs when the pressure is greater than the resource
    7. 7. Stress Feelings <ul><li>Worry </li></ul><ul><li>Tense </li></ul><ul><li>Tired </li></ul><ul><li>Frightened </li></ul><ul><li>Depressed </li></ul><ul><li>Anxious </li></ul><ul><li>Anger </li></ul>
    8. 8. Organisational Stress <ul><li>Rules </li></ul><ul><li>Regulations </li></ul><ul><li>“Red - Tape” </li></ul><ul><li>Deadlines </li></ul>
    9. 9. Negative Self – Talk Stress <ul><li>Pessimistic thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Self criticism </li></ul><ul><li>Over analysing </li></ul>
    10. 10. TYPES OF STRESS <ul><li>Negative stress </li></ul><ul><li>Positive stress </li></ul>
    11. 11. Negative Stress <ul><li>It is a contributory factor in minor conditions, such as headaches, digestive problems, skin complaints, insomnia and ulcers. </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive, prolonged and unrelieved stress can have a harmful effect on mental, physical and spiritual health. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Positive Stress <ul><li>Stress can also have a positive effect, spurring motivation and awareness, providing the stimulation to cope with challenging situations. </li></ul><ul><li>Stress also provides the sense of urgency and alertness needed for survival when confronting threatening situations. </li></ul>
    13. 13. The Individual <ul><li>Everyone is different, with unique perceptions of, and reactions to, events. There is no single level of stress that is optimal for all people. Some are more sensitive owing to experiences in childhood, the influence of teachers, parents and religion etc. </li></ul>
    14. 14. <ul><li>Most of the stress we experience is self-generated. How we perceive life - whether an event makes us feel threatened or stimulated, encouraged or discouraged, happy or sad - depends to a large extent on how we perceive ourselves. </li></ul>The Individual
    15. 15. <ul><li>Self-generated stress is something of a paradox, because so many people think of external causes when they are upset. </li></ul><ul><li>Recognising that we create most of our own upsets, is an important first step towards coping with them. </li></ul>The Individual
    16. 16. SYMPTOMS OF STRESS <ul><li>Physical symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Mental symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioural symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional symptoms </li></ul>
    17. 17. Physical Symptoms <ul><li>Sleep pattern changes </li></ul><ul><li>Fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Digestion changes </li></ul><ul><li>Headaches </li></ul><ul><li>Aches and pains </li></ul><ul><li>Indigestion </li></ul><ul><li>Dizziness </li></ul><ul><li>Fainting </li></ul><ul><li>Sweating & trembling </li></ul><ul><li>Tingling hands & feet </li></ul><ul><li>Breathlessness </li></ul><ul><li>Palpitations </li></ul>Symptoms of Stress
    18. 18. Mental Symptoms <ul><li>Lack of concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Memory lapses </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty in making decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Confusion </li></ul><ul><li>Disorientation </li></ul><ul><li>Panic attacks </li></ul>Symptoms of Stress
    19. 19. Behavioural Symptoms <ul><li>Appetite changes - too much or too little </li></ul><ul><li>Eating disorders - anorexia, bulimia </li></ul><ul><li>Increased intake of alcohol & other drugs </li></ul><ul><li>Increased smoking </li></ul><ul><li>Restlessness </li></ul><ul><li>Nail biting </li></ul>Symptoms of Stress
    20. 20. Emotional Symptoms <ul><li>Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Impatience </li></ul><ul><li>Fits of rage </li></ul><ul><li>Tearfulness </li></ul><ul><li>Deterioration of personal hygiene and appearance </li></ul>Symptoms of Stress
    21. 21. STRESS RELATED ILLNESSES <ul><li>Stress is not the same as ill-health, but has been related to such illnesses as: </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiovascular disease </li></ul><ul><li>Immune system disease </li></ul><ul><li>Asthma </li></ul><ul><li>Diabetes </li></ul><ul><li>Digestive disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Ulcers </li></ul><ul><li>Skin complaints </li></ul><ul><li>Headaches and migraines </li></ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul>
    22. 22. Part 2 <ul><li>Stress at Work </li></ul>
    23. 23. Why Do We Work ? <ul><li>Work provides an income and fulfils a variety of other needs: - mental and physical exercise, social contact, a feeling of self-worth and competence. </li></ul>
    24. 24. FACTORS INFLUENCING WORK STRESS <ul><li>The drive for success </li></ul><ul><li>Changing work patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Working conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Overwork </li></ul><ul><li>Under-work </li></ul><ul><li>Uncertainty </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Relationships at work </li></ul><ul><li>Change at work </li></ul>
    25. 25. How Do I Know If I Am Suffering From Stress? <ul><li>Each person handles stress differently. Some people actually seek out situations which may appear stressful to others. </li></ul><ul><li>A major life decision, such as changing careers or buying a house, might be overwhelming for some people, while others may welcome the change. Some find sitting in traffic too much to tolerate, while others take it in stride. </li></ul><ul><li>The key is determining your personal tolerance levels for stressful situations. </li></ul>
    26. 26. TIPS FOR REDUCING OR CONTROLLING STRESS <ul><li>Remember that success will not come from a half hearted effort, nor will it come overnight. It will take determination, persistence and time. </li></ul><ul><li>Some suggestions may help immediately, but if your stress is chronic, it may require more attention and/or lifestyle changes. </li></ul><ul><li>Determine YOUR tolerance level for stress and try to live within these limits. Learn to accept or change stressful and tense situations whenever possible. </li></ul>
    27. 27. <ul><li>Be realistic . </li></ul><ul><li>If you feel overwhelmed by some activities (yours and/or your family’s), learn to say NO! Eliminate an activity that is not absolutely necessary. You may be taking on more responsibility than you can or should handle. If you meet resistance, give reasons why you’re making the changes. Be willing to listen to other’s suggestions and be ready to compromise. </li></ul><ul><li>Shed the “superman/superwoman” urge. </li></ul><ul><li>No one is perfect, so don’t expect perfection from yourself or others. Ask yourself, “What really needs to be done?” How much can I do? Is the deadline realistic? What adjustments can I make?” Don’t hesitate to ask for help if you need it. </li></ul><ul><li>Meditate .  </li></ul><ul><li>Just ten to twenty minutes of quiet reflection may bring relief from chronic stress as well as increase your tolerance to it. Use the time to listen to music, relax and try to think of pleasant things or nothing. </li></ul>Tips For Reducing Or Controlling Stress
    28. 28. <ul><li>Visualize. </li></ul><ul><li>Use your imagination and picture how you can manage a stressful situation more successfully. Whether it’s a business presentation or moving to a new place, many people feel visual rehearsals boost self-confidence and enable them to take a more positive approach to a difficult task. </li></ul><ul><li>Take one thing at a time.   </li></ul><ul><li>For people under tension or stress, an ordinary workload can sometimes seem unbearable. The best way to cope with this feeling of being overwhelmed is to take one task at a time. Pick one urgent task and work on it. Once you accomplish that task, choose the next one. The positive feeling of “checking off” tasks is very satisfying. It will motivate you to keep going. </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise. </li></ul><ul><li>Regular exercise is a popular way to relieve stress. Twenty to thirty minutes of physical activity benefits both the body and the mind. </li></ul>Tips For Reducing Or Controlling Stress
    29. 29. <ul><li>Hobbies. </li></ul><ul><li>Take a break from your worries by doing something you enjoy. Whether it’s gardening or painting, schedule time to indulge your interest. </li></ul><ul><li>Healthy life style. </li></ul><ul><li>Good nutrition makes a difference. Limit intake of caffeine and alcohol (alcohol actually disturbs regular sleep patterns), get adequate rest, exercise, and balance work and leisure. </li></ul><ul><li>Share your feelings.   </li></ul><ul><li>A conversation with a friend lets you know that you are not the only one having a bad day, caring for a sick child or working in a busy office. Stay in touch with friends and family. Let them provide love, support and guidance. Don’t try to cope alone. </li></ul>Tips For Reducing Or Controlling Stress
    30. 30. <ul><li>Give in occasionally. Be flexible! </li></ul><ul><li>If you find you are meeting constant opposition in either your personal or professional life, rethink your position or strategy. </li></ul><ul><li>Arguing only intensifies stressful feelings. If you know you are right, stand your ground, but do so calmly and rationally. Make allowances for other’s opinions and be prepared to compromise. If you are willing to give in, others may meet you halfway. Not only will you reduce your stress, you may find better solutions to your problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Go easy with criticism. </li></ul><ul><li>You may expect too much of yourself and others. Try not to feel frustrated, let down, disappointed or even “trapped” when another person does not measure up. </li></ul><ul><li>The “other person” may be a wife, a husband, a child or a colleague whom you are trying to change to suit yourself. Remember, everyone is unique, and has his or her own virtues, shortcomings, and right to develop as an individual. </li></ul>Tips For Reducing Or Controlling Stress
    31. 31. <ul><li>Where to Get Help. </li></ul><ul><li>Help may be as close as a friend or spouse. But if you think that you or someone you know may be under more stress than just dealing with a passing difficulty, it may be helpful to talk with your doctor, spiritual advisor, or employee for professional assistance. </li></ul><ul><li>If need be, they may even suggest you to visit with a psychiatrist, psychologist, social worker, or other qualified counselor. </li></ul>Tips For Reducing Or Controlling Stress
    32. 32. Ask Questions to Yourself <ul><li>List the things which cause stress and tension in your life. </li></ul><ul><li>How does this stress and tension affect you, your family and your job? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you identify the stress and tensions in your life as short or long term? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you have a support system of friends/family that will help you make positive changes? </li></ul><ul><li>What are your biggest obstacles to reducing stress? </li></ul><ul><li>What are you willing to change or give up for a less stressful and tension-filled life? </li></ul><ul><li>What have you tried already that didn’t work for you? </li></ul><ul><li>If you do not have control of a situation, can you accept it and get on with your life? </li></ul>
    33. 33. JOB STRESS <ul><li>Job stress can be defined as the harmful physical and emotional responses that occur when the requirements of the job do not match the capabilities, resources, or needs of the worker. Job stress can lead to poor health. </li></ul><ul><li>Job stress is often confused with challenge, but these concepts are not the same. </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge energizes us psychologically and physically, and it motivates us to learn new skills and master our jobs. When a challenge is met, we feel relaxed and satisfied. </li></ul><ul><li>But job stress is different - the challenge has turned into job demands that cannot be met, relaxation has turned to exhaustion, and a sense of satisfaction has turned into feelings of stress. </li></ul><ul><li>In short, the stage is set for illness, injury, and job failure. </li></ul>
    34. 34. Approach to job stress <ul><li>Balance between work and family or personal life </li></ul><ul><li>A support network of friends and coworkers </li></ul><ul><li>A relaxed and positive outlook </li></ul>Job Stress
    35. 35. Job conditions that may lead to stress <ul><li>The design of tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy workload, infrequent rest breaks, long work hours, and shift work are stressful. So are hectic and routine tasks that have little inherent meaning, do not utilize workers' skills, and provide little sense of control. </li></ul><ul><li>Management style. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of participation by workers in decision-making, poor communication in the organization, lack of family-friendly policies. </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>Poor social environment and lack of support or help from coworkers and supervisors. </li></ul>Job Stress
    36. 36. <ul><li>Work roles. </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicting or uncertain job expectations, too much responsibility, too many “hats to wear.” </li></ul><ul><li>Career concerns. </li></ul><ul><li>Job insecurity and lack of opportunity for growth, advancement, or promotion; rapid changes for which workers are unprepared. </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Unpleasant or dangerous physical conditions such as crowding, noise, air pollution. </li></ul>Job Conditions That May Lead To Stress
    37. 37. Part 3 <ul><li>Self - help </li></ul>
    38. 38. Statement <ul><li>Not all the stress we experience is generated at work !! </li></ul>
    39. 39. CAUSES OF STRESS <ul><li>External Stresses </li></ul><ul><li>Internal Stresses </li></ul>
    40. 40. External Stresses - Organisational <ul><li>Company take over </li></ul><ul><li>Major reorganisation </li></ul><ul><li>Company sale / relocation </li></ul><ul><li>Employee benefit cuts </li></ul><ul><li>Mandatory overtime required </li></ul><ul><li>Little input into decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Mistake consequences severe </li></ul><ul><li>Workloads vary </li></ul><ul><li>Fast paced work </li></ul><ul><li>React to changes </li></ul><ul><li>Advancement difficult </li></ul><ul><li>Red tape delays jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Insufficient resources </li></ul><ul><li>Pay below going rate </li></ul><ul><li>Technology changes </li></ul><ul><li>Employee benefits poor </li></ul><ul><li>Workplace conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Consistent poor performance </li></ul>Causes Of Stress
    41. 41. External Stresses - Major Life Events <ul><li>Death of a loved one </li></ul><ul><li>Divorce / separation </li></ul><ul><li>Injury/illness ( self / family ) </li></ul><ul><li>Marriage </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of job </li></ul><ul><li>Retirement </li></ul><ul><li>Change in financial status </li></ul><ul><li>Change of job / work </li></ul><ul><li>Mortgage or loan </li></ul><ul><li>Change in responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Moving house </li></ul>Causes Of Stress
    42. 42. Recognise The Problem <ul><li>The most important point is to recognise the source of the negative stress. </li></ul><ul><li>This is not an admission of weakness or inability to cope! It is a way to identify the problem and plan measures to overcome it. </li></ul>
    43. 43. Stress Reduction Techniques <ul><li>Progressive Relaxation: Progressive relaxation of your muscles reduces pulse rate and blood pressure as well as decreasing perspiration and respiration rates. The body responds to anxiety-producing thoughts and events with muscle tension which in turn increases the anxiety. </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle relaxation reduces tension and is incompatible with anxiety. Typically, it involves tensing individual muscle groups for several seconds and releasing the tension -- allowing the muscles to gradually relax. </li></ul><ul><li>Deep Breathing: Proper breathing is essential for good mental and physical health. The next time you feel a surge of stress, try a few moments of deep breathing. </li></ul><ul><li>Sit in a comfortable position and take deep, measured breaths, e.g., inhaling while counting up from 1 to 4; exhaling while counting down from 4 to 1. Do this 20-30 times and you are sure to feel refreshed. Deep breathing assists in relaxation by increasing the amount of oxygen in the body. </li></ul>
    44. 44. <ul><li>Visualization: If you think anxious thoughts, you become tense. In order to overcome negative feelings, you can use the power of your imagination to refocus your mind on positive, healing images. </li></ul><ul><li>Get into a comfortable position, close your eyes and visualize a scene or place that you associate with safety and relaxation. It doesn't matter what you visualize, as long as it's calming to you. As you relax your mind, your body also relaxes. </li></ul><ul><li>Thought Stopping: Thought stopping helps you overcome excessive worry, repetitive thoughts, and negative thinking, which may take the form of self-doubt, fear, and avoidance of stressful situations. </li></ul><ul><li>Thought stopping involves concentrating on the unwanted thoughts and after a short time, suddenly stopping and emptying your mind, by using the mental command &quot;stop&quot; or a loud noise to interrupt negative thinking. Then, you may use thought substitution to focus on positive thoughts and outcomes. If the thoughts can be controlled, stress levels can be significantly reduced. </li></ul>Stress Reduction Techniques
    46. 46. ABC STRATEGY <ul><li>A = AWARENESS </li></ul><ul><li>What causes you stress? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you react? </li></ul>
    47. 47. <ul><li>B = BALANCE </li></ul><ul><li>There is a fine line between positive / negative stress </li></ul><ul><li>How much can you cope with before it becomes negative ? </li></ul>ABC Strategy
    48. 48. <ul><li>C = CONTROL </li></ul><ul><li>What can you do to help yourself combat the negative effects of stress ? </li></ul>ABC Strategy
    49. 49. STRESS MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES <ul><li>Change your thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Change your behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Change your lifestyle </li></ul>
    50. 50. Change your Thinking <ul><li>Re-framing </li></ul><ul><li>Positive thinking </li></ul>Stress Management Techniques
    51. 51. Re-framing <ul><li>Re-framing is a technique to change the way you look at things in order to feel better about them. </li></ul><ul><li>There are many ways to interpret the same situation so pick the one you like. </li></ul><ul><li>Re-framing does not change the external reality, but helps you view things in a different light and less stressfully. </li></ul>Stress Management Techniques
    52. 52. Positive Thinking <ul><li>Forget powerlessness, dejection, despair, failure </li></ul><ul><li>Stress leaves us vulnerable to negative suggestion so focus on positives: </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on your strengths </li></ul><ul><li>Learn from the stress you are under </li></ul><ul><li>Look for opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Seek out the positive - make a change. </li></ul>Stress Management Techniques
    53. 53. Change your Behaviour <ul><li>Be assertive </li></ul><ul><li>Get organised </li></ul><ul><li>Ventilation </li></ul><ul><li>Humour </li></ul><ul><li>Diversion and distraction </li></ul>Stress Management Techniques
    54. 54. Be Assertive <ul><li>Assertiveness helps to manage stressful situations, and will , in time, help to reduce their frequency. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of assertiveness often shows low self - esteem and low self - confidence. </li></ul><ul><li>Extending our range of communication skills will improve our assertiveness. </li></ul>Change Your Behaviour
    55. 55. Equality and Basic Rights <ul><li>1) The right to express my feelings </li></ul><ul><li>2) The right to express opinions/beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>3) The right to say ‘Yes/No’ for yourself </li></ul><ul><li>4) Right to change your mind </li></ul><ul><li>5) Right to say ‘I don’t understand’ </li></ul><ul><li>6) Right to be yourself, not acting for the benefit of others </li></ul><ul><li>7) The right to decline responsibility for other people’s problems </li></ul><ul><li>8) The right to make reasonable requests to others </li></ul><ul><li>9) The right to set my own priorities </li></ul><ul><li>10) The right to be listened to, and taken seriously </li></ul>Change Your Behaviour
    56. 56. Benefits <ul><li>Higher self-esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Less self-conscious </li></ul><ul><li>Less anxious </li></ul><ul><li>Manage stress more successfully </li></ul><ul><li>Appreciate yourself and others more easily </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling of self-control </li></ul>Change Your Behaviour
    57. 57. Get Organised <ul><li>Poor organisation is one of the most common causes of stress. </li></ul><ul><li>Structured approaches offer security against ‘out of the blue’ problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Prioritising objectives, duties and activities makes them manageable and achievable. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t overload your mind. </li></ul><ul><li>Organisation will help avoid personal and professional chaos. </li></ul>Change Your Behaviour
    58. 58. Time Management <ul><li>Make a list </li></ul><ul><li>What MUST be done </li></ul><ul><li>What SHOULD be done </li></ul><ul><li>What would you LIKE to do </li></ul><ul><li>Cut out time wasting </li></ul><ul><li>Learn to drop unimportant activities </li></ul><ul><li>Say no or delegate </li></ul>Change Your Behaviour
    59. 59. Ventilation <ul><li>‘A problem shared is a problem halved’ </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a support network through friends or colleagues to talk with. It’s not always events that are stressful but how we perceive them. </li></ul><ul><li>Writing a diary or notes may help release feelings but do not re-read what has been written. </li></ul>Change Your Behaviour
    60. 60. Humour <ul><li>Good stress - reducer </li></ul><ul><li>Applies at home and work </li></ul><ul><li>Relieves muscular tension </li></ul><ul><li>Improves breathing </li></ul>Change Your Behaviour
    61. 61. Diversion And Distraction <ul><li>Take time out </li></ul><ul><li>Get away from things that bother you </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce stress level </li></ul><ul><li>Calm down </li></ul><ul><li>Think logically </li></ul>Change Your Behaviour
    62. 62. Change Your Lifestyle <ul><li>Diet </li></ul><ul><li>Smoking & Alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Leisure </li></ul><ul><li>Relaxation </li></ul>
    63. 63. Benefits of Exercise <ul><li>Improves blood circulation </li></ul><ul><li>Lowers blood pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Clears the mind of worrying thoughts </li></ul><ul><li>Improves self image </li></ul><ul><li>Makes you feel better about yourself </li></ul><ul><li>Increases social contact </li></ul>Change Your Lifestyle
    64. 64. Sleep <ul><li>Good stress reducer </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to cope when tired </li></ul><ul><li>Wake refreshed after night’s sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Plenty of daytime energy </li></ul>Change Your Lifestyle
    65. 65. Leisure <ul><li>Gives you a ‘break’ from stresses </li></ul><ul><li>Provides outlet for relief </li></ul><ul><li>Provides social contact </li></ul>Change Your Lifestyle
    66. 66. Benefits of Relaxation <ul><li>Lowers blood pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Combats fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces pain </li></ul><ul><li>Eases muscle tension </li></ul><ul><li>Decreases mental worries </li></ul><ul><li>Increases concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Increases productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Increases clear thinking </li></ul>Change Your Lifestyle
    67. 67. Alternatives <ul><li>Conventional Medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Counselling & psychotherapy </li></ul><ul><li>Meditation </li></ul><ul><li>Massage </li></ul><ul><li>Herbalism </li></ul><ul><li>Homeopathy </li></ul><ul><li>Hypnotherapy </li></ul><ul><li>Acupuncture </li></ul><ul><li>Aromatherapy </li></ul><ul><li>Yoga </li></ul>
    68. 68. Thank You!