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Targeted instruction and multiple reads of complex text lead to multiple levels of understanding. ...

Targeted instruction and multiple reads of complex text lead to multiple levels of understanding.
All applicable Reading Comprehension, and Language standards are fully covered, and critical Speaking and Listening standards are included too. Paired readings are grouped by genre, with a choice of two “capstone” reading projects in every unit. Instruction is organized around multiple reads of a single text, with lots of text support preceding independent reading, which is also well-scaffolded. Primary Sources related to US history and reading historical documents are covered throughout.

Common Core Coach, American Literature, Level II, contains higher readability passages and instruction that is more sophisticated than in our Level I text. Reading passages include works by Isaac Asimov, O. Henry, James Madison, Henry David Thoreau, and more.

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Georgia Common Core Coach, CCGPS Edition, American Literature, Level II Presentation Transcript

  • 1. This book is printed on paper containinga minimum of 10% post-consumer waste.www.triumphlearning.comPhone: (800) 338-6519 • Fax: (866) 805-5723 • E-mail: customerservice@triumphlearning.comCommonCoreCoachforAmericanLiteratureandInformationalTextsIICommonCoreCoachCommonCoreCoachDevelopedExclusivelyfortheCCGPSYourInstructionalAnchor!ISBN-13: 978-1-62362-054-79 7 8 1 6 2 3 6 2 0 5 4 79 0 0 0 0GEORGIAGEORGIAT143GAFirst EditionCCGPSEditionfor American Literatureand Informational TextsII
  • 2.         H SGeorgia Common Core Coach for American Literature and Informational Texts II, First Edition T143GA ISBN-13: 978-1-62362-054-7Cover Illustration: Elizabeth Rosen/Morgan Gaynin Inc.Triumph Learning®136 Madison Avenue, 7th Floor, New York, NY 10016 © 2014 Triumph Learning, LLC. All rights reserved. No part of this publication maybe reproduced in whole or in part, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording orotherwise, without written permission from the publisher.Printed in the United States of America.  10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1The National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and Council of Chief State School Officers are the sole owners and developers of the CommonCore State Standards, © Copyright 2010. All rights reserved.CommonCoreCoachFirst EditionGEORGIAAmericanLiteratureandInformationalTextsIICC13_ELA_L2A_FM_SE 1 5/2/13 11:08 AM
  • 3. Duplicatinganypartofthisbookisprohibitedbylaw.©2014TriumphLearning,LLC2ContentsUnit 1 — LiteratureLesson 1: Reading Fiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5Whole Class One Thousand Dollars. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6Small Group excerpts from Youth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16Independent Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26Lesson 2: Reading Poetry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27Whole Class On Imagination. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28Small Group Patterns. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34Independent Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38Lesson 3: Reading Drama . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39Whole Class Trifles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40Small Group Tradition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58Independent Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70Lesson 4: Comparing Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71Whole Class an excerpt from Sister Carrie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72Small Group abridged from Life in the Iron Mills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86Independent Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94Unit 2 — Informational TextLesson 5: Reading Articles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95Whole Class abridged from The Facts of Reconstruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96Small Group Nikola Tesla Sees a Wireless Vision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108Independent Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112Common CoreGeorgia PerformanceStandards (GPS)RL.11–12.1, RL.11–12.2,RL.11–12.3, RL.11–12.4,RL.11–12.5, RL.11–12.6,RL.11–12.10, SL.11–12.1,L.11–12.4.aRL.11–12.2, RL.11–12.4,RL.11–12.5, RL.11–12.10,SL.11–12.1, L.11–12.4.bRL.11–12.1, RL.11–12.2,RL.11–12.3, RL.11–12.4,RL.11–12.5, RL.11–12.10,SL.11–12.1, L.11–12.4.aRL.11–12.1, RL.11–12.2,RL.11–12.3, RL.11–12.4,RL.11–12.5, RL.11–12.6,RL.11–12.9, RL.11–12.10,SL.11–12.1RI.11–12.1, RI.11–12.2,RI.11–12.3, RI.11–12.4,RI.11–12.5, RI.11–12.6,RI.11–12.10, SL.11–12.1,L.11–12.6CC13_ELA_L2A_FM_SE 2 5/2/13 11:08 AM
  • 4. Duplicatinganypartofthisbookisprohibitedbylaw.©2014TriumphLearning,LLC3Lesson 6: Reading Persuasive Texts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113Whole Class abridged from On the Duty of Civil Disobedience. . . . . . . 114Small Group Hybrid and Electric Vehicles—Drive Green. . . . . . . . . . . . . 128Independent Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134Lesson 7: Reading Historical Documents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135Whole Class The Federalist Papers No. 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136Small Group Address to the Illinois Republican State Convention. . . . . 148Independent Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158Lesson 8: Reading Scientific and Technical Texts. . . . . . . 159Whole Class  A New Energy Source: Hydraulic Fracturing. . . . . . . . . . . . 160Small Group The Science of Fingerprints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170Independent Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174Lesson 9: Reading Internet Sources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175Whole Class  Remember the Digital Divide?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176Small Group The Divide Isn’t Just Digital . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186Independent Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190Lesson 10: Comparing Informational Texts. . . . . . . . . . . . 191Whole Class Boom and Bust: California’s Gold Rush. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192Small Group The Discovery of Gold In California. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200Independent Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208Glossary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209Common CoreGeorgia PerformanceStandards (GPS)RI.11–12.1, RI.11–12.2,RI.11–12.3, RI.11–12.5,RI.11–12.6, RI.11–12.10,SL.11–12.1, L.11–12.5.b,L.11–12.6RI.11–12.1, RI.11–12.2,RI.11–12.3, RI.11–12.4,RI.11–12.5, RI.11–12.6,RI.11–12.8, RI.11–12.9,RI.11–12.10, SL.11–12.1,L.11–12.6RI.11–12.1, RI.11–12.2,RI.11–12.3, RI.11–12.4,RI.11–12.5, RI.11–12.6,RI.11–12.7, RI.11–12.10,SL.11–12.1RI.11–12.1, RI.11–12.2,RI.11–12.3, RI.11–12.6,RI.11–12.10, SL.11–12.1,L.11–12.5.a, L.11–12.5.dRI.11–12.1, RI.11–12.2,RI.11–12.3, RI.11–12.4,RI.11–12.5, RI.11–12.6,RI.11–12.7, RI.11–12.10,SL.11–12.1CC13_ELA_L2A_FM_SE 3 5/2/13 11:08 AM
  • 5. CC13_ELA_L2A_FM_SE 4 5/2/13 11:08 AM
  • 6. ReadingPoetryLesson2Although poems are often short in length,they are long on meaning. Poets carefullychoose each word and take full advantage ofthe layers of meaning made possible througheffective use of language.Twentieth-century political philosopherHannah Arendt described poetry elegantly:“Poetry, whose material is language, isperhaps the most human and least worldlyof the arts, the one in which the end productremains closest to the thought that inspiredit.” Actively participating in understandinga poem’s meaning is like engaging in aconversation with the poet. Readers striveto know the deeper thoughts and feelingsbehind the relatively few words used toexpress them.This lesson includes a poem by PhillisWheatley (c. 1753–1784), an enslaved AfricanAmerican woman. She was highly regardedboth in America and abroad for her poetry.The second poem is by Amy Lowell (1874–1925). Born into a life of privilege ninety yearsafter Wheatley’s death, Lowell enjoyed similaresteem for her work.These two very different women shareda common belief in the importance of freewill and a free spirit. As you read, noticetheir word choice and use of imagery andfigurative language.Lesson 2  •  Reading Poetry Reading Poetry 27CC13_ELA_L2A_L2_SE 27 5/9/13 7:39 AM
  • 7. Consider1 Thy various works, imperial queen, we see,How bright their forms! How deck’d with pomp by thee!Thy wond’rous acts in beauteous order stand,And all attest how potent is thine hand.5 From Helicon’s1refulgent heights attend,Ye sacred choir, and my attempts befriend:to tell her glories with a faithful tongue,Ye blooming graces, triumph in my song. Now here, now there, the roving Fancy flies,10 Till some lov’d object strikes her wand’ring eyes,Whose silken fetters all the senses bind,And soft captivity involves the mind.by Phillis WheatleyOn ImaginationWhat special gifts do poets have?How important is imagination?FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE Personification is the author’streatment of an abstract conceptas a person. In line 1, Wheatleypersonifies imagination as aqueen. Why is this a powerful wayto explore an abstract, creativeability? As you read, highlightphrases that make the “queen”come to life for you.STRUCTURE  Quatrains are four-line stanzas used to structurepoetry. Wheatley structures thefirst stanza in three quatrains withan aabb rhyming scheme. Howdoes the rhythm of these stanzasadd to the feeling that these areverses in a song of praise?ALLUSION  Authors often alludeto, or reference, other literaryworks, myths, or beliefs. Wheatleymakes several references to Greekand Roman mythology. As youread, circle the allusions Wheatleymakes. Why might she make theseconnections?Whole Class1Mount Helicon  a place loved by the muses in Greek mythology, goddesses ofthe arts and sciences. A spring on the mountain was a source of poeticinspiration.28  Lesson 2  •  Reading Poetry Reading PoetryCC13_ELA_L2A_L2_SE 28 5/9/13 7:39 AM
  • 8. Whole Class Imagination! Who can sing thy force?Or who describe the swiftness of thy course?15 Soaring through air to find the bright abode,Th’ empyreal palace of the thund’ring God,We on thy pinions can surpass the wind,And leave the rolling universe behind:From star to star the mental optics rove,20 Measure the skies, and range the realms above.There in one view we grasp the mighty whole,Or with new worlds amaze th’ unbounded soul.STRUCTURE  An ode is a poemthat opens with quatrains andshifts to longer verses of ten lines,written in praise of something orsomeone. Wheatley uses thisstructure in lines 1–22. Why doesshe choose the ode format?CENTRAL IDEA  A central idea,what the text is mainly about,appears throughout a poem.Underline words that reveal thecentral idea in the third andfourth stanzas. What doesWheatley indicate about howpeople can be freed from whateverenslaves them?FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE Wheatley opens the fourth stanzawith a poetic device known as anapostrophe, which is a directaddress to the subject of the ode.What is the effect of this device?Patterns of Word ChangesDifferent suffixes can change a word’s meaning and part of speech.When you come across an unknown word, break it into its parts todetermine its meaning.beauteous captivity unboundeddisclose expanse Vocabulary StrategyLesson 2  •  Reading Poetry Reading Poetry 29CC13_ELA_L2A_L2_SE 29 5/9/13 7:39 AM
  • 9. Though Winter frowns to Fancy’s raptur’d eyesThe fields may flourish, and gay scenes arise;25 The frozen deeps may break their iron bands,And bid their waters murmur o’er the sands.Fair Flora may resume her fragrant reign,And with her flow’ry riches deck the plain;Sylvanus2may diffuse his honours round,30 And all the forest may with leaves be crown’d:Show’rs may descend, and dews their gems disclose,And nectar sparkle on the blooming rose. Such is thy pow’r, nor are thine orders vain,O thou the leader of the mental train:35 In full perfection all thy works are wrought,And thine the scepter o’er the realms of thought.Before thy throne the subject-passions bow,Of subject-passions sov’reign ruler thou;At thy command joy rushes on the heart,40 And through the glowing veins the spirits dart.CENTRAL IDEA  A poet developsand expands on central ideasthroughout the poem. Whatreference to captivity can youfind in the fifth stanza? How doesthis help you understand whatWinter represents to Wheatley?SENSORY LANGUAGE  Poetsoften use words that appeal to thesenses to help the reader visualizea scene or feel an emotion. In thefifth stanza, underline words thathelp you see, hear, smell, and feelelements of the scene. Explain theeffects of these words.WORD CHOICE  Authors care-fully choose words to evoke aspecific meaning or tone. In thesixth stanza, what words doesWheatley choose to emphasize thepower of imagination? How dothey contribute to the poem?2Sylvanus  the Roman god of the forest, groves, fields, and flocksCHECK IN  Make sure you understand what you have read so far byanswering the following question: Summarize the most important ideasand details. How do they support the central idea?30  Lesson 2  •  Reading Poetry Reading PoetryCC13_ELA_L2A_L2_SE 30 5/9/13 7:39 AM
  • 10. Whole Class Fancy might now her silken pinions tryTo rise from earth, and sweep th’ expanse on high:From Tithon’s bed now might Aurora rise3,Her cheeks all glowing with celestial dies,45 While a pure stream of light o’erflows the skies.The monarch of the day I might behold,And all the mountains tipt with radiant gold,But I reluctant leave the pleasing views,Which Fancy dresses to delight the Muse;50 Winter austere forbids me to aspire,And northern tempests damp the rising fire;They chill the tides of Fancy’s flowing sea,Cease then, my song, cease the unequal lay.AESTHETIC IMPACT  Authorsoften structure a text to heightenits meaning. In this poem,Wheatley ends with the longestverse, which is thirteen lines. Howdoes this choice indicate a build inmomentum?TONE  The tone of a poem is thepoet’s feelings or attitude towardthe subject of the poem. The tonecan shift as the subject changes,so it is important to pay attentionto a poet’s word choice, whichhelps indicate the poet’s feelings.Read lines 50–53. How does thetone of the poem shift at the endas Winter takes over?3Tithon . . . Aurora  In a Roman myth, Tithonus, sometimes called Tithon, wasa mortal loved by Aurora, goddess of the dawn. She married him and pleadedthat he might be given immortality to remain with her forever. Her wish wasgranted, but she forgot to ask that he also be given eternal youth. So Tithonusnever stopped aging. He wasted away in his bed in a room to which Auroraconfined him.Lesson 2  •  Reading Poetry Reading Poetry 31CC13_ELA_L2A_L2_SE 31 5/9/13 7:39 AM
  • 11. Whole ClassCopy the following chart on a separate sheet of paper. Complete the chart withwords or phrases from “On Imagination” that use sensory language. Then,choose one idea from the poem and describe it with your own sensory language,providing an example for each sense.Sight Hearing Taste Smell Touch“On Imagination”Idea:Try ItEngaging LanguageThe foundation of poetry is language, so poets must apply the ultimate artistry tothe language they use. The best poets devise fresh, new ways to describe people,feelings, or things. In these lines, Wheatley describes the moment when something“catches your fancy” in a unique way so that you pay attention to it.Till some lov’d object strikes her wand’ring eyes,Whose silken fetters all the senses bind,And soft captivity involves the mind.At thy command joy rushes on the heart,And through the glowing veins the spirits dart.Her cheeks all glowing with celestial dies,While a pure stream of light o’erflows the skies.Poets also seek to capture our imaginations by appealing to our senses. Thisway, the readers can experience what is being described. How does Wheatleyengage your imagination with these lines from “On Imagination”?Finally, poets may strive to move readers with the sheer beauty of the words theychoose. They combine word choice, rhyme, and rhythm to create lovely, lyrical lines.Take this example from “On Imagination”:32  Lesson 2  •  Reading Poetry Reading PoetryCC13_ELA_L2A_L2_SE 32 5/9/13 7:39 AM
  • 12. Whole ClassVocabulary StrategyPatterns of Word ChangesCertain suffixes can change a word’s meaning and part of speech. Readthe definition of each word below. Use what you know about patterns of wordchanges to write the part of speech and a definition for each word related to thevocabulary word. Then write a sentence using the vocabulary word. (You mayuse a separate sheet of paper if you run out of room below.)1. beauteous (adjective) lovely, fair beauty                                   2. captivity (noun) the state of being taken and held captivate                                   3. unbounded (adjective) being or seeming to be without limits unboundedly                                   4. disclose (verb) to make known disclosure                                   5. expanse (noun) a wide space or area expand                                  Comprehension CheckAnswer these questions about the selection you have just read. Use details fromthe selection to support your responses.1. Many odes feature nature prominently. How is this true of “On Imagination”?2. At age seven, Phillis Wheatley was captured by slave traders in Africa and takento Boston, where the Wheatley family bought her to serve in their household.They taught Phillis to read and write, privileges most slaves did not have,and she was a gifted student. How does knowing her background help youunderstand the poem?3. What examples in the poem show that imagination is important to Phillis?Lesson 2  •  Reading Poetry Reading Poetry 33CC13_ELA_L2A_L2_SE 33 5/9/13 7:39 AM
  • 13. Small GroupConsider1 I walk down the garden paths,And all the daffodilsAre blowing, and the bright blue squills.I walk down the patterned garden paths5 In my stiff, brocaded gown.With my powdered hair and jewelled fan,I too am a rarePattern. As I wander downThe garden paths.10 My dress is richly figured,And the trainMakes a pink and silver stainOn the gravel, and the thriftOf the borders.15 Just a plate of current fashion,Tripping by in high-heeled, ribboned shoes.Not a softness anywhere about me,Only whale-bone and brocade.And I sink on a seat in the shade20 Of a lime tree. For my passionWars against the stiff brocade.The daffodils and squillsFlutter in the breezeAs they please.25 And I weep;For the lime tree is in blossomAnd one small flower has dropped upon my bosom.by Amy LowellDo patterns create order, or do they only result in restrictions?In what patterns of behavior are you stuck?STRUCTURE  How does the repe-tition of phrases in the first stanzamatch the title of the poem?ENGAGING LANGUAGE  In thesecond stanza, how does Lowelldescribe the train? What feelingsdo these words evoke?CENTRAL IDEA  Circle words inthe second stanza that indicatehow the narrator feels aboutthe dress. What does the dresssymbolize?34  Lesson 2  •  Reading Poetry Reading PoetryCC13_ELA_L2A_L2_SE 34 5/9/13 7:40 AM
  • 14. Small Group And the splashing of waterdropsIn the marble fountain30 Comes down the garden paths.The dripping never stops.Underneath my stiffened gownIs the softness of a woman bathing in a marble basin,A basin in the midst of hedges grown35 So thick, she cannot see her lover hiding,But she guesses he is near,And the sliding of the waterSeems the stroking of a dearHand upon her.40 What is Summer in a fine brocaded gown!I should like to see it lying in a heap upon the ground.All the pink and silver crumpled up on the ground. I would be the pink and silver as I ran along the paths,And he would stumble after,45 Bewildered by my laughter.I should see the sun flashing from his sword-hilt and the buckles on his shoes.I would chooseTo lead him in a maze along the patterned paths,A bright and laughing maze for my heavy-booted lover,50 Till he caught me in the shade,And the buttons of his waistcoat bruised my body as he clasped me,Aching, melting, unafraid.With the shadows of the leaves and the sundrops,And the plopping of the waterdrops,55 All about us in the open afternoonI am very like to swoonWith the weight of this brocade,For the sun shifts through the shade.SENSORY LANGUAGE  Circlewords in the third stanza that helpyou hear and feel what the womanexperiences. What is the purposeof this language?TONE  How would you describethe shifts in tone at the end of thethird stanza and the beginning ofthe fourth stanza?WORD CHOICE  In the thirdstanza, the water in the fountainis described as dripping. In thefourth stanza, the water dropsare plopping. How does Lowell’schoice of words match what ishappening in the poem?Lesson 2  •  Reading Poetry Reading Poetry 35CC13_ELA_L2A_L2_SE 35 5/9/13 7:40 AM
  • 15. Underneath the fallen blossom60 In my bosom,Is a letter I have hid.It was brought to me this morning by a rider from the Duke.“Madam, we regret to inform you that Lord HartwellDied in action Thursday sen’night.”65 As I read it in the white, morning sunlight,The letters squirmed like snakes.“Any answer, Madam,” said my footman.“No,” I told him.“See that the messenger takes some refreshment.70 No, no answer.”And I walked into the garden,Up and down the patterned paths,In my stiff, correct brocade.The blue and yellow flowers stood up proudly in the sun,75 Each one.I stood upright too,Held rigid to the patternBy the stiffness of my gown.Up and down I walked,80 Up and down.FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE Underline the figurative languageLowell uses in the fifth stanza.What is the effect of thiscomparison?CENTRAL IDEA  The womanonce again seems to be physicallyuncomfortable in her gown. Circlethe words that reveal the restric-tions forced upon her.STRUCTURE  Earlier in thepoem, the woman wept when alime blossom fell onto her. Howdoes the poet use this imageto foreshadow the news thewoman has received?PATTERNS OF WORDCHANGES  What is the base wordand part of speech of fallen? Howdoes the suffix change the mean-ing of the word and part of speech?36  Lesson 2  •  Reading Poetry Reading PoetryCC13_ELA_L2A_L2_SE 36 5/9/13 7:40 AM
  • 16. Small Group In a month he would have been my husband.In a month, here, underneath this lime,We would have broke the pattern;He for me, and I for him,85 He as Colonel, I as Lady,On this shady seat.He had a whimThat sunlight carried blessing.And I answered, “It shall be as you have said.”90 Now he is dead. In Summer and in Winter I shall walkUp and downThe patterned garden pathsIn my stiff, brocaded gown.95 The squills and daffodilsWill give place to pillared roses, and to asters, and to snow. I shall goUp and down,In my gown.100 Gorgeously arrayed,Boned and stayed.And the softness of my body will be guarded from embraceBy each button, hook, and lace.For the man who should loose me is dead,105 Fighting with the Duke in Flanders,In a pattern called a war.Christ! What are patterns for?STRUCTURE  Lowell has usedonly two short sentences in thepoem so far. Underline these sen-tences. Why does she choose touse complete sentences to expressthese ideas?AESTHETIC IMPACT  How dothe lines in the middle of the laststanza differ from the languageused throughout the rest of thepoem? What is the impact?WORD CHOICE  Does the lan-guage of the last line of the poemfit the narrator we have come toknow? Why does Lowell choose tohave her speak this way?Lesson 2  •  Reading Poetry Reading Poetry 37CC13_ELA_L2A_L2_SE 37 5/9/13 7:40 AM
  • 17. Small GroupIndependent ProjectsYour teacher may assign you one or both of the following performance tasks. Investigate the Progressives’ beliefs in America around 1900. Apply what you have learned about poetry to other poems written duringthe American Revolution.On Your OwnApplication“On Imagination” was published onthe eve of the American Revolution.Read poems by other American poetsof that time period, such as PhilipFreneau, Hugh Henry Brackenridge,or John Trumbull, and determine theeffect of the structure and wordchoice on the theme and central idea.How do their poems compare withWheatley’s? Write an opinion pieceexplaining which poem is mosteffective and why.InquiryAmy Lowell’s poem was publishedduring the Progressive Era in theUnited States. Research theProgressives’ beliefs and the changesthey sought to implement. Prepare apresentation explaining Progressivebeliefs and inferring how Progressivesmight have received the poem, citingevidence from your research.DiscussionDiscuss these questions with your group, and together write a paragraph in response to eachquestion. Provide evidence to support your responses.1. The narrator of the poem uses her imagination to free herself from the restrictions of her dress.What can you conclude about Amy Lowell’s beliefs about the power of the imagination?2. How does the narrator feel about her future? What does life hold for her now?Comprehension CheckAnswer these questions about the selection you have just read. Use details from the selectionto support your responses.1. Identify the poetic patterns, patterns found in nature, and social patterns Lowell uses andalludes to in the poem. Be sure to cite specific lines that demonstrate or support each pattern.2. What prevents the narrator from falling apart when she receives the news of her lover’sdeath? How does Lowell describe her behavior? Explain what this helps you understandabout the narrator as a character.3. The narrator believes that if she and her lover were to marry, they would have “broke[n] thepattern.” To what pattern is she referring? What is ironic about her belief that marrying thisparticular man would break a pattern?38  Lesson 2  •  Reading Poetry Reading PoetryCC13_ELA_L2A_L2_SE 38 5/9/13 7:40 AM
  • 18. Lesson6ReadingEssays are works of nonfiction that focuson one subject, often from the author’spersonal point of view. They can take anynumber of forms, including autobiography,criticism, political tracts, or observations oneveryday life. The first essay you will read inthis lesson, written in 1849 by one of America’smost renowned authors, has provided a modelfor political activists ever since. The secondis a present-day argument concerning carbonemissions and hybrid/electric vehicles.The poet and essayist Henry David Thoreau(1817–1862) lived a simple life in a cabin in NewEngland, which provided the subject for hisbook Walden, or Life in the Woods (1854). In1846, he was arrested in nearby Concord,Massachusetts, for refusing to pay his polltax, in protest of the U.S. government’s policyon slavery. By the next morning, someonehad paid Thoreau’s poll tax and, despite hisobjections, he was released from jail. Thisexperience led him to write On the Dutyof Civil Disobedience, of which you will readan excerpt.In the second selection, the author presentsan argument about a more contemporaryissue: the use of hybrid and electric vehicles.These vehicles have grown in popularity inrecent years as people have become moreconcerned about the impact of non-renewablefuels on the environment. Read on to see howboth authors attempt to persuade readers toadopt their perspectives.PersuasiveTextsLesson 6  •  Reading Persuasive Texts 113CC13_ELA_L2A_L6_SE 113 5/9/13 7:45 AM
  • 19. Whole ClassConsider How does a democracy limit individual freedoms?How should an individual act upon his or her conscience?POINT OF VIEW  Point of view isa particular way of seeing or con-sidering a matter. Thoreau writesthat he agrees with the motto,“That government is best whichgoverns least.” How doesThoreau’s agreement help thereader understand his point ofview? What should the readerexpect from the rest of the text?1 I heartily accept the motto, “That government is best whichgoverns least”; and I should like to see it acted up to more rapidlyand systematically. Carried out, it finally amounts to this, whichalso I believe—“That government is best which governs not at all”;and when men are prepared for it, that will be the kind of govern-ment which they will have.Government is at best but anexpedient; but most govern-ments are usually, and allgovernments are sometimes,inexpedient. The objectionswhich have been broughtagainst a standing army1, andthey are many and weighty, anddeserve to prevail, may also atlast be brought against a stand-ing government. The standingarmy is only an arm of thestanding government. The gov-ernment itself, which is onlythe mode which the people havechosen to execute their will, isequally liable to be abused andperverted before the people canact through it. Witness thepresent Mexican war2, the work of comparatively a few individualsusing the standing government as their tool; for in the outset, thepeople would not have consented to this measure.On the Duty ofCivil Disobedienceabridged fromby Henry David ThoreauRHETORIC  Rhetoric is the art ofspeaking or writing persuasively.Thoreau compares the objectionsagainst a standing army tohis objections against a standinggovernment. Is this comparisonconvincing? Explain.1standing army  professional, permanent army2Mexican war  conflict between the United States and Mexico from 1846 to 1848in the wake of  U.S. annexation of TexasWhole ClassConsiderHenry David Thoreau was anAmerican author and philosopherwho lived from 1817 to 1862.114  Lesson 6  •  Reading Persuasive TextsCC13_ELA_L2A_L6_SE 114 5/9/13 7:45 AM
  • 20. Whole Class This American government—what is it but a tradition, though arecent one, endeavoring to transmit itself unimpaired to posterity,but each instant losing some of its integrity? It has not the vitalityand force of a single living man; for a single man can bend it to hiswill. It is a sort of wooden gun to the people themselves. But it isnot the less necessary for this; for the people must have some com-plicated machinery or other, and hear its din, to satisfy that ideaof government which they have and Mexico in the wake of  U.S.annexation of Governments show thus how successfully mencan be imposed upon, even impose on themselves, for their ownadvantage. It is excellent, we must all allow. Yet this governmentnever of itself furthered any enterprise, but by the alacrity withwhich it got out of its way. It does not keep the country free. It doesnot settle the West. It does not educate. The character inherent inthe American people has done all that has been accomplished;and it would have done somewhat more, if the government hadnot sometimes got in its way. For government is an expedient, bywhich men would fain succeed in letting one another alone; and,POINT OF VIEW  An author’spoint of view, or attitude toward asubject, is often revealed throughword choice and style. Note howThoreau writes that government“does not keep the country free.It does not settle the West. It doesnot educate.” What distinctionis Thoreau making? Why is thisdistinction important?STYLE  An author’s styleincludes elements such assentence structure and length,concise or wordy language, tone,pacing, and anything else thatmakes the writing unique. Thoreauuses the phrase “It does not . . . “three times. What does his use ofthis repetition accomplish?RHETORIC  An analogy is arhetorical technique that links oneidea with another. What analogy isThoreau making in paragraph 2?How is this comparison an effec-tive rhetorical tool?Shades of MeaningSome words that have similar definitions can have differentconnotations. They can evoke a meaning that is different from theirprimary one. Look for biased word choices as you read the selection.heartily expediency wrestedgregariousness excommunicateVocabulary StrategyIn September of 1846, about five months after the Mexican-AmericanWar began, U.S. troops marched on Monterrey.Lesson 6  •  Reading Persuasive Texts 115CC13_ELA_L2A_L6_SE 115 5/9/13 7:45 AM
  • 21. as has been said, when it is most expedient, the governed aremost let alone by it. Trade and commerce, if they were not madeof india-rubber3, would never manage to bounce over obstacleswhich legislators are continually putting in their way; and if onewere to judge these men wholly by the effects of their actions andnot partly by their intentions, they would deserve to be classedand punished with those mischievious persons who put obstruc-tions on the railroads. But, to speak practically and as a citizen, unlike those whocall themselves no-government men, I ask for, not at once no gov-ernment, but at once a better government. Let every man makeknown what kind of government would command his respect,and that will be one step toward obtaining it.RHETORIC  An importantrhetorical technique is the use ofrhetorical questions—questionsto which the answer is obvious orimplied by the author. Thoreauasks, “Why has every man aconscience then?” What impliedanswer does he give? What obliga-tion does he think we incur as aresult of having a conscience?CENTRAL IDEA  The central ideaof a section of text is the mainpoint or argument. The centralidea of this section is that thepower and impulse to do thingsis located in individuals, not ingroups of individuals. How do theideas presented in paragraph 4support the central idea?3india-rubber  natural rubber4powder-monkeys  boys who carry powder to the gunsCHECK IN  Make sure you understand what you have read so far byanswering the following question: How does Thoreau feel aboutgovernment? After all, the practical reason why, when the power is once inthe hands of the people, a majority are permitted, and for a longperiod continue, to rule is not because they are most likely to bein the right, nor because this seems fairest to the minority, butbecause they are physically the strongest. But a government inwhich the majority rule in all cases can not be based on justice,even as far as men understand it. Can there not be a governmentin which the majorities do not virtually decide right and wrong,but conscience?—in which majorities decide only those questionsto which the rule of expediency is applicable? Must the citizenever for a moment, or in the least degree, resign his conscience tothe legislator? Why has every man a conscience then? I think thatwe should be men first, and subjects afterward. It is not desirableto cultivate a respect for the law, so much as for the right. The onlyobligation which I have a right to assume is to do at any time whatI think right. It is truly enough said that a corporation has no con-science; but a corporation of conscientious men is a corporationwith a conscience. Law never made men a whit more just; and,by means of their respect for it, even the well-disposed are dailymade the agents on injustice. A common and natural result ofan undue respect for the law is, that you may see a file of soldiers,colonel, captain, corporal, privates, powder-monkeys4, and all,marching in admirable order over hill and dale to the wars,against their wills, ay, against their common sense and con-sciences, which makes it very steep marching indeed, and116  Lesson 6  •  Reading Persuasive TextsCC13_ELA_L2A_L6_SE 116 5/9/13 7:45 AM
  • 22. Whole Classproduces a palpitation of the heart. They have no doubt that itis damnable business in which they are concerned; they are allpeaceably inclined. Now, what are they? Men at all? or small mov-able forts and magazines5, at the service of some unscrupulousman in power? Visit the Navy Yard, and behold a marine, sucha man as an American government can make, or such as it canmake a man with its black arts—a mere shadow and reminiscenceof humanity, a man laid out alive and standing, and already, asone may say, buried under arms with funeral accompaniment,though it may be, “Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note, As his corse to the rampart we hurried;  Not a soldier discharged his farewell shot O’er the grave where our hero was buried.”65 The mass of men serve the state thus, not as men mainly, but asmachines, with their bodies. They are the standing army, and themilitia, jailers, constables, posse comitatus,7etc. In most casesthere is no free exercise whatever of the judgement or of the moralsense; but they put themselves on a level with wood and earth and5magazines  stores of arms for military operations6from the poem “The Burial of Sir John Moore” by Charles Wolfe7posse comitatus  the men in a county the sheriff could summon to enforcethe lawRHETORIC  Often, a goal of writ-ing is to change the way peoplethink about or see a particulartopic. Thoreau again employs ananalogy in paragraph 5. Here, hecompares soldiers to machines ormere bodies. How does this anal-ogy effectively support his largerpoint about government?AUTHOR’S PURPOSE  Thereason the author writes a textis the author’s purpose. Thoreaustates that people go off to wareven when it is against their ownconscience. What is he tryingto convince people to do orbelieve? Why?This painting, entitled “Flight of the Mexican Army,” shows theconclusion of the Battle of Buena Vista in February of 1847.Lesson 6  •  Reading Persuasive Texts 117CC13_ELA_L2A_L6_SE 117 5/9/13 7:45 AM
  • 23. stones; and wooden men can perhaps be manufactured that willserve the purpose as well. Such command no more respect thanmen of straw or a lump of dirt. They have the same sort of worthonly as horses and dogs. Yet such as these even are commonlyesteemed good citizens. Others—as most legislators, politicians,lawyers, ministers, and office-holders—serve the state chiefly withtheir heads; and, as they rarely make any moral distinctions, theyare as likely to serve the devil, without intending it, as God. A veryfew—as heroes, patriots, martyrs, reformers in the great sense,and men—serve the state with their consciences also, and so nec-essarily resist it for the most part; and they are commonly treatedas enemies by it. A wise man will only be useful as a man, and willnot submit to be “clay,” and “stop a hole to keep the wind away,”but leave that office to his dust at least:  “I am too high born to be propertied,  To be a second at control,  Or useful serving-man and instrument  To any sovereign state throughout the world.”8 He who gives himself entirely to his fellow men appears tothem useless and selfish; but he who gives himself partially tothem is pronounced a benefactor and philanthropist. How does it become a man to behave toward the Americangovernment today? I answer, that he cannot without disgracebe associated with it. I cannot for an instant recognize thatpolitical organization as my government which is the slave’sgovernment also.DETAILS  Authors use details asevidence to support their argu-ments. In paragraph 7, Thoreauwrites that to be associated withthe American government is dis-graceful. What two facts doeshe refer to in support of thisstatement?CENTRAL IDEA  The central ideais often restated throughout apiece of writing. Thoreau arguesthat people must use their con-sciences, and not only their heads,to guide their actions. What doesThoreau think will happen ifpeople are not guided bytheir consciences?8from Shakespeare’s “King John”In September of 1847, the Battle of Chapultepec led tothe capture of Mexico City by the United States Army.118  Lesson 6  •  Reading Persuasive TextsCC13_ELA_L2A_L6_SE 118 5/9/13 7:45 AM
  • 24. Whole Class All men recognize the right of revolution; that is, the right torefuse allegiance to, and to resist, the government, when its tyr-anny or its inefficiency are great and unendurable. But almost allsay that such is not the case now. But such was the case, theythink, in the Revolution of ’759. If one were to tell me that this wasa bad government because it taxed certain foreign commoditiesbrought to its ports, it is most probable that I should not make anado about it, for I can do without them. All machines have theirfriction; and possibly this does enough good to counter-balancethe evil. At any rate, it is a great evil to make a stir about it. Butwhen the friction comes to have its machine, and oppression androbbery are organized, I say, let us not have such a machine anylonger. In other words, when a sixth of the population of a nationwhich has undertaken to be the refuge of liberty are slaves, and awhole country is unjustly overrun and conquered by a foreignarmy, and subjected to military law, I think that it is not too soonfor honest men to rebel and revolutionize. What makes this dutythe more urgent is that fact that the country so overrun is not ourown, but ours is the invading army. Paley10, a common authority with many on moral questions, inhis chapter on the “Duty of Submission to Civil Government,”9Revolution of ’75  the American Revolution of 177510Paley  William Paley (1743–1805), English philosopherAUTHOR’S PURPOSE  The rea-son the author has for writing isthe author’s purpose. Thoreaucompares the reasons for theRevolutionary War to the injusticeof slavery and the invasion ofMexico. What is the point of thecomparison?The Boston Tea Party was an act of rebellion that led to the Revolutionary War.ARGUMENT  An argumentis a statement of perspectivesupported by logical reasoningand evidence. What is Thoreauarguing in paragraph 8?Lesson 6  •  Reading Persuasive Texts 119CC13_ELA_L2A_L6_SE 119 5/9/13 7:45 AM
  • 25. OREGON IDAHO WYOMINGCOLORADOCALIFORNIANEVADAUTAHARIZONATEXASNEW MEXICOSan FranciscoSalt Lake CityPhoenixDenverM E X I C OPACIFIC OCEANM E X I C A NC E S S I O NRioGrandeGila RiverColoradoRiverresolves all civil obligation into expediency; and he proceeds tosay that “so long as the interest of the whole society requires it,that is, so long as the established government cannot be resistedor changed without public inconvenience, it is the will of God . . .that the established government be obeyed—and no longer. Thisprinciple being admitted, the justice of every particular case ofresistance is reduced to a computation of the quantity of thedanger and grievance on the one side, and of the probability andexpense of redressing it on the other.” Of this, he says, every manshall judge for himself. But Paley appears never to have contem-plated those cases to which the rule of expediency does not apply,in which a people, as well as an individual, must do justice, costwhat it may. If I have unjustly wrested a plank from a drowningman, I must restore it to him though I drown myself. This, accord-ing to Paley, would be inconvenient. But he that would save hislife, in such a case, shall lose it. This people must cease to holdslaves, and to make war on Mexico, though it cost them theirexistence as a people.CONNECTIONS  The connectionsbetween ideas in a persuasivetext are important to thevalidity of the overall argument.What does Thoreau claim inparagraph 9? How does it relateto what Thoreau is saying aboutslavery and war with Mexico?Much of what is now the U.S. Southwest was land taken from Mexicoduring a war in 1848.120  Lesson 6  •  Reading Persuasive TextsCC13_ELA_L2A_L6_SE 120 5/9/13 7:45 AM
  • 26. Whole Class10 In their practice, nations agree with Paley; but doesanyone think that Massachusetts does exactly what is rightat the present crisis? . . . . . . Practically speaking, the opponents to a reform inMassachusetts are not a hundred thousand politicians at theSouth, but a hundred thousand merchants and farmers here, whoare more interested in commerce and agriculture than they are inhumanity, and are not prepared to do justice to the slave and toMexico, cost what it may. I quarrel not with far-off foes, but withthose who, near at home, co-operate with, and do the bidding of,those far away, and without whom the latter would be harmless.We are accustomed to say, that the mass of men are unprepared;but improvement is slow, because the few are not as materiallywiser or better than the many. It is not so important that manyshould be good as you, as that there be some absolute goodnesssomewhere; for that will leaven the whole lump. There are thou-sands who are in opinion opposed to slavery and to the war, whoyet in effect do nothing to put an end to them; who, esteemingthemselves children of Washington and Franklin, sit down withtheir hands in their pockets, and say that they know not what todo, and do nothing; who even postpone the question of freedomto the question of free trade, and quietly read the prices-current11along with the latest advices from Mexico, after dinner, and, itmay be, fall asleep over them both. What is the price-current of anhonest man and patriot today? They hesitate, and they regret, and11price-current  the price for which goods usually sell in the marketDETAILS  Details are individualfacts that support a central idea. Inparagraph 11, a central idea is thatthere are a number of practicalobstacles to reform. What detailsdoes Thoreau give about the obsta-cles to reform? What hope does heoffer that reform can occur?Prior to the Civil War, theslave trade was big businessin the United States.Lesson 6  •  Reading Persuasive Texts 121CC13_ELA_L2A_L6_SE 121 5/9/13 7:45 AM
  • 27. sometimes they petition; but they do nothing in earnest and witheffect. They will wait, well disposed, for other to remedy the evil,that they may no longer have it to regret. At most, they give up onlya cheap vote, and a feeble countenance and Godspeed, to theright, as it goes by them. There are nine hundred and ninety-ninepatrons of virtue to one virtuous man. But it is easier to deal withthe real possessor of a thing than with the temporary guardianof it. All voting is a sort of gaming, like checkers or backgammon,with a slight moral tinge to it, a playing with right and wrong, withmoral questions; and betting naturally accompanies it. The char-acter of the voters is not staked. I cast my vote, perchance, as Ithink right; but I am not vitally concerned that that right shouldprevail. I am willing to leave it to the majority. Its obligation, there-fore, never exceeds that of expediency. Even voting for the right isdoing nothing for it. It is only expressing to men feebly your desirethat it should prevail. A wise man will not leave the right to themercy of chance, nor wish it to prevail through the power of themajority. There is but little virtue in the action of masses of men.When the majority shall at length vote for the abolition of slavery,it will be because they are indifferent to slavery, or because there isbut little slavery left to be abolished by their vote. They will then bethe only slaves. Only his vote can hasten the abolition of slaverywho asserts his own freedom by his vote.RHETORIC  Essayists use severalrhetorical devices to persuadetheir readers. Rhetorical devicesinclude repetition, rhetorical ques-tions, parallelism, and analogies.What rhetorical device doesThoreau use in paragraph 12? Howdoes he make people’s inactivityseem pathetic?Persuasive Techniques Authors use certain persuasivetechniques, such as appeals tologic, appeals to emotions, ethicalappeals, and loaded language,which can have powerful positiveor negative connotations. In para-graph 12, Thoreau appeals to areader’s sense of right and wrong.Underline these examples of ethi-cal appeals. Then explain theirintended effects on readers.CONNECTIONS  Persuasive writ-ers have to make all their pointsrelevant to the whole argument.Thoreau writes in paragraph 12about the relationship betweenindividuals and the “masses ofmen.” According to Thoreau, howdoes a willingness to leave theoutcome “to the majority” under-mine the individual’s conscience?CHECK IN  Make sure you understand what you have read so far byanswering the following questions: What did Thoreau think individualsshould do in order to end slavery? Do you agree with his ideas?Groups such as theAmerican Anti-SlaverySociety worked to haveslavery abolished.NEW SPECCC13_ELA_L2A_L06_photo27Photo of a collection box of the MAAnti-Slavery Society, circa 1850122  Lesson 6  •  Reading Persuasive TextsCC13_ELA_L2A_L6_SE 122 5/9/13 7:45 AM
  • 28. Whole Class I hear of a convention to be held at Baltimore, or elsewhere, forthe selection of a candidate for the Presidency, made up chiefly ofeditors, and men who are politicians by profession; but I think,what is it to any independent, intelligent, and respectable manwhat decision they may come to? Shall we not have the advantageof this wisdom and honesty, nevertheless? Can we not count uponsome independent votes? Are there not many individuals in thecountry who do not attend conventions? But no: I find that therespectable man, so called, has immediately drifted from his posi-tion, and despairs of his country, when his country has morereasons to despair of him. He forthwith adopts one of the candi-dates thus selected as the only available one, thus proving that heis himself available for any purposes of the demagogue. His vote isof no more worth than that of any unprincipled foreigner or hire-ling native, who may have been bought. O for a man who is a man,and, as my neighbor says, has a bone in his back which you cannotpass your hand through! Our statistics are at fault: the populationhas been returned too large. How many men are there to a squarethousand miles in the country? Hardly one. Does not Americaoffer any inducement for men to settle here? The Americanhas dwindled into an Odd Fellow—one who may be knownby the development of his organ ofgregariousness, and a manifest lack ofintellect and cheerful self-reliance; whosefirst and chief concern, on coming into theworld, is to see that the almshouses are ingood repair; and, before yet he has lawfullydonned the virile garb, to collect a fund tothe support of the widows and orphansthat may be; who, in short, ventures to liveonly by the aid of the Mutual Insurancecompany, which has promised to buryhim decently.STYLE  A writer’s style dependson many factors, including wordchoice, sentence type and struc-ture, and figurative language. Inparagraph 13, Thoreau uses aseries of questions. How does thischoice affect the pace of the para-graph? What emotions does itevoke or express?STRUCTURE  Text structure isthe arrangement of and relation-ships between parts of a text. Inthe previous paragraphs, Thoreaucriticizes the U.S. government.Who or what does Thoreau criti-cize in paragraph 13? How doesthis progression align with hisoverall argument?Zachary Taylor, shown here ina campaign poster, was a slaveowner and a military leader. Hebecame the twelfth president ofthe United States in 1849.KILLED SPECCC13_ELA_L2A_L06_photo09a ballot at a voting place showing the marks in theboxes but not the candidates’ namesNEW SPECCC13_ELA_L2A_L06_photo28photo of a campaign poster forZachary Taylor, circa 1848Lesson 6  •  Reading Persuasive Texts 123CC13_ELA_L2A_L6_SE 123 5/9/13 7:45 AM
  • 29. It is not a man’s duty, as a matter of course, to devote himself tothe eradication of any, even to most enormous wrong; he may stillproperly have other concerns to engage him; but it is his duty, atleast, to wash his hands of it, and, if he gives it no thought longer,not to give it practically his support. If I devote myself to other pur-suits and contemplations, I must first see, at least, that I do notpursue them sitting upon another man’s shoulders. I must get offhim first, that he may pursue his contemplations too. See whatgross inconsistency is tolerated. I have heard some of my towns-men say, “I should like to have them order me out to help put downan insurrection of the slaves, or to march to Mexico—see if I wouldgo”; and yet these very men have each, directly by their allegiance,and so indirectly, at least, by their money, furnished a substitute.The soldier is applauded who refuses to serve in an unjust war bythose who do not refuse to sustain the unjust government whichmakes the war; is applauded by those whose own act and author-ity he disregards and sets at naught; as if the state were penitent tothat degree that it hired one to scourge it while it sinned, but not tothat degree that it left off sinning for a moment. Thus, under thename of Order and Civil Government, we are all made at last topay homage to and support our own meanness. After the firstblush of sin comes its indifference; and from immoral it becomes,as it were, unmoral, and not quite unnecessary to that life whichwe have made.15 The broadest and most prevalent error requires the most disin-terested virtue to sustain it. The slight reproach to which thevirtue of patriotism is commonly liable, the noble are most likelyto incur. Those who, while they disapprove of the character andmeasures of a government, yield to it their allegiance and supportare undoubtedly its most conscientious supporters, and so fre-quently the most serious obstacles to reform. Some are petitioningthe State to dissolve the Union, to disregard the requisitions of thePresident. Why do they not dissolve it themselves—the unionbetween themselves and the State—and refuse to pay their quotainto its treasury? Do not they stand in same relation to the Statethat the State does to the Union? And have not the same reasonsprevented the State from resisting the Union which have pre-vented them from resisting the State?PERSUASIVE TECHNIQUES Persuasive writers often employ“glittering generalities”—vaguewords with strong positiveconnotations such as freedom,patriotism, or conscience—toevoke an emotional response with-out making any specific claims.Circle examples of glittering gener-alities in paragraph 15. What doesThoreau hope to achieve by includ-ing this language?POINT OF VIEW  In a persuasivetext, the author’s point of viewoften reveals the strong emotionshe or she has about an issue.Thoreau writes that it is not a per-son’s duty to right the wrongs ofthe world. What does he think is aperson’s duty?EVIDENCE  The best persuasiveauthors support their argumentswith sufficient evidence that dem-onstrates their claims. Evidencecan include facts, statistics, testi-monials, or anecdotes.Notice thatThoreau discusses the behavior ofthe townsmen in paragraph 14.What point does this evidence helphim make?124  Lesson 6  •  Reading Persuasive TextsCC13_ELA_L2A_L6_SE 124 5/9/13 7:45 AM
  • 30. Whole Class How can a man be satisfied to entertain an opinion merely, andenjoy it? Is there any enjoyment in it, if his opinion is that he isaggrieved? If you are cheated out of a single dollar by your neigh-bor, you do not rest satisfied with knowing you are cheated, orwith saying that you are cheated, or even with petitioning him topay you your due; but you take effectual steps at once to obtain thefull amount, and see to it that you are never cheated again. Actionfrom principle, the perception and the performance of right,changes things and relations; it is essentially revolutionary, anddoes not consist wholly with anything which was. It not onlydivided States and churches, it divides families; ay, it divides theindividual, separating the diabolical in him from the divine. Unjust laws exist: shall we be content to obey them, or shall weendeavor to amend them, and obey them until we have succeeded,or shall we transgress them at once? Men, generally, under such agovernment as this, think that they ought to wait until they havepersuaded the majority to alter them. They think that, if theyshould resist, the remedy would be worse than the evil. But it is thefault of the government itself that the remedy is worse than theevil. It makes it worse. Why is it not more apt to anticipate and pro-vide for reform? Why does it not cherish its wise minority? Whydoes it cry and resist before it is hurt? Why does it not encourageits citizens to put out its faults, and do better than it would havethem? Why does it always . . . excommunicate Copernicus12andLuther13, and pronounce Washington and Franklin rebels? . . .12Copernicus  Nicolaus Copernicus (1473–1543), Polish astronomer whoproposed the model that the planets revolve around the sun13Luther  Martin Luther (1483–1546), German theologian and iconic figureof the Protestant ReformationRHETORIC  Effective rhetoricinvolves using a variety of strate-gies. Thoreau employs rhetoricalquestions in paragraphs 16–17.What other strategy does he useat the end of paragraph 17?CENTRAL IDEA  The centralidea is the main concept thatthe author is trying to convey. Inparagraph 16, Thoreau refers to“action from principle.” What doeshe mean by this phrase? How isthis related to the central concernof the text?CONNECTIONS  Essays and arti-cles sometimes require the readerto deduce relationships betweenideas and events. Thoreau wasthrown in jail for refusing to payhis poll tax. How does this factstrengthen Thoreau’s argument inOn the Duty of Civil Disobedience?Thoreau wrote On the Duty of CivilDisobedience at his cabin on Walden Pond.Lesson 6  •  Reading Persuasive Texts 125CC13_ELA_L2A_L6_SE 125 5/9/13 7:45 AM
  • 31. Whole ClassEffective RhetoricThoreau is a master rhetorician. One of his most effective and powerfultechniques is the use of analogy to draw comparisons between two things forthe purposes of explanation and clarification. Here, Thoreau is making the casethat one should do what is right even if it is at one’s own expense.If I have unjustly wrested a plank from a drowning man, I must restore it tohim though I drown myself.This simple, imaginary scenario makes the underlying logic of Thoreau’s mainpoint clearer. He offers a simple situation before extending his reasoning to a morecomplex situation—that the United States must outlaw slavery and stop fighting thewar with Mexico no matter what the cost.Try ItWhat other simple analogies does Thoreau make in the text? What are the larger,more complex points he makes by using each analogy? Write each example ofa simple analogy in the left column of the chart. In the right column, explain thelarger point that Thoreau makes with the analogy.Thoreau’s Simple Analogy Thoreau’s Larger Point126  Lesson 6  •  Reading Persuasive TextsCC13_ELA_L2A_L6_SE 126 5/9/13 7:45 AM
  • 32. Whole ClassVocabulary StrategyShades of MeaningEach of the following excerpts includes one of the vocabulary words from theessay. The words in bold represent examples of biased language. Replace thewords with more neutral terms, and explain the difference in connotation ormeaning.1. “I heartily accept the motto, ‘That government is best which governs least.’” 2. “Can there not be a government in which the majorities do not virtually decideright and wrong, but conscience?—in which majorities decide only thosequestions to which the rule of expediency is applicable?” 3. “If I have unjustly wrested a plank from a drowning man, I must restore it to himthough I drown myself.” 4. “. . . one who may be known by the development of his organ ofgregariousness, and a manifest lack of intellect and cheerful self-reliance . . . ” 5. “Why does it always . . . excommunicate Copernicus and Luther . . .” Comprehension CheckAnswer these questions about the selection you have just read. Use details fromthe selection to support your responses.1. According to Thoreau, do individuals have an obligation to do what is right evenat their own expense?2. Explain Thoreau’s beliefs about what the role of government should be.3. How does Thoreau support the arguments that slavery and the war with Mexicomust end?Lesson 6  •  Reading Persuasive Texts 127CC13_ELA_L2A_L6_SE 127 5/9/13 7:45 AM
  • 33. Small GroupConsider1 Hybrid and electric vehicles can reduce emissions, save fueland money, and increase national security. Although they arecertainly not perfect, electric and hybrid cars are an importantstep forward in maintaining our standard of living while reducingthe harmful impact our lifestyle has on the environment, ourwallets, and our country.What Is Emitted? When cars with traditional engines burn gasoline or diesel fuelto produce power, a by-product of the combustion process is therelease of harmful gases. These gases—including air pollutantsand greenhouse gases such as carbon monoxide and nitrousoxide—are called emissions because they are released, or emitted,into Earth’s atmosphere. Hybrid-electric vehicles and plug-inelectric vehicles do not produce as many harmful emissions astraditionally gas-powered vehicles because they produce theirpower either from a hybrid of electricity and gasoline (hybrid-electric vehicles) or entirely from electricity (plug-in electricvehicles). Therefore, operating a hybrid-electric or plug-in electricvehicle is much better for the environment than using a gasoline-powered vehicle.What are the downsides of using fossil fuels such as petroleum?What obstacles limit the viability of hybrid and electric vehicles?Hybrid and Electric Vehicles— Drive GreenAUTHOR’S PURPOSE  Whatpurpose for writing does theauthor reveal in the title andintroduction?STYLE  Underline details in thetext that help you determine theauthor’s style. Do you think thisstyle is effective for the topic andpurpose? Explain.Emissions from vehiclesare a by-product of thecombustion process andcontain pollutants andgreenhouse gasses.128  Lesson 6  •  Reading Persuasive TextsCC13_ELA_L2A_L6_SE 128 5/9/13 7:45 AM
  • 34. Small Group While the overall picture is a positive one, it is important toremember that using energy always has some cost, or drawback.Although a plug-in electric vehicle uses only electricity and pro-duces no emissions, the electricity it uses has to come fromsomewhere. In many regions of the United States, electricity pro-duction relies heavily on the burning of fossil fuels, such as coal andnatural gas. Whether burning the fuel in the engines of individualcars or burning it at the power plant, emissions are still beingreleased into the atmosphere. Per car, emissions are calculated onthe basis of “tailpipe emissions,” as well as on the type of energysource used to generate the electricity to charge the car. Dependingon where a person lives and how the area generates electricity, thetotal emissions may differ. An electric car operated in an area thatproduces electricity through nuclear power or alternative energysources, for example, would have a lower total emissions rating thanthe same car in an area that burns coal. So, what is the advantage of buying a hybrid or electric car overa gasoline-burning car when both produce some form of emis-sions? While it is true that hybrid and electric cars aren’t entirelyemission-free, they still produce significantly less pollution pervehicle than do gasoline-burning cars. But is this enough of adifference to solve all of our pollution problems? By itself, no.These cars are a short-term fix that may not even be part of thelong-term solution. What is needed is the cleaner burning of fossilfuels, greater reliance on renewable energy for electricity, andRHETORIC  The author pointsout that the electricity used tocharge cars sometimes comesfrom fossil-fuel sources. How doesa discussion of the complexities ofthe issue enhance the effective-ness of the argument?RHETORIC  Why does the authorbegin paragraph 4 with a ques-tion? Is this an effective strategy?Burning coal is still themost common way ofgenerating electricity.Lesson 6  •  Reading Persuasive Texts 129CC13_ELA_L2A_L6_SE 129 5/9/13 7:45 AM
  • 35. technologies such as carbon capture (capturing carbon emissionsat power plants before they enter the atmosphere and depositingthem deep in the ground). Unfortunately, many of these technolo-gies are a long way off—either they aren’t fully developed yet or arefar too expensive to implement on a large scale. Hybrid/electriccars, on the other hand, are here today and are affordable to mosteveryone. It’s a small step, but even a small step is a step in theright direction.Consuming Fuel5 Another advantage that hybrid-electric and plug-in electricvehicles have is that they use much less fuel or, in some cases, nofuel at all. The 2012 Honda Civic Hybrid is rated at 44 miles pergallon for combined city and highway driving, while the conven-tional four-cylinder automatic version of the same car is rated at32 miles per gallon. This means that the hybrid can travel 37.5 per-cent farther on the same amount of fuel, which really adds upwhen you multiply that savings by millions of vehicles, millions ofdrivers, and millions of miles. In addition, 32 miles per gallon isactually considered excellent gas mileage for a car; many gasoline-powered vehicles—particularly trucks and SUVs—get significantlyless than that. Of course, this fuel-savings assumes that the electric power isbeing used to offset the consumption of gasoline, rather than tosupplement it. When buying a hybrid car, it’s important to under-stand and recognize the difference in how the electric power isactually used: some hybrid-electric vehicles use electricity toboost the car’s power rather than increase fuel efficiency. In thesecases, it is more difficult to assess whether the car is more fuel effi-cient than a traditional vehicle. Although the car is not consumingless fuel than before, it is more powerful without consuming anyadditional fuel. While hybrids greatly reduce the amount of gasoline used, thusproviding a cost savings, plug-in electric vehicles reduce fuel costseven more dramatically. These cars do not burn fuel—they useenergy provided by chemical reactions inside a rechargeable bat-tery. In order to charge the battery, owners do need to plug theircars into a source of electricity; however, the electricity that isrequired to charge it is cheaper and cleaner to produce thanburning gasoline.CENTRAL IDEA  Underlinethe sentence that explains thecentral idea of the section“Consuming Fuel.”PERSUASIVE TECHNIQUES  Inparagraph 4, what comparisondoes the author make to argue forthe use of hybrid/electric cars?Have you heard this analogy usedelsewhere?DETAILS  Highlight the detailsthe author uses in paragraphs 6–7to support the central idea ofthe section.130  Lesson 6  •  Reading Persuasive TextsCC13_ELA_L2A_L6_SE 130 5/9/13 7:46 AM
  • 36. Small Group Comparing fuel consumption of plug-in electric vehicles andgas-powered vehicles, or even hybrids, can be difficult, given thatthe energy sources are so different. Obviously, the term milesper gallon (mpg) is not helpful when evaluating electric cars.Therefore, electric-car efficiency is measured in kilowatt-hoursper 100 miles. To help consumers understand how electric carsand gasoline-powered cars compare in terms of energy per mile,a system of comparative measurement has been established.Miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (MPGe), which was deter-mined by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), is onecomparative measurement. For purposes of comparing fueleconomy, 33.7 kilowatt-hours is said to be equivalent to one gallonof gasoline. The MPGe system has helped numerous consumersmake well-educated purchasing decisions, curtailing harmfulenvironmental impact.The Hidden Costs It seems that because hybrid-electric and plug-in electric vehi-cles have dramatically lower fuel costs, they would be much lessexpensive to own and operate. However, as with any purchase,upfront costs, maintenance costs, and longevity must factor intothe final assessment. That fuel costs are so much lower for thesetypes of vehicles is a vote in their favor, but the initial purchaseprice of these vehicles can be much higher than a car with a tradi-tional engine. The current difference in average purchase pricemay seem like a deterrent to buying a hybrid or electric car. Whilethere is no actual reason that these cars should be more expensiveto produce, production costs are currently more because, as withany new technology, hybrid and electric cars have yet to reach theeconomy of scale necessary to make them cheaper. Therefore, asSTRUCTURE  Why does theauthor include the section “TheHidden Costs” immediatelyfollowing the section on fuelconsumption?98 38101 101Fuel Economy & Greenhouse Gas Rating(tailpipe only)Smog Rating(tailpipe only)This vehicle emits 84 grams C02per mile.The best emits 0 grams per mile (tailpipe only).Producing and distributing fuel & electricity also create emissions; learn more at fueleconomy.govActual results will vary for many reasons, including driving conditions and how you drive and maintain yourvehicle. The average new vehicle gets 22 MPG and costs $12,600 to fuel over 5 years. Cost estimates arebased on 15,000 miles per year at $3.70 per gallon and $0.12 per kW-hr. This is a dual fueled automobile.MPGe is miles per gasoline equivalent. Vehicle emissions are a significant cause of climate change and smog.fueleconomy.govCalculate personalized estimates and compare vehicles.Best BestDriving Range30All electric range0 10 20 40 410Fuel Economy Midsize cars range from 10 to 99 MPGe.The best vehicle rates 99 MPGe.Fuel Economy and EnvironmentEPADOTPlug-In Hybrid VehicleElectricity-GasolineElectricity Gasoline OnlyCharge time: 4 hours (240V)Combined city/highwayMPGe34kW-hrs per100 milesMPG2.6gallons per100 milesGasoline onlyYou save$8,100in fuel costsover 5 yearscompared to theaverage new vehicle.Annual fuel cost$900SmartphoneQR CodeTM10 8Combined city/highwayPERSUASIVE TECHNIQUES Circle words and phrases in para-graph 8 that use loaded language.How do they affect the author’scredibility?This MPGe label was implementedin 2008. It is displayed in thewindows of all new hybrid vehicles.There are similar labels for gasolinevehicles and electric vehicles.Lesson 6  •  Reading Persuasive Texts 131CC13_ELA_L2A_L6_SE 131 5/9/13 7:46 AM
  • 37. demand increases, production volume will increase, and as pro-duction volume increases, prices of hybrid and electric vehicleswill likely decrease.10 Short-term measures can be, and have been, put in place toentice buyers and increase the circulation of electric cars. Thesemeasures will eventually serve to increase production and reducecost. For example, in addition to the fuel-cost savings, the higherpurchase price has been offset by a federal tax credit and stateincentives. The credits and incentives offered can be substantial.The federal tax credit alone ranges from $2,000 to $4,000 for newpurchases—the amount of the credit is determined by the size ofthe battery in the car. Once production increases and prices fall,these incentives will no longer be necessary. Aside from the costs of the individual vehicles, there are wider-ranging infrastructure costs, such as building a network of electriccharging stations. While several charging stations currently existand the network is expanding, drivers who travel long distances orlive in rural areas will probably find that plug-in electric vehiclesdo not yet meet their day-to-day needs. Until charging stations areas common as gas stations, hybrid-electric vehicles will remainrealistic options only for drivers who live in cities with chargingstations or who travel short distances. A final cost that is perhaps not obvious at first is battery life.The batteries in these vehicles eventually wear out and need to bereplaced. Many car companies do offer battery warranties to helppeople feel more secure about purchasing an electric or hybridvehicle. But battery replacement after the warranty expires canbe a significant expense. However, this cost is also expected todecline with mass production and the proliferation of electricand hybrid vehicles over time.A Matter of National Security Aside from environmental costs and fuel-consumption costs,the widespread use of gasoline- and diesel-powered vehicles hasmade energy security a major issue for the United States. In 2011,45 percent of the petroleum consumed in the United States wasimported, and two-thirds of that was used for transportation. Muchof the world’s petroleum reserves are located in politically volatilecountries, which leaves the United States susceptible to pricespikes and disruptions in the supply chain due to political unrest.POINT OF VIEW  The authorincludes information about thecosts and benefits to the individualand to the nation. What does thistell readers about the author’sperspective on the practicality ofelectric vehicles?CONNECTIONS  Why is petro-leum a national security issue?SHADES OF MEANING  Circleexamples of biased language inparagraph 13. Replace these wordswith more neutral terms, andexplain the difference in connota-tion or meaning.EVIDENCE  What evidence doesthe author provide in paragraph 10to show that the governmentwants people to buy hybrid andelectric vehicles?132  Lesson 6  •  Reading Persuasive TextsCC13_ELA_L2A_L6_SE 132 5/9/13 7:46 AM
  • 38. Small Group Hybrid-electric and plug-in electric vehicles can reducethe nation’s dependence on petroleum, specifically importedpetroleum. Almost all electricity in the United States is producedfrom domestic coal, nuclear energy, natural gas, and renewableresources. Electrically powered vehicles, therefore, could makeuse of energy resources that are available within the United States,thus decreasing the opportunity for international instability toaffect our energy supply. It would also allow the United States tocut ties with foreign petroleum producers that have had dubiouspolitical relationships with our government, increasing ournational security.It’s Worth the Costs15 Despite the drawbacks, buying hybrid and electric vehiclesmakes sense and should be considered by anyone in the marketfor a new or used car. The technology used to power the carsreleases fewer emissions, which means the air will be cleaner andthe effects of global warming will be slowed. The vehicles use dif-ferent types of energy to produce power—energy that comes fromresources that are not as scarce as oil, nor as expensive. And whilethe vehicles may currently cost more to buy than traditional ones,that cost is offset by government tax breaks and subsidies. Oncethe vehicles are being mass produced, they will become moreaffordable. Finally, hybrid and electric vehicles offer the UnitedStates a way to reduce its dependence on petroleum fromoverseas—a major source of geopolitical unrest—by usingdomestic resources as their source of power.CONNECTIONS  In your ownwords, explain the connectionbetween the United States’dependence on internationalpetroleum and threats to nationalsecurity. How does one contributeto the other?CENTRAL IDEA  Highlightthe reasons the author thinkshybrid and electric vehicles shouldbe adopted.ARGUMENT  Has the authormade a well-supported and com-pelling argument? Explain.Much of the world’s oil supply is located in remote and unstableareas, requiring the construction of pipelines, like this one.Lesson 6  •  Reading Persuasive Texts 133CC13_ELA_L2A_L6_SE 133 5/9/13 7:46 AM
  • 39. Small GroupDiscussionDiscuss these questions with your group, and together write a paragraph in response to eachquestion. Provide evidence to support your responses.1. How does the author reach his or her conclusion on hybrid and electric cars? Consider thepros and cons presented, and explain if you agree with the author’s conclusion.2. Analyze the effectiveness of the essay. Does the author achieve his or her purpose? Why orwhy not?3. Would you ever buy a hybrid or electric car?Comprehension CheckAnswer these questions about the selection you have just read. Use details from the selectionto support your responses.1. Why does the U.S. government offer tax incentives for hybrid and electric vehicles?2. Compare and contrast the ways that electric and traditional vehicles consume fuel.3. Which persuasive techniques and rhetorical devices most contribute to the author’sargument?Independent ProjectsYour teacher may assign you one or both of the following performance tasks. Investigate the debate about petroleum production in Canada. Apply what you have learned about persuasive texts to compare Thoreau’swork to that of Martin Luther King, Jr.On Your OwnApplicationThoreau’s ideas inspired manyactivists, including Martin Luther King,Jr. King was a master of rhetoric andinspired many to support his effortsfor civil rights. Read another sec-tion of On Civil Disobedience andcompare it to King’s “Letter fromBirmingham Jail” or one of hisspeeches. Pay attention to the wayboth authors use rhetorical devicesand persuasive techniques. Completea chart and answer questions to com-pare the two texts.InquiryResearch the debate about petroleumproduction in Alberta, Canada. Write apersuasive argument for or againstproduction, taking into account theenvironmental impact, cost-effective-ness, and dependence on overseaspetroleum. Then deliver a persuasivepresentation to your class, usingslides or other visual aides.134  Lesson 6  •  Reading Persuasive TextsCC13_ELA_L2A_L6_SE 134 5/9/13 7:46 AM