1. SYNERGY Tridti Patarakiatsan Master Thesis Department of Urbanism Faculty of Architecture
3. 2 BKKs COLOPHON MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 3 BANGKOK SYNERGY A synergetic spatial vision to preserve Bangkok heritage, integrated with rapid mass transit system Master Thesis Tridti Patarakiatsan Student ID 4120086 Tridtitaey@gmail.com Graduation Studio Complex cities Department of Urbanism Faculty of Architecture Delft University of Technology Delft, the Netherlands, 2012 Mentor Team Dr. Lei Qu Chair of Spatial Planning and StrategyIn support of: MSC3 Urbanism L.Qu@tudelft.nlResearch& Design Methods (AR3U011), Theory of Urbanism (AR3U022), Graduation Lab (AR3U030) Ir. Willem HermansAll of the visual information presented in this document has been collected from the sources listed below the items and reproduced by the author. Chair of Urban DesignWhen there is no source indicated, the authorship belongs to the author of this thesis. W.J.A.Hermans@tudelft.nl
4. 4 BKKs FORWARD MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 5 DEVELOPMENT THAT PEOPLE MATTER “The nature and shape of the future urban world is complex. Large and complex as it is, this is the arena where spatial plan- ners and designers should contribute to with their understand- ing of the way urban space is produced. It is their task to for- mulate tools and strategies to intervene and organize space in order to mediate disparate interests. ” (Complex cities studio guidebook 2011) For decades, city plans of Bangkok have been the preroga- tive of a few influential interest groups. Interests of the middle to upper class and more powerful groups have been protects and carelessly neglected the needs and interests of the low- er- income majority or other vulnerable groups, particularly those who live in unprofitable areas. The consequences of this approach can be seen in places, where a high propor- tion of population live in isolated areas lacking provision for basic infrastructure and services. In other words, when the city prioritizes global development towards efficiency and at- tractiveness, this exclusive approach results in segregation and fragmentation on the local level. Without being integrated to the urban tissue, this undesirable truth has triggered the author’s interest in seeking for the way to change the paradigm in which local level especially the vulnerable groups will also be able to participate and benefit from global interventions by the government. Therefore, it is very significant to promote urban vitality that enhances not only their living quality, but also economic viability and social cohesion. Thanks to the mass transit system (MTS) expansion plan of Bangkok launched by the government in last few years, the hypothesis of integrating global (infrastructure) into local dimensions (urban tissue) will be experimented. The thesis starts with a serious problem of the city brought by the MTS (elevated level) implemented on a fragmented and unorgan- Due to the limitation of the study time at TU Delft, a year of the ized urban spatial structure (ground level) of the city due to graduation project has been come to a close. However, the a rapid urbanization. Without any coordination to urban de- author and the mentor team hope the thesis project, Bangkok velopment, when the market begins to intervene, losers are Synergy, is a starting point to change the way of thinking in local residents seen via gentrification, segregation and ineq- planning between global - local dimensions and urban and uity. However, in accordance to the expansion plan, it covers infrastructure development especially in Bangkok or other the historic core of the city, which is crucially needed to be similar developing countries. With a support by the gradua- preserved. This is a high time to reconsider and integrate not tion lab “complex cities”, the report consists of both research only global and local planning, but also urban and infrastruc- and design process. It deals with a challenge of complexity ture development towards sustainability. and uncertainty in planning and seeks for an opportunity to test the hypothesis, in this case is integration between the By planning for local inhabitants, the inclusive approach aims MTS network expansion and the historic core of Bangkok. to prepare for the undeniable infrastructure development to meet local demands and basic services before it comes and By sharing my discovery, this project is just a start of a new to make use of it when it finishes to improve spatial quality way of thinking. The author hopes if the project helps shaping and to enhance socio-cultural dimensions together with eco- the society more or less, the thesis has already accomplished nomic conditions. To conclude, the author will focus on the its mission. Lastly, wish readers enjoy reading this book and local level and search for an appropriate linkage with the glo- inspire readers to contribute positively to your own city too. bal planning by using the MTS network expansion and the historic core of Bangkok as the study case. Tridti Patarakiatsan 17-06-2012
5. 6 BKKs THESIS STRUCTURE MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 7 CONTENT 1. Motivation 10 1. Case study 88 01 05 2. Principles and objectives 12 2. Infrastructural network 90 3. Problem statement 13 3. Natural network 98 4. Aim 14 4. Tourist industries 101 5. Research questions 15 5. Human network 104 6. Relevance 16 6. Effect 108 INTRODUCTION AND 7. Methodology 17 7. Conclusion 110 PROBLEM FIELD STRATEGY 8. Time working plan 22 1. Theories related the MTS 27 1. Projects inventory 114 02 06 2. Theories related heritage 31 2. The station area 116 3. Urban vitality indicators 38 3. Transformed open space 126 4. Conclusion 40 4. The riverside areas 134 5. Bibliography for the theory part 41 5. Local connections 142 THEORETICAL RESEARCH STRATEGIC PROJECTS 1. City profile 46 1. Evaluation 152 03 07 2. Historic development 52 2. Governance structure 154 3. Infrastructure development 57 3. Phasing 156 4. Planning system 58 4. Stakeholders 157 5. Relation of two dynamics 60 5. Urban rules 158 6. A change in transport means 61 CONTEXT RESEARCH MANAGEMENT 7. Gentrification by the MTS 62 AND ANALYSIS STRATEGY 8. Conclusion 64 1. Selection criteria 70 1. Evaluation 162 04 08 2. The strategic location 76 2. City model review 164 3. Spatial network fragmentation 78 3. Integrated actions 165 4. From orchards to barriers 79 4. Possible side effects 166 5. A limitation of local movement 80 5. Recommendations 167 6. Conclusion 81 6. Bibliography 168 EMPIRICAL RESEARCH REFLECTION
6. 8 BKKs MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 9 Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION AND PROBLEM FIELD Source : www.skyscrapercity.com
7. 10 BKKs 1.1 MOTIVATION MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 11Mode of transportation : the rail transport system The threat of historic areasNowadays, in the rapid urbanized period, the develop- A historic city has organically developed through sev-ment of the rail transport network, stations and transit eral decades. Their physical conditions are composednodes become a crucial strategy to develop city areas. by fine-grains in terms of small plot sizes, passagewaysTo make it function effectively, the rail transport should and the connection to local economic areas. The charac-be accessed easily. Particularly, it should be possible to ter and identity of historic areas will change dramaticallyget to by multi- modes of transport, such as, by car, bus from the past when new mode of transport has beenor walk. At the same time, the service facilities should implemented. Although, a number of optional modesbe provided, i.e., parking spaces and sub public trans- of transport will increase to serve modern needs, suchport stations (APA, 2006). Moreover, the development as new functions, the rapid change might negatively af-also magnets new activities into the areas, such as, new fect old living patterns and activities leading to a lostfunctions, people and so on. The consequence is that in “place” ( Bertolini and Spit, 1998). The most explicitthe role of the areas would be redefined. New infrastruc- structure is local streets (see illustration 2). In the past,tures developments would be created in order to serve it functions responding to small areas, but when the ac-those activities, which make the areas livelier as Berto- cessibility has improved, it has to serve an increasinglini and Spit name the station as place (1998). However, number of traffic as well. Consequently, when the size isthe way city build the rail transport is limited by space, not in a proportion with demands, which requires moreparticularly in the case of elevated rail tracks leading to spaces, it causes an expropriation in areas both alongnegative effects to the nearby areas (see illustration 1). local roads ,connecting to stations, and around stationsThe character of Bangkok is that it was planned on the (transit area services).elevated level, plugging in to global functions like de-partment stores and high class hotels and disengage tothe lower world functionally and physically. Illustration 1.3 the plan for the mass transit system expansion of Bangkok in 2030 (the officially preserved area of Bangkok is in the light green color) ,Source : www.bts.co.th Conflicts under the inevitable infrastructure expansion many theories about problems of scale and rapid devel- Many cities conceptualize the idea to develop the rail opment in that it causes spatial fragmentation (Graham, system to create a node and, at the same time, still Marvin 2008) and can tear the city apart (Read 2001),Illustration 1.1 the current condition of rail transport in Bangkok, Thailand,Source : www.flickr.com maintain “place” for the areas. Bertolini and Spit add as with this rapid development, if we do not do it properly, it the renewal of existing fabric with a reason to deal with will be more likely to harm than benefit. future demands with the notion of Transit- Oriented De- However, it also provides a crucial opportunity and a big velopment (TOD). However, the historic areas are not on challenge to create a more sustainable transport mode, the list. Generally, TOD or the station plaza is applied in and at the same time, to prevent negative effects to the suburb or redeveloped areas. historic core of the city. In the case of Bangkok, the capital city of Thailand, especially, the rail systems are built on the upper level through urban communities. In particular, in 2030, gov- ernment have already planned for the elevated rapid mass transit system (MTS) throughout the city, which will definitely cross the historic core of the city (see illustra- tion 1.3). Although the MTS plan has been announced, there is no in-depth research on how this big infrastructure plan will affect the vitality of the city, particularly historic areas, where their economic status and quality of life are low. The MTS, currently, could solve traffic problem, but there is still lacking of integration between MTS and urban fab-Illustration1 .2 the current condition of local streets in Bangkok, Thailand ,Source : www.flickr.com ric. As we have learnt a lot from the past experiences and
8. 12 BKKs 1.2 PRINCIPLES AND OBJECTIVES 1.3 PROBLEM STATEMENT MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 13The symbiotic relationship between The relation with Urbanism in order to preserve and maintain its The historic core of Bangkok, Thai- strong enough in the decision-mak-MTS and heritage described in the The problem definition demon- value. The last reason is that many land, has been developing through ing process (the Bangkok case), itprevious section is the backbone of strates an amount of urban-related studies usually focus on either TOD the history for more than a hundred can cause an intended economicthis thesis. From the MTS perspec- dimensions. The issues of planning or heritage itself. The conservation year. From the government vision, eviction to the local living in the his-tive, it requires a supporting net- for heritage places and a transit- model mostly put more efforts on an however, in 2030, the expansion of toric core.work to integrate with other means oriented development can be a city area with a potential for economic the MTS will go throughout the city, All of the three aspects lead to spa-of public transportation. While the scale thinking. Moreover, the world- exploitation and leave the locally un- which will pass the historic core of tial fragmentation and a decay ineconomic position of nearby areas wide sustainability movement has listed area away. (Steinberg 1996). the city (see illustration 1.4). To im- heritage places in terms of socio-has to be improved by making use created the new developments in a Thus, this research deals with inte- pose the MTS on the historic core, economic dimensions, historic val-of an easily accessible rail trans- more compact way. It is a way to do gration of the two aspects on the negative consequences will occur ues and cultural identities. Besides,port network. From the historic area historic revitalization in order to re- local scale. Relating to Urbanism, to local people in the heritage sites these phenomena can make Bang-perspective, the long- time historic sponse to the urbanization process. those three aspects require spa- as it happened after the city built two kok become just a generic city. Thevalues and cultural identity will With a global force, the issues go tial interventions that can influence lines of the MTS in 1999, which are MTS spreads generic urbanity as itmaintain. Furthermore, the heritage broadly to a regional scale. There positively socioeconomic structure secession, confliction and displace- scatters soulless places(Richardsonplaces would contribute to urban are many reports about planning on the local level. ment. In the case of secession, it & Jensen 2008). The sustainable at-vitality in terms of socioeconomic for TOD at the regional scale by the takes place when the new develop- tention is not about to go against thedimensions to guarantee that they centre for transit oriented develop- ment is not oriented towards local- new developments following fromcan still last and continue. ment and many government docu- ity, such as gated communities and the MTS, but to search for how to ments. For the heritage, it draws condominiums that causes chang- protect the repeated-negative con-Relating to the hypotheses men- an attention in a global scale from es in the traditional community life. sequences from the MTS and maketioned before, the symbiosis rela- many international organizations, The second reason is confliction use of it. To conclude, with a low in-tionship, and the general objectives such as UNECSCO, ICOMOS and in different ways of uses of space tegration between urban fabric andare demonstrated. so on. However, this thesis will not between formers and new comers, the MTS, when the infrastructure de-1.We have to generate mutual ben- do like that. stemming from, such as, a differ- velopment has been implementedefits to the both sides, heritage and ent perception, background and on the historic core, it results in frag-the new development, when they This thesis will focus on the district comprehension. The worst case is mentations, a lost in urban vitalitymeet. and local-scale option, particularly displacement. When the market is and stimulates social segregation.2.We have to mediate the conflicts on the living heritage areas, in whichbetween the two as well. local people have been using them3.We have to transform current spa- from the past until nowadays, not 2012tial fragmentation into coherent ur- on legally registered city’s heritage.ban space. The objective is to help them survive4.All of the objectives have to cope and make use of consequences ofwith the uncertainty of the future the infrastructure expansion.and develop towards a sustainable The interest of the author is mademanner. by three reasons. The infrastructure expansions can enormously change the existing urban fabric. These change offer opportunities to rede- fine the role of the city and its spa- tial strategy leading to sustainability. The second reason lies on the spa- tial implications of the heritage issue 2030 Illustration 1.4 the diagram showing project position which takes a stand on the Illustration 1.5 the map showing the cur- district and local scale, combined with the rent MTS and in 2030 which will pass the government plan. Finally, it creates an in- historic core comparing with the existing tegration for Bangkok in 2030. condition.
9. 14 BKKs 1.4 AIM 1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 15 Mutual benefit and sustainable ap-proach posal and help strengthening the local economic and social viability. How to preserve the existing historic core ofThe aim of the project is to propose Eventually, the synergetic spatial vi-a strategy for the historic areas ofBangkok while integrating it with the sion will fill in the gap from the gov- ernment plan and provide a solution Bangkok when the mass transit system imple-expansion of MTS. The future vision to solve this widespread problem ofof the project does not replace theold with the new developments, but the city and work as a pilot project reflecting on the improvement of mentation, at the same time enhancing socialtakes a stand on that both process- urban form, socioeconomic issueses have their own dynamics. Thus,the strategy would combine two de- within a sustainable manner(see il- lustration 1.6) cohesion and economic viability?velopments and create a vision thatthe two are complementing eachother. For the historic areas, theheritages need to be preserved andgiven a framework towards socialand economic sustainability. Theoptimise uses of MTS to link uncon-nected areas and to create better liv-ing environment with improved pub- What kind of the strategic plan and spatial in-lic amenities would be proposed. Interms of the new development, newcomers will benefit from the pro- Illustration 1.6 a sustainable model from triple P to Quadruple P (Duijvestein 2008) terventions can be applied on the historic core of Bangkok in order to deal with potentials of spatial quality improvement and integrate it with the MTS in 2030? Fact Consequence OpportunitiesIdentityHistoric value Due to Bangkok has been formed In order to be able to understand the key elements of the main research by a market led development; an in- question, six sub research question need to be formulated. tervention usually is made from the 1. What are benefits and conflicts of the combination of historic and new top-down level, which always gives developments? a priority to infrastructure develop- 2. What is the collective network of these two developments? (to define: what ment. The integrated approach is kind of co-using spaces and sharing functions? Which corridors need to beSocial status missing in a connection with the strengthened?) existing urban form. Therefore, the 3. What are strategies for urban heritage conservation in relation with the research questions arise from soci- infrastructure expansion? oeconomic and spatial dimensions. 4. What is the role of the heritage places in 2030, when the mass transit This integrated model, between old comes?Economic status and new developments, creates two 5. What kind of spatial design tools are able to integrate physical linkages challenges. The first challenge is to between the heritage and new development in a sustainable way? exploit the new development by the 6. How to transform the heritage sites towards socioeconomic viability ? MTS towards sustainability. The sec- ond challenge is how to protect liv- ing heritage from the negative result. The aim is to achieve them both.Illustration 1.7 an approach summarized from the current conditions of Bangkok
10. 16 BKKs 1.6 RELEVANCE 1.7 METHODOLOGY MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 17Ethical Problems Societal relevance Scientific Relevance The selection of the study case and the limitation of theThe problem related to ethical is- The relevance of the thesis lies in This research will reflect on aca- researchsues arises in two cases. In heritage the fact that we have to deal with demic debates on the spatial inter- The historic core of Bangkok is chosen as the study case.sites,the first is the limitation of con- societal challenges of the current vention and strategic planning for Thailand is one of the developing countries in Asia thatservation areas, “enclave tourism” condition of Bangkok to prepare both the rail transport expansion is facing the spatial and socio-economic transformation.(Healy 1992). It occurs when the a solution when the MTS meets and heritage conservation planning. It displays characters of urban problems in developingtype and location of facilities are not the historic core. Nowadays, there In academic field, many researches countries, which are facing with negative consequencesoriented towards locality. As a re- is a demand from local people to have been done to sustainably pre- from the infrastructure development, such as interven-sult, money will not benefit the local protect their communities from the serve heritage. However in the de- tions from the market and infrastructure breakdowns oneconomy. This leads to an increase market that wants to develop the veloping countries, when market a local level, urban planning and governance failure. Al-inflationary pressure on local econ- areas around the MTS. However, becomes more dominant, preserva- though the city has been developing for hundreds years,omy. Price of land, products are the market also can financially sup- tion plans cannot be enacted suc- it still does not plan to coordinate and integrate betweenneither affordable nor responsive to port the existing area by improving cessfully as plans. Besides, to as- infrastructure and urban development.local needs .It leads to a loss of sov- connectivity, public amenities and sure positive results, this research The city of Bangkok has many heritage and high historicereignty for locals, which translates, living quality. For that reason, this contributes to urban vitality, which, value. A number of local people and traditional commu-into loss of control in decision-mak- research tackles with the general- in this case, is an integration of liv- nities still live in the historic core of the city. The researching and benefits. Every area is differ- unsolved problem of Bangkok. It ing heritage and the MTS as a main recognizes the different types of heritage that the cityent so that it will experience uneven provides an integrated approach, component. Based on the different has. Due to its complexity and character individuality,distribution in conservation efforts. which works as a pilot project, in or- context of each city, another contri- a different type of heritage sites deserves a specific ap-The outsider gains less favours and der to generate mutual benefits and bution of this thesis will stimulate a proach, which suits their situation.will see a rise in economic decay minimize social problems of the city. new approach to other cities to re- The thesis focuses on the producing a set of strategyand fabric deterioration, while fo- think and search for a new way to and recommendation that will be able to help plannercused areas receive priority aids. preserve its heritage to cope with an and decision makers to tackle with the MTS in the his-The second reason is observed urbanization process. toric core. The result also paves the way to an integratedin the style of approaching areas. strategy to different individual case of heritage site. How-From the policy level, it usually ever, the research will focus on only one types of herit-takes action on improving physical age, living heritage, to be demonstrated in the thesis.projects rather than social and eco- By narrowing down to only one case, the author can donomic dimension of the areas. From analysis in detail and deeper levels.the past experiences of Bangkok,when the city faces with new infra- The research focuses on the case of living heritage thatstructure development, the project will face with the MTS expansion based on certain rea-generally gives priority to land devel- sons.opment and new construction ratherthan the conservation of the existing 1. Living heritage, in the historic places, contain-historic communities. Therefore, this ing historic value, is still in use, has a certain degree ofthesis aims to not only create mu- maturity as a social, cultural and economic entity. It pos-tual benefits two new development sesses certain qualities that best signify the dynamics ofand heritage places, but also try to characters of the historic core.mediate negative effects to locals,such as an expropriation and gen- 2. Living heritage settles heavily along the formertrification. mode of transportation, mainly water, and usually close to new development areas, mostly high-rise and a gate community. It is an example of urban polarization of the city. With its historic value, it is a challenge by the con- temporary economic pressure by the market interests came with the MTS. 3. The configuration of function reflects the type of activities, which are commonly found in every old dis- tricts of the city, characterized by a large percentage of economic activities run by informal sectors. 4. Living heritage is not protected by laws as of- ficially registered ones. Besides, in the area itself, it stillImages showing recent social protestsagainst an expropriation,resulting from has traditional characters like low income, high density,interventions by the market, influenced and lack of accessibility to public amenities. The thesisby the MTS expansion, which invaded into aims at seeking for a sustainable way to develop the liv-traditional commercial communities in ing heritage of the city.2011, Source : http://www.prachachat.net
11. 18 BKKs 1.7 METHODOLOGY MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 19The method of empirical research Products among the other sectors, the sce-The research model is created in -Theoretical underpins for the as- nario will be set up based on the Main research questionsa relation to the research ques- pect related to the issue possible conditions between the Research Designtion. Various steps of the research -A historic overview for the city of market and conservation planning.model contribute to the challenges Bangkok By dividing into two scenarios, the How to preserve the existing historic core of Bangkok What kind of the strategic plan and spatial interventionsfrom research questions. The first -Developing criteria for choosing first one is extreme case, while the when the mass transit system implementation, at the can be applied on the historic core of Bangkok in order tostep represents the research part of strategic locations second is the moderate case. same time enhancing social cohesion and economic deal with potentials of spatial quality improvement andthe thesis. It consists of three inde- Methods viability? integrate it with the MTS in 2030?pendent parts and the results will be MAPPING THE CURRENT CONDI- -Case study of the car based citiescombined in order to design in the TION ON THE LIVING HERITAGE IN in order to know the possible strat-design phase later on. THE HISTORIC CORE OF THE CITY egy to be applied to BangkokThe design phrase will start from the The second part of the research will -Literature review Sub research questionssub research question four to six by study the existing conditions of the -Research by designproposing spatial intervention for two fields. From the heritage field, it Products What are benefits What are strategies What is the collec- What is the role of What kind of spatial How to transformthe living heritage in the area of his- will study on the local network of the -Vision and Strategies base on prob- and conflicts of the for urban heritage tive network of the heritage places design tools are the heritage sitestoric core of the city of Bangkok. The core, which needs to be kept and able scenarios combination of conservation in these two develop- in 2030, when the able to integrate towards socio-research model contains four sepa- enhanced in terms of spatial, eco- historic and new relation with the ments? mass transit physical linkages economic viability?rate parts to be explained, but the nomic and social dimensions. The AN INTEGRATED PLAN BETWEEN developments? infrastructure comes? between thetime phrasing will overlap. The rela- second one is from the MTS. It will HERITAGE AND THE MTS expansion? heritage and new development in ation and design phrase is not one- link to the first field in term of opti- Based on previous research, a de- sustainable way?way direction, but it is woven and mise uses and minimized unwanted sign will be created for the projectcan be changed over research(see results of the MTS. The thesis pro- area. The design will redefine theillustration 1.8). However, time vides a synergetic vision for 2030, role of heritage places in 2030 and Resultschedule will be explained later on. so a review on their potentials is improve the current situation to- The relationship Mapping the Possible scenarios An integrated plan between heritage and the MTS necessary. The result will build an wards the long-term development. between the urban current condition in the relation of approach to deal with the project The aim is to make use of the MTS development and on the living the two develop-A COMPREHENSION: THE RE- and design tools in the design pe- and its consequence and maintain infrastructure heritage in the mentsLATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE UR- riod. the historic value of the city and cur- expansions of historic core of theBAN DEVELOPMENT AND INFRA- Bangkok. city Methods rent fragmentations solved. The re-STRUCTURE EXPANSIONS OF -Mapping on current social, eco- sult of this thesis can be seen via aBANGKOK. nomic and spatial condition design on spatial intervention on the The first part of research will focus -Interview local residents in order local scale as a pilot project that willon the relation between the two de- to know the local network and how create a sustainable future.velopments. It describes the issues they use space Methodsfrom the history, because it will give Outcome -Space syntax in order to discover -Drawinga better understanding as they are An overview on Context research Vision Strategy Design tools Design criteria spatial condition and level of inte- -Design researchcurrently. The historic development History and theory Case study gration of the city and the area -Mappingwill be analysed since the city has -GIS to analyse and calculate data -Visualizationsformed as the capital city in a form and statistic Productsof maps. Another reason is to know Products -Specific intervention proposalsthe benefits, conflicts and driving -An understanding on the MTS im- based on the toolbox and criteria Interventionforces which already happened, pact -Integration of the existing situationand at the same time where has a -An overview on the existing social, of the historic core with the MTS tohigh chance to be preserved and An integrated model for Bangkok in 2030 economic and spatial issue of the create mutual benefitsthe risky one to be destructed. In living heritage expressed in built en- -Master plan for the arearelation to the design phrase, the vironmentpurposed intervention will be done -A toolbox that can be used in thein terms of living heritage conserva- design phasetion, which is necessary to antici-pate threats and potentialities. POSSIBLE SCENARIOS IN THE RE-Methods LATION OF THE TWO DEVELOP-A review through the history in a re- MENTSlation between the urban and infra- The purpose of this part is to searchstructure development, and at the for successful strategies that cansame time searching for the conse- apply to the city of Bangkok. Be-quence of the current MTS after an sides the MTS takes twenty yearsimplementation in 1999 to function, 2030, which the situa--Literature review tion can changes. Particularly, in the-Mapping city that the market is most powerful-Historic research Illustration 1.8 am empirical research model
12. 20 BKKs 1.7 METHODOLOGY MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 21 Target location Topic LITERATURE STUDY DESIGN The historic core of The mass transit expansion Target location Topic Bangkok, Thailand and heritage conservation LITERATURE STUDY DESIGN The historic core of The mass transit expansion Literature study Site analysis The historic core of Bangkok Scale Bangkok, Thailand and heritage conservation Literature study Site analysis The historic core of Bangkok Scale The role, potential and general Future role, potential and unique City identity of the infrastructure Problem statement expansion and heritage consear- identities of Bangkok scale The role, potential and general vation City Confliction between new and traditional developments identity of the infrastructure Future role, potential and unique Problem statement expansion and heritage consear- identities of Bangkok scale vation Confliction between new and traditional developments Literature review Mapping in order to know A vision for an integration 1.MTS current conditions of the city between the MTS and historic Objective a. Network city 1. Urban development areas Literature review b. Mobility Mapping in order to know Government A vision for an integration 2. vision A synergetic vision, integrated the MTS with heritage conservation 1.MTS current conditions of the3. Spatial condition; infrastruc- and historic city between the MTS Objective a. Network city c. TOD 1. Urban development ture, open space areas 2. Heritage b. Mobility a. Conservation 2. Government vision 4. Economic status A synergetic vision, integrated the MTS with heritage conservation c. TOD b. Heritage tourismSpatial condition; infrastruc- dimension; population, 3. 5. Social 2. Heritage c. urban vitality ture, open space density Research question a. Conservation 4. Economic status 3. Historical research 6. Land use b. Heritage tourism a. Urban development dimension; population, 5. Social c. urban vitality b. Planning systemdensity Research question 3. Historical research 6. Land use c. Infrastructure development a. Urban development b. Planning system Theoretical framework Empirical framework c. Infrastructure development Theoretical framework Empirical framework The role, potential and general Analysis on urban condition of the District identity of the infrastructure scale historic core of Bangkok expansion and heritage consear- City scale The role, potential and general vation Analysis on urban condition of the District identity of the infrastructure scale historic core of Bangkok Historial analysis expansion and heritage consear- City scale vation Literature review Mapping Hypothesis Current situation 1. Gentrification in Bangkok Selection criteria to seek for strategic Revitalization approach for 2. Traditional settlements locations to be intervened living heritage sites towards Historial analysis Literature review Mapping sustainability 3.Accessibility 1. Spatial conditions : study on Hypothesis Current situation for strategic Revitalization approach for 1. Gentrification in Bangkok good node Selection criteria to seek network connectivity and potential 4.A living heritage sites towards 2. Traditional settlements 5.Place making locations to be intervened integrate to 3.Accessibility sustainability 6.Role of government in conditions : studyEconomic status : search for the 1. Spatial 2. on District scale 4.A good node network connectivity and potential endangers by negative conservation planning area which 5.Place making to integrate effects by the rapid development Spatial analysis 6.Role of government in 2. Economic status : search Social status : look for the area 3. for the District scale conservation planning area which endangers bythat tends to be segregated after the negative Vision Socio-economic analysis effects by the rapid development implementation Spatial analysis 3. Social status : look for the area value : investigate the 4. Historic Vision Socio-economic analysis that tends to be segregated after the high value area which has implementation 4. Historic value : investigate the Reference area which has high value Evaluation projects Theoretical underpin on the Mapping spatial and socio- Local Reference relatioship between the MTS and economic problem on strategic scale Evaluation heritage conservation. locations. projects Theoretical underpin on the Mapping spatial and socio- A synergetic Local regard- strategy Evaluation relatioship between the MTS and economic problem on strategic scale ing new development from potential heritage conservation. locations. the MTS; function and typol- A synergetic strategy regard- and local benefits; public Strategies Evaluation transferable Literature review Mapping ing new development from ogy 1. Thai successful space amenities and connectivity 1. Infrastructural networkfunction and typol- potential model the MTS; improved 2. Cultural landscape 2. Natural network and local benefits; public Evaluation Strategies transferable Literature review Mapping 3. Spatial indicators of urban ogy 3. Built environment 1. Thai successful space vitality 1. Infrastructural network amenities and connectivity model improved 2. Cultural landscape 2. Natural network Evaluation 3. Spatial indicators of urban 3. Built environment Design vitality Design Illustration 1.9 the research model
13. 22 BKKs 1.8 TIME WORKING PLAN MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 23The phasing of this project was de- fined and positioned in the time-linefined by two angles; one is the pres- process. The outputs are the prelim-entation-based time (P1, P2, P3, P4 inary thesis plan, outline of reviewand P5), while the others base on paper, final thesis plan, conferencewhich should be done during the paper and final thesis.research process. The actions aredefined as follows; research, theo-retical framework and design task.Besides, there are some importantin-between products already de- P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 Research - Study on current conditions of Bangkok and its potential - Specified research in the field of design - Technical research Theoretical framework - Relation of TOD and urban revitalization - Spatial indicators of urban vitality - Positive gentrification - Conflicts between social and economic development Design task - Preliminary design proporsal - Design proporsal - Evaluation and reflection - Possibility study Literature study Implementation on vision Detailed design Specific project plan Theory paper Strategy Design parameter Evaluation Case study Design parameter Screnarios Conclusion Interview Analysis on existing layers Statistic research Vision DesignIllustration 1.10 Time working plan in relation to five times of graduation presentation
14. 24 BKKs MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 25 Chapter 2 THEORETICAL RESEARCH Source : www.skyscrapercity.com
15. 26 BKKs 2.0 INTRODUCTION 2.1 THEORIES RELATED THE MTS MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 27 Network City Mobility Nowadays with a technological ad- With a growing proportion of popu- vance, the lives of people are in- lation, it has led an expansion of The MTS Global level intervention + Heritage site Local level intervention = Integration Urban vitality creasingly independent from urban physical and administrative bounda- the range of actions, resulting in a growth of mobility network. Mobil- ries. Cities become a network effect ity refers to the movement of peo- rather than geographical surfaces, ple and goods. As Graham and which extensive webs of interaction Marvin (1996) describe as it allows are supported by fast transport and time constraints to be overcomeThe diagram showing the framework of theoretical research in relation with the objectives communication (Read, 2001; Bertol- by minimizing distance constraints. oni and Dijst, 2003; Read and Rooij, However, due to its single concern, 2008). The network city, proposed it of course generates new opportu-To seek for a synergetic vision be- For the heritage field, it links to first- by Dupuy (1991), is recognizes the nities for human interaction, but alsotween the MTS and the living herit- ly, the theory about living heritage. existence of three level of operators threats. Mobility lead to an increas-age, the thesis involves in several The second one is about how to of networks shaping urban places. ing disentangling between humanfields. The two main different fields make use of the heritage conser- The three levels are firstly, in charge activity patterns and the physicalrelate to heritage and the MTS. vation. In this globalized era, cities of providing the physical network; city. Each individual may increasing-The first field connects to new de- call for economic attractiveness and infrastructure, secondly, the suppli- ly create his own virtual city, whichvelopment from the MTS. The first competition. The heritage commer- ers of functional networks – serv- has no physical and administrativenotion is about the network city re- cialization becomes an approach, ices production and consumption, boarders, but is rather a specific,lating to the improvement of mobil- which has tourism as a main player and lastly, personal networks. The changeable combination of activ-ity when the MTS comes. As a con- to support financially. The last urban personal networks lay on a subjec- ity places, connected by transportsequence, the station of the mass related theory is about urban vitality, tive level, which relates to personal networks within definite socio-eco-transit becomes crucial. The con- which will guarantee that heritage activities, spaces, services, needs nomic and behavioural constraints (cept of transit oriented development will not only be kept, but also func- in a personal behaviour. As David Bertolini and Dijst 2003). This proc-(TOD) offers an exploitation of the tion sustainably in the long run. Harvey (2006) mentions about rela- ess causes a change in the relation-strategic location of transit stops as The last past embodies on the com- tional space in which nodes, places ship between the social and spatiala node by developing areas along bination of the two dynamics, the are products of the networks. Al- dimensions of the city. In the con-transit corridors and prevents gen- MTS and heritage, towards urban though, the network is scale-free, temporary world the two dimensionstrification. Finally, urban vitality can vitality. The spatial indicators will be linking through all scales, it does can be separated, for example,be achieved by linking network and unfolded and will be applied for the not mean that there is no hierarchy human interactions can be devel-mobility with land use accessibility. design part later on. in the network. Salingaros (2005) oped without any apparent spatial argues that the presence of hierar- support (Castells, 1996). When the chy is a crucial element for vital net- spatial network and uses become works. We can see it though the way separated layers, it can create in- that it was constructed and used, equity. According to Graham and which becomes a part of human Marvin (2001), infrastructures give organization and action (Read and access selectively, which will show Rooij, 2008). Therefore, the network how effects of local disconnection; forms the fabric of the city in terms functional islands, location and us- of social and cultural experience ers bias, may be produced. Moreo- by interweaving patterns of people ver, to improve mobility, there is no everyday activities (Read, 2001). guarantee not only that people will Salingaros (2005) summarizes that interact with each other, but also a an urban coherence and vitality of node will be no more than a trans- place is a product of inter connec- fer machine or spatial collections of tivity on different levels of scale. It functions that have no relation with refers to the distribution of activities each other( Bertolini and Dijst 2003). are not based on an historical nar- rative of decisions and events, but it is fundamentally based on a spatial pattern, which impacts on the ways of everyday people life processes, their patterns and movement, es- pecially related to mobility (Read, 2001).
16. 28 BKKs 2.1 THEORIES RELATED THE MTS MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 29Transit-oriented development (TOD) identity, such as a harbour city or an Gentrification Gentrification and conservation explains as“a global urban strategy”The idea of TOD is an idea to de- airport city (Bertolini and Slit, 1998). The literature review on gentrification The relationship between gentrifica- that can minimize oddity and de-velop land use plan in relation with is studied in order to seek for condi- tion and conservation is the second velop into a systematized objective.transport system by the density and A good node tions of positive gentrification. This part. Appleyard(1979) explains diffi- The displacement, relating it, is so-functional control in an appropriate As APA gives a definition that a good process is inevitable and usually culties in gaining support to finance cially organized and has enlarged inproportion (APA 2006). It aims not to node concerns with not only the sta- happens in the context of Bangkok conservation plan. However, when scale and diversity (ibid). Besides,allow dispersed developments, but tion, but also transport-supported and around the world. The research an area, mainly heritage sites, draws Crump(2002) conceptualize gentrifi-allow only in focused areas around network, i.e., park and ride, pedes- focus not only on the process of a large attention from tourism indus- cation as a process to break up thestations. The concerning elements trian network and service functions. gentrification in general, but also tries, which come up with money, concentrated poverty, by promotingcover types of transport in focused Simpson (1994) illustrates impact gentrification in relation with con- the market starts to intervene. Job concepts of mixing diversity andarea, stations themselves and the of the development and station ar- Illustration 2.1 The concept of TOD by Peter servation planning. The theoretical rate and economic status of the area balance.area along. The TOD involves not eas on the city’s fabric. It can cause Calthorpe(1993) review aims to protect demographic will increase by tourism industries.only rail transport, but also sub both positive and negative results. changes and unintended economic Local people will also benefit from In relation with the thesis, inmode of transport connecting to the The positive aspects are firstly, the eviction in the heritage sites. the development of transport sys- 2030, the Bangkok has planned thestations. As American Planning As- area of development will be ac- tems and public amenities to serve expansion of the MTS throughout thesociation (APA) demonstrates that cessed easily, which causes chang- Causes and results of gentrification an amount of newcomers. However, city, which as planned it will pass thethe central of focused areas are es in density and urban grain. From The first study lies in a relationship the intervention from the market will historic core of the city. Therefore,given to high-density developments a good accessibility, it draws at- of gentrification and community. change places’ characters, identi- the strategy to revitalize the projectwith lower density in the outer. tention of people to come and use As Devies and Herbert(1993) at- ties and socio-economic status of is not only about economic aspects,According to APA, the key factor of that will be able to improve the eco- tribute that the physical conditions the area. The issues will be explains such as a good node and TOD,TOD is to design pedestrian priority, nomic status of the existing area. of communities are adaptable and more in the next section , aspects but also a positive gentrification.which helps to reduce a number of The third reason is that it increases changeable all the time, which re- related heritage. Instead of the displacement of theautomobile traffics. The pedestrian more transport options to residents, lates to the communities’ life span. original dwellers, an integrative ap-supported mode of transportation which will reduce numbers of pri- Similarly to their residents’ life span, The framework of Gentrification proach is needed. On the one hand,should be promoted as well, i.e., vately owned vehicle. the two factors make the process Gentrification generally knows as mixed social groups are introducedfoot path, bike route or trams, within On the other hand, a node can gen- dynamics that need to serve new a pattern that middle class takes to the area to provide possibilities of400 m. - walking distance. Besides, erate negative consequences too. demands, such as economic and up the working neighborhoods. It encounter with the segregated andtypes of development should be For example, existing activities and social changes. That will create a restricted in territory and process stigmatized local dwellers. On thecontrolled as Calthorpe (1993) il- programmes will decline, due to new zone of transition, which is explained has physical, economic and social other hand, the local will exploit fromlustrates that place, commercial, development from traffic nodes. It is in terms of causes and results. aspects as well (Hamnett 1991). opportunities by newcomers.housing, jobs, parks, and civic uses easy to access, which will make ar- Devies and Herbert demonstrate However, in the last century the con-within walking distance of transit eas denser, mainly being occupied the first cause as the commercial cept of Gentrification has changed.stops. Secondly, it should create by new economic functions. All of change. It takes place with an aim The quality and quantity of the statepedestrian friendly street network new developments can replace the at boosting economic dimensions intervention are the difference fromdirectly connecting local destina- traditional living pattern so that it by using low land-price areas. The the past. It can be explains in manytions. The third reason is to provide loses its role to the city and “place”. second factor is to intensify. Gen- reasons. Firstly, gentrification is notnew mix of housing types, densities Many conflicts will happen if there is erally, this phenomenon can be limit only in inner areas. Outer areasand costs, at the same time, protect no effort to blend within the context. seen via high-rise and compact of a city are concerned. Secondly,sensitive habitat zones and high- For example, new developments do buildings. The two factors create the market, mainly real-estate indus-quality open spaces. Lastly, TOD not meet demands of existing peo- negative consequences. It happens tries, initiated gentrification, whichshould encourage redevelopment ple in terms of functions and uses. when low income people are threat- can be only seen after changesalong transit corridor within exist- From above mention, a node can ened by higher income residents, have started to realize (Nagy 2010).ing neighbourhoods(see illustration cause unwanted effects to the ex- who see an opportunity to develop It causes the working class to outer2.1). isting fabric. To be a good node, it and densify areas. This process will territories. The purpose of gentrifi-APA also defines areas, which are should maximize positive outcome generate conflicts in different ways cation always involved with an ex-suitable for TOD. The first is the and minimize the negative one. In of uses and attitudes against the plicit economic interest. Lastly, theneglected space or low density to other words, as Graham and Marvin existing residents, who are poor state capital is more involved thatrevitalize. The second is the place (2001) mention that a mix in uses, (Devies and Hebbert 1993). Even- before, attached to privatizationwith a high potential, which locates functions and density are key solu- tually, unlisted people are push to projects which encourages gen-at the edge of existing communities tions. Diversity can serve different an outsider, enclave area and finally trification as regards the pace andor suburb. The result of TOD can demands from every social status, the area become ghetto. However, quantity (Smith 2002). He also addsimprove the living quality by reduc- which leads to centrality of the area many theorists look at this phenom- that not only a relation of publicing private vehicles and spur slow with a mix in land use and activities. enon as a selective lost, which con- and private supports the process,traffic to link between local transport It provides options to all ranges of tributes to long-term development. but global capital as well. The inte-nodes. Furthermore, it enhances lo- social status and finally, enhances An area should be developed as its gration of political sectors causescal economic along pedestrian net- an effective transport network. full potential and land price, but the alternation in new areas such asworks resulting in new activities and heritage sites are not on the list. safer living environment. It leads toplaces becoming more attractive to positive gentrification, which are theuse. To put an effort on slow traffic, transformation of neighborhoodsit will positively become a place’s and landscape complexes. Smith
17. 30 BKKs 2.1 THEORIES RELATED THE MTS 2.2 THEORIES RELATED HERITAGE MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 31Accessibility a key towards sustain- ITE Smart Growth Task Force (2003) The theory, based on the idea ofability summarizes the effect between land heritage, is presented in the form of“The ultimate goal of most transpor- use patterns and accessibility in var- a conference paper. It is used as atation is “access,” people’s ability to ious ways and these four aspects final product for the course theory ofreach desired goods, services and will be unfolded later on. urbanism. The paper illustrates twoactivities” (Litman, 2008). aspects related heritage. The firstThe definition of accessibility covers 1. Density (number of people or jobs part explains conflicts in conserva-beyond mobility, because it includes per unit of land area) increases the tion in terms of spatial, economicnot only improved mobility, but also proximity of common destinations, and social factors. To assure thatimproved land use accessibility, and the number of people who use heritage sites will function prop-which reduces the distance between each mode, increasing demand for erly towards the long-term develop-destinations. The objective refers to walking, cycling and transit. ment, the paper uses the conceptthe ability to reach desired goods, regarding urban vitality as indicatorsservices, activities and destinations 2. Land use mix (locating different which are place making, functionalso-called opportunities (Litman, types of activities close together, approach and socio-economic se-2008; Walker, 2011). Accessibility such as shops and schools within curity. The aim of the paper is totends to optimized with multi-modal or adjacent to residential neighbor- seek for criteria, which can be usedtransportation and more compact hoods) reduces the amount of travel as a checklist in the design stage.mixed-use, walkable communities, required to reach common activi- The criteria tackles with four aspectswhich reduces an amount of travel ties. related urbanism field; a good cityrequired to reach destinations. This form, life span of heritage places ex-concept is similar to mobility envi- 3. Non-motorized conditions. The tension, local benefits and the gov-ronment or sustainable mobility by existence and quality of walking and ernance support.Bertolini and Dijst. They term mobil- cycling facilities can have a majority environments as an anchoring effect on accessibility, particularlyhuman interaction in network cit- for non-drivers.ies, which mean that in a boarderconnotation accessibility is not just 4. Network connectivity (more roadsa feature of a transportation node or paths that connect one geo-(“ how many destinations, within graphic area with another) allowswhich time and with which ease can more direct travel.be reached from an area”) but alsoof a place of activities (“how manyand how diverse are the activitiesthat can be performed in an are? “).Bertolini (1999) also widens it in thata place where many different peoplecan come, but also where many dif-ferent people can do many differentthings: it is an accessible node, butalso an accessible place. Read andRooij (2008) emphasize in this issueby adding qualities brought to placeby the connections. Houben (2003)in A Room with a View contributesthat mobility are not only space fortraffic ,but also public space, spaceto spend time in that being able topositively changed society and dailylives of people.
18. 32 BKKs 2.2 THEORIES RELATED HERITAGE MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 33Urban Heritage: Integrating tourism into conservation, planning towards urban vitality conservation is not just only about is that existing old buildings could significant buildings, but its also tak- survive overtime by socio-economicAbstract – A historic city has its own history, which has been developing through several decades. Heritage reflects ing in the whole ambience with its forces. “If authenticity is the accu-the image of a city and narrates stories of its society from its past leading through to its future (Karpati 2008). Nowa- cultural significance. According to rate reflection of the past through itsdays, the trend in heritage conservation has shifted, which has resulted in the commercialization of heritage serving Jokilehto (1999), he explains a mor- architecture, then skilful reconstruc-the demands of the tourism industries and the future generations (Jepson 2001). Besides, the relationship between phologic approach in conservation tion may be more authentic thanheritage and tourism is paradoxical, which in fact the integration of the two, heritage and tourism, is the main objec- which historic and important archi- scattered remnant relics. Most oldtive for conservation (Urry 1990). The main focus of the paper is to seek for a symbiosis model for the long-term tectures should be protected and at urban structure is the result of muchdevelopment in heritage planning and management. Therefore, the paper will firstly demonstrate current conflicts the same time, new buildings should adaptive reuse. Restoration there-between heritage and tourism industries in terms of spatial and socio-economic problems. Secondly, the paper will respect the existing tissue too. As a fore facades the problem of choos-look at solutions for the future development and link them with the ideas of urban vitality providing principles of good holistic view, townscape could be ing which past from many should becity form, socio-economic security with supporting policies . In terms of the study, investigating the conflicts between a guideline for new development, restored.”(Ashworth and Tunbridgethe two dynamics, heritage and tourism, the review literatures are selected from different angles, morphologic ap- Illustration 1 The relationship in planning so that townscape becomes a link 1990, p.24)proach, heritage as a product and market-led development (Lankham, 1996; Ashworth and Tunbridge 1990; Butler and management heritage conservation between conservation and change1997; Healy 1992 and others). In terms of the solutions, the four aspects relating to the contribution of urban vitality (Worskett 1969). In terms of visual 2.2 Heritage as a productto long-term development are debated. These aspects are the principle of placemaking, functional, local economic facets, townscape reflects a cities’ To help heritage survive, economicand political approach, for all which are covered as the main criteria for conservation (Montgomery 1998; Nasser identity and presents recognizable issues can stretch life span of con-2003; Lynch 1960; Jacob 1961 and others). The outcome of this review paper would help the author to build the 2 The purpose of conservation places. served buildings. Theorists discusstheoretical underpin and a better understanding between benefits and conflicts towards heritage planning to create It is commonly known that the his- To keep a town’s identity, spatial that conservation must tackle bothsynergy model through the spatial intervention. toric objects and places carry aes- components of the city need to be economic viability and efficientKey words – urban heritage; conservation; placemaking; tourism thetic values from time to time. classified in terms of priority. This uses. As Nasser (2003) mentions However, Jekilehto (1999) argues selection process is very selective that, these two are interdependent;1 The shift in conservation paradigm ity of the built heritage and urban The consequence is that currently, that the importance of historic con- which depends on interpretation the economic viability of a buildingNowadays, due to the rapid growth space, but also in the living culture these areas continue to generally servation was found on the respect value and taste. Larkham (1996) as- depends on the use, which a build-in the size and the rapid transfor- that characterizes heritage places. decline, with their physical, social for the original style, not anymore sesses this tension between herit- ing can be put. For a building tomation forcing by globalization, the However, the tourist consumption and economic functions. on purely aesthetic reasons, but age and urban form. “Conflicts also function efficiently, the conservationfirst priority of city development has could cause a loss in local culture. The focus of this paper is to exam- by the building’s significance as a arise in the move in architectural idea is to help buildings keep stand-shifted towards economic attrac- With a commercial force to attract ine the concept of spatial, social and representation of achievements in fashions, with styles governed by the ing over time with new extentions attiveness. Urban heritage becomes new comers, Berke and Conroy economic applications of conserva- the nation’s history. The idea goes preference of leaders in architectur- a reasonable cost. The reasons arean economic asset. The condition (2000) reveal that local culture is tion heritage. To assure that heritage beyond spatial configurations by al taste” (p.18). In the past, the rul- that changing will not have an effectof places of heritage is determined losing identities as global “cultural could work properly, the paper also suggesting the idea of authentic- ing class or intellectual force drove on the urban fabric and rehabilitat-largely by their present function industries” asking for a redefinition highlights the idea of a successful ity and originality. He adds that an- this responsibility. Their attention ing offers less economically and so-and use. The historic areas, which and reinterpretation of their culture urban place from the notion of ur- cient monuments represents certain always focused on the major monu- cially disruptive means of renewingdo not have a good potential for to be attractive and competitive. In ban vitality as related guidelines for historic periods only so far as their ments or high land values. However, cities (Fitch 1982).economic exploitation, for example the last decade, governments called developing and managing tourism authentic material was undisturbed the trend has since shifted. As Ash- For the time being, modern think-through tourism, tend to decay rap- in heritage places. The principles and preserved in situ; its original worth (1990) describes, that with an ing pays attention to conservationidly. In contrast, areas with urban for “modernization” that only new of placemaking are suggested as or correct place. The idea of con- increase in academic pressure, ver- differently from historical and cul-heritage, which are still in use, has modern housing was worthwhile selecting urban conservation proc- servation was widened, because nacular heritage is considered as tural values. Based more on thea better chance to be maintained and conversely anything old or in esses in order to connect and con- architectural and historical quality worthy as the heritage of social elite. economic activities, according to(Steinberg 1996). a traditional style was considered trol conservation with new spatial would define an area, often denot- Considering townscape as a whole, Ashworth and Tunbridge (1990), theBefore the period of urban trans- of little values and was torn down development. By focusing more ing a significant historical and social retaining the visual appearance of idea is to provide “the link betweenformation for tourist consumption, (Steinberg 1996). Moreover, spatial on tourists, it proves that tourism relationship to the rest of the town the holistic area introduces a new the preservation of the past for itsurban heritage had needed to be pattern of land uses and activities can contribute to both conserva- (Nasser 2003). According to Feilden concept of preservation, “facad- intrinsic value, and as a resourcegiven a definition. Generally, urban change, because of the new con- tion and development objectives, (2003), he links urban issue to so- ism” (Larkham 1990). He explains for the modern community as aplanners usually remarked on ob- centration from the government. at the same time promote social cio-economic value. The purpose that the form remains, but adapt- commercial activity” (p.24). How-jects, for instance, religious build- Although, international funds have equity and cultural values. Tourist of conservation is to prevent decay able functions behind are to be suit- ever, the approach has changed toings, castles, monuments and so been invested in maintaining gov- industries act as a driver to yield and manage changes dynamically. able for modern lifestyles. Although, market oriented, when economicon. The consensus often excluded ernment owned and registered her- economic development. Besides, Orbasi (2000) emphasizes that ur- this idea seems to negatively di- issues become dominant. Heritagethe other features that help shape itage, in the case of privately owned foreign incomes can help support ban conservation has three interre- rect in the loss of townscape grain is looked as a “product” selectedthe society. Steinberg mentioned properties, however, the situation is social dimensions on a local level. lated objectives, spatial, social and through plot amalgamation, Hub- by consumer demands and man-that historic residential areas and different. Private owners would con- Every aspect is equally important economic. To prevent the threat of bard (1993), however, argues that aged through the intervention in thecity centres equally represented sider any extra work as a burden with how to manage it sustainably deterioration, therefore, these three local residents do not perceive this market, “exploitation” named bythe urban heritage as same as non- due to the unaffordable cost and no not only to solve conflicts between aspects, related to heritage vitality, as a problem and acknowledge this Ashworth (1994). That makes thetangible elements, such as customs necessities to maintain. Steinberg conservation and tourism, but also will be unfolded in the following sec- as a good chance, which is much problem of authenticity irrelevant inand beliefs, articulating the built adds that they are unable to estab- to suggest a way towards long-term tions. more important than authenticity. heritage planning anymore. Nasserenvironment. According to Nasser lish other forms of use or innova- heritage development (see illustra- From the literature, The Tourist-His- (2003) adds that heritage is in the(2003), she also argues that historic tive mechanisms, such as heritage tion 1). 2.1 Present as a part of the con- toric City, Ashworth and Tunbridges relationship with consumers, so,context must be linked intrinsically “commercialization” for the financ- tinuum (1990) explain that authenticity as it consumers can define heritage.to its past, not just in the continu- ing of the required conservation. Urban aspects are prominent in is defined needs to be replaced by Furthermore, some scholars believe the conservation of the city. Urban a more flexible concept. The idea
19. 34 BKKs 2.2 THEORIES RELATED HERITAGE MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 35that heritage can be created just to be a product depending on con- comers takes place in altered use ofto give visitors pleasurable experi- sumer markets, the consequence is space, such as private space, i.e.,ences (Newby, 1994), for example that the market will choose strategi- residential areas, as well as religiousthe idea of a copy, of which no origi- cally the one with high commercial spaces, where they are the mostnal ever existed. Similarly, Larkham values (Ashworth 1994). The selec- sensitive to tourist intrusion. Tour-(1995) reveals “disneyfication” is tion process generates many prob- ism also causes changes in localthe creation of an area based on lems in conservation. lifestyles and cultures. An example,a made up story to look authentic. Selectivity in conservation depends being that, tourism industries canAs previously mentioned the shift on who has a power to choose and destroy inherent meaning in deval-in heritage conservation paradigm where to be preserved. Conse- ued cultural items leading to a lossclearly shows the overall focus on quently, when land uses changes of local crafts (Furze et al. 1996).the external dimension that tourism, along with conservation, it calls forbeing attracted by built heritage, transformation process. Jansen- 3 Heritage conservation contribut-could be an economic booster to lo- Verbeke (1997) reveals that tourist ing to urban vitalitycal and national economy. Although, activities cause an impact on the In the past, urban planners gener-local residents can benefit from a urban environments. He adds not ally located their perspectives onwave of new comers, there is the only do tourist-related problems, spatial conditions, such as in visualother uncontrollable factor, which is such as, over crowdedness, traffic aesthetic or cities’ beatification. This“tourist area life cycle” (Butler 1997). congestion or intrusion in private was, until Lynch, in her book namedHe addresses that the destination domains have a negative effect, but The Image of the City (1960), men-is unknown and travelers come in also local conservation bias does tioned physical reality resulting insmall groups, because of a limita- too. Moreover, with the number of the place-making concept. Howev-tion in accessibility, supporting fa- visitors, finally the market starts to er, the idea of vitality is not completecilities or local knowledge. However, intervene. As Nasser (2003) illus- yet, because of lot of failure casesafter more tourists head to the area, trates that the introduction of fast- show that lacking of aspects related Illustration 2 Aspects related for the long-term heritage developmentit results in over capacity so that lo- food shops, car park facilities and to socio-economics make the citycals cannot handle it, which causes standardized hotel represents a dis- unsustainable. In The Death and Lifecongestion, social and environmen- tortion in what is required for local of Great American Cities by Jacobs development in the sense that it and landmarks are the main build- residents to pursue their goals suc-tal problems on the way to historic residents. Changing for the worse, (1961), she highlighted a good city contributes to urban vitality. ing blocks in constructing an image cessfully. However, Montgomeryresources degradation. The conse- “enclave tourism” (Healy 1992) oc- idea in relation with uses. To be- of place (Golledge 1977). Mont- (1998) adds that the city consists ofquence is visitor decline and loss of curs when the type and location of come a vital place, densely concen- 3.1 Aspects related to Principles of gomery (1998) concludes that paths living things and must allow flexibilitysatisfaction. Therefore, the problem facilities are not oriented towards trated dwelling and economic units placemaking are dominant for new residents, for the city to grow organically andrelates to not only numbers of tourist locality. As a result, money will not should be woven, providing com- The placemaking has introduced because visitors use landmarks as never be wholly predictable. Fromin particular time, but also the con- benefit the local economy. This ings and goings, which bring a place concepts that have influenced the anchor-points in constructing route, the physical form itself, although, itsequence of tourist-related activities leads to an increase inflationary to life (Sternberg 2000). Particularly, selection of conservation. Physi- whilst the mental maps formed from discusses on crucial elements for athat stimulate negative changes in pressure on local economy. Price Montgomery (1998), who reviewed cally, what makes every city dif- local residents have both the paths place, it would not be able to coverurban environment of land, products are neither afford- on Lynch ideas, illustrated func- ferent is its identity and image. In and landmarks. Hence, how people all the aspects related to urban vi- able nor responsive to local needs tional mixtures, diversity and adapt- other words, conservation process gain knowledge of a place, it derives tality, because as mentioned above,2.3 The social conflicts between lo- creating an “outsider zone” (Nasser ability as crucial ingredients for ur- should care for unique impressions from individual’s perception, memo- the three aspects are interconnect-cals and tourists 2003) She attributes a loss of sov- ban vitality. At the same time, local received and collected about the ry and society. At the same time, it ed, therefore, socio- economic val-To make heritage as a key compo- ereignty for locals which translates transactions, fair distribution and place. As Spencer and Dixon (1983) is clear from buildings themselves in ues can signify the role in definingnent for long-term development, into loss of control in decision-mak- controlled density are also socially give a definition of image that it is what sort of meaning is being con- places as well.Jacobs (1991) defines an objective ing and benefits. Every area is differ- important at the local level. Moreo- a combination of this identity with veyed. Norberg-schulz (1985) intro-as the capacity to accept demands ent so that it will experience uneven ver, a good city needs good govern- how a place is perceived as a set duces symbolic meaning which is to 3.2 The functional approach to pro-without unacceptable changes. distribution in conservation efforts. ance. Jacobs also mentioned that of feelings about that place. With a explain the strong feeling aroused long the heritage life spanNorberg-Schulz (1985) discusses The outsider gains less favors and although markets are essential in support from Lynch (1960), “image- when the environment was threat- According to Furze et al. (1996),that conservation is meaningless will see a rise in economic decay providing financial support, markets ability” is the extent to which the ened. People always consider an conservation and local develop-without referring to locality. The lo- and fabric deterioration, while fo- can also undermine or even destroy components of the environments essential element in a city’s identity ment is bridged together with thecal residents are disappeared in the cused areas receive priority aids urban vitality. It is necessary to get make a strong impression on the in- when asked to draw a mental map idea of small-scale and locallyconcept described before. To meet (Newby 1994). a support from government level to dividual. He describes the different of the city, people start with that el- owned activities. The profits will givelocal needs, Orbasi (2000) suggests Not only is this considered a prob- ensure that urban vitality will not be elements of the city, which are the ement (Montgomery 1998). It does local businesses instead of foreignconservation elements could be lem, but also the different percep- negatively intervened by the market paths, edges, districts, nodes and not grade by size or proportion of organizations, so that they can havedamaged or replaced by equivalent tion in places between tourism and mechanism. landmarks that are organized into spaces, but it connects to cultural a higher input in local products,elements to ensure constant asset. living culture, as well. According to As already discussed in the earlier a recognizable pattern. However, importance in life of cities. materials and labor (Cater 1994).However, it is not as simple when Larkham (1995), locals are in dan- part, to solve the conflicts in con- some theorists do not agree with From Lynch’s (1981) work, he links This is compatible with conceptstourists become the main players ger of becoming part of the spec- servation, the following sections the knowledge of these five spatial a sense of place to the qualities. of the physical conditions for mak-for conservation. In fact, money tacle of tourism or as “a market- show the four aspects are equally elements. Appleyard (1970) claims The word “fit” demonstrates how ing a city provided by Montgomeryfrom tourism industries can spread oriented commodity”. Orbasi (2000) important relating to heritage (see whether it is paths and districts this might be achieved. A city with (1998). Mixed use, adaptability into local businesses and industries elaborates more practically that the illustration 2). It proves that heritage which serve as early learning frame- a good fit provides the buildings, functional diversity and secondarytoo. When cultural heritage turns out conflict between residents and new- conservation is rooted in long-term works. In addition, primary nodes spaces and networks paving for its activities support can help heritage
20. 36 BKKs 2.2 THEORIES RELATED HERITAGE MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 37areas last longer. Places continue that in the public realm, such as, tions together with incentive for en- 4 Conclusions In summary, the review paper playsto succeed with changes in eco- streets and squares, both local resi- vironmental protection as a method Conservation and Urban vitality are a crucial role in my graduation the-nomic conditions, because its form dents and visitors act as drivers in of subsidizing heritage places. For compatible and complementary, sis, which tackles with urban devel-is highly adaptable, so it can adapt this process. To protect neighbor- example, some areas gain less at- though there is still a lack of an in- opment from the expansion of rapidin changing demands (Montgomery hoods from unexpected activities, tention leading to receive lower tegrated approach that maintains mass transit in the historic area of1998). The reason is that generally, they would have a clearly deline- financial support. Revenues gener- the typical and essential parts of Bangkok, Thailand. It helps to buildthe life of buildings last longer than ated edge and separate identities ated from tourism should feed back the historic areas and the life of resi- a strong theoretical framework fortheir original functions. Moreover, between each zone (Montgomery through cross- subsidization to local dent communities, which can adapt my project when the conflicts areTourists are not attracted only by pri- 1998). community such as revolving trusts physical structures and economic unfolded and then, the solutions aremary functions, but also secondary To revive the local economy, Rees to refurbish and reclaim buildings or activities, based on current needs created based on urban vitality, itactivities. Jacobs (1961) suggests (1989) describes that it is important enforced entrance fees to tourist at- (Steinberg, 1996). This paper has helps shape the results by creatingthat there are two types of mixed to increase local involvement, be- tractions (Nasser 2003). Therefore, examined the problems and poten- a new model towards sustainability.functions. Primary uses will bring cause the local population’s time money will operate to improve local tials of heritage conservation. When At the same time, to know conflictspeople to specific places and act is longer than investors who are incomes, savings and enhancing tourist activities are more dominant and benefits, an overall understand-as an attraction for people. Mont- concerned with benefits. The in- whole areas of towns. over local society, the conservation ing could support the author to buildgomery adds that city diversity is volvement should see through the The process discussed above calls conflicts result from the transforma- a strategic intervention. Additionally,only achieved where primary uses replacement of optional economic for an integration of tourism plan- tion of land use, disruptive use in spatial indicators are constructedare combined. Secondary functions livability. To meet current demands, ning with city, or even national, de- space and the ruined local econ- as a guideline to create a synergyrefer to services that respond to pri- new economic activities will be wel- velopment plans in general. It also omy. However, with an integrated scenario and mutual benefits for dif-mary uses and serves people who comed, if the traditions are removed concerns with sector targets in par- conservation planning, making use ferent social groups, local residents,are attracted by them. from the community (Cater 1994), ticular. To meet mutual agreement of urban vitality ideas, the long- private investors, tourists, new com-The other factors that will extend the however, traditions and lifestyles between public and private sectors term development can be seen via ers and government in the designlife span of a place, are time. “On must be respected. The location, in tourism, the role for the govern- townscape strengthened by spatial period.successful city streets, people must figure and quality of new develop- ment is to set up the conditions and conditions for place-making. Theappear at different times. This is ment should be controlled under business environments, which both functional approach could offer lo-time considered on a small scale, at spatial design guidelines by the ex- benefit private and public sectors cal benefit and extend life span fordifferent times throughout the day” isting context stressing the continu- and especially private local busi- historic areas. Together with political(Jacobs 1961, p. 152). All ranges of ity between periods (Tiesdell et al. ness can gain reasonable profits powers, heritage would be main-society can use a place. The all-day 1996). By replacing structurally and (Rees 1989). This approach em- tained and local residences couldactivities are an overlapping of every functionally obsolete buildings, the phasizes on the tourism industry to acquire reasonable profits (see il-users group, which provides servic- quality of new development reinforc- take responsibility to the heritage lustration 3).es to any users to perform diversity es the sense of place and supports financially and environmentally to-of activities. Therefore, in order to community identity and attachment wards a long-term maintenance.prolong the life span, the functional (Berke and Conroy 2000).approach emphasizes on the localeconomic activities to all partici- 3.4 Role of the government in con-pants and the way to help improve servationit efficiently by time extension and None of the ideas mentioned abovesecondary programmes. can achieve anything without sup- porting policy. Without any help3.3 Promoting local benefits from government, dwellers them-The essential condition for conser- selves cannot intervene in the mar-vation is to have a sufficiently dense ket. It causes an imbalance in theconcentration. Though the number share of incomes and profits fromof tourists are uncontrollable, for tourism (Nasser 2003). To limitthe place to be self-sustainable, these effects, Cater (1994) arguessmall-scale businesses and open that governments would need tospace in its proportion are neces- intervene in the market and man-sary (Jansen-Verbeke 1997). With age an integration of planning andmyriad networks of firms, small and implementation to ensure sustain-medium enterprises are involved able tourism. According to his idea,in a domestic consumption and to let the market control freely iscan increase job opportunities as not contributing to long-term devel-Jacobs (1969) calls “growing a fine opment. The reason is that whengrain city economy”. The transac- visitor numbers increase, tourismtion base is not only in a monetary organizations get more benefitsform or in all about economic, but causing environmental degradation.she also adds that urban areas pro- He suggests that government canvide space for social and cultural monitor through fiscal measurestransaction. Bianchini(1990) adds and taxation on tourism organiza- Illustration 3 A new model integrated conservation and tourism in heritage development
21. 38 BKKs 2.3 URBAN VITALITY INDICATORS MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 39Diversity have implications for modal choice. for example, walking to a local shop Quality of Space Safety PermeabilityDiversity is a part of the provision Modal choice is associated with rather than driving across town for In order to be a successful place, Conditions of safety have an im- In spatial planning, permeability isof local facilities. The provision of population density in that accord- a supermarket. The proximity to Winden and Van Den Burg (2004) pact on vitality of place. According usually known as a layout of urbanlocal facility and services clearly re- ing to Litman (2008), the propor- transport network is able to repre- mentions that urban amenities and to Van Nes (2007), there is a rela- forms enables people or vehiclesduce travel distance and increase tion of trips by car decreases with sent connectivity to the network as quality of life are the key factors. tion between a perceived fear of to move in different directions. Mar-a number short trip. Land use is increasing population density while a whole and of course the proxim- This agglomeration of public facili- a street and the actual condition shall (2005) differentiates amongtherefore important in favouring conversely public transport and foot ity influences travel pattern too. The ties covers built environment, public of the crime figure in the area, es- connectivity and permeability in thatdifferent types of accessibility and both increase. Walker (2011) adds more dwellers live close to the trans- services, recreational and institu- pecially on level of visibility of the connectivity refers to numbers ofalso people’s needs. A higher level that to create denser communities, port network, the more they use it. tional activities. Bertolini and Dijst street net. Well-known scholars like connections, which form a place.of land use mix is positively corre- less mobility is required. As Stead (1999) mentions that bet- (2003) propose that urban quali- Gehl (1996) and Jacobs (2000) However, permeability defines aslated with lower level of motorized ter access to major transport net- ties are produced in places by what also consider that entrances and a capacity of connections to carrytravel. From this perspective, it cre- works, increases travel speeds and network brings to place and on the windows facing a street is one for- people or vehicles. Therefore, per-ates more choices for residents at Non-motorized conditions (multi the distance, which can be covered characteristics of the visitors. To mula to guarantee urban liveliness. meability tackles with both physicalthe same time diversity promotes mode) in a fixed time. The network can gen- assure a good quality of life, ac- Van Nes and Lopez (2007) elabo- networks and urban tissue (MOX,creativity (Jacobs, 1961). Winden As the access aims at ability to erate the dispersal of development cording to Florida (2002) therefore, rate more on this issue by saying 2009). It aims at creating spatialand Van Den Berg(2004) proposes meet users’ needs, and does not in both residential and employment. talent attracts talent, place-based that the degree of street safety is in democratization, which allows free-that diversity of inhabitants and ac- necessarily favor longer trips or For the spatial configuration, Ewing characteristics can attract talented line with topological depth between dom of choice in selecting optionaltivities facilitates the interactions faster modes, it therefore considers (1996) notes that grid-like patterns people. This group of people tends public and private space and visibil- routes (Bentley, et al. cited in De,which trigger new ideas. Finally, the shorter trips and slower modes if it can be more transit friendly to the to live in a city where they can en- ity on streets. They conclude that in Shiller, 2006). With a low permeableplace will attract diverse groups of provides adequate access (Litman, extent that they may allow greater joy their life and work, and also have terms of typological depth, the more network, spatial fragmentation on apeople, ethnicity, nationality, gender, 2008). Different modes play diverse penetration of an area. Among the people they can communicate and typological step between street and local level is a result of problematicsex and age. However, on the one roles in giving mobility and acces- essential characteristics were short interact, which result in positive ef- private space (housing or building) road systems influenced by an ideahand, diversity tends to create free- sibility, for instance, some modes to medium length blocks (see more fect to the place. Cultural aspects seems to increase segregated ur- to promote traffic separation, de-dom, but on the other hand, it spurs are more suitable for people with in permeability) and continuous is a key towards a good quality of ban areas from the main routes and spite society acquires a definite andproblems of segregation between physical disabilities or low incomes. sidewalks relating to pedestrian space, not only by city images and gives neighborhood a desolated at- recognizable spatial order (Hillierdifferent groups. Therefore, promot- Some modes are particularly impor- network connection, while grid-like residents’ memory, but also culture mosphere. In contrary, urban area, and Hanson, 1984). When the scaleing diversity must be done in the tant for industrial activity. It provides street network was considered itself provide a specific dynamic of which located close or adjoining to of movement is not supported byway that shrinks the gap of poverty opportunities to all social classes. highly desirable as well as in terms socio-cultural activities. In particu- main routes, tend to have entrances urban structure, spatial segregationand inequality for the society. From many studies, it also helps re- of legibility, which Walker (2011) lar, for places with cultural richness, directly connected to public space. and low permeable have an impact duce negative effects from the only names as conceptually available educated and creative workers are Residents participate in being a part on a limitation of access of people one dominant mode, particularly with simple co-ordinates. Stead attracted and gathered to places of street life and enable to keep an to their needs, amenities, commonDensity automobile in terms of traffic con- and Marshall (2001) concludes that of cultural vibrancy and variety, be- eye on what is going outside. For resources and so on (Hillier, 1996).The density development is com- gestion, car exhausted fume and it promotes short and direct routes cause these places provide them visibility, social surveillance is cre- Besides, Hanson and Zako (2007)monly known as population density. time consumption on the road. As for pedestrians, including access to outdoor activities and amenities to ated where the presence of other describe the level of permeabilityRead and Rooij (2008) describe that we all know that slow traffic is envi- public transport, but not for car traf- establish new businesses (Florida, people generates more eye on the in that it can create potential for ur-agglomeration is understood as ronmental friendly, but according to fic. 2002). Clark (2003) divides ameni- street (Jacobs, 1961). Montgomery ban life and encounters since theinvolving factors like face-to-face, Nordahl (2008), riders can get rich- ties into two types to fit with differ- (1998) summarizes that the suc- configurational properties influencecreative economy and urban amen- ness experience from slowing down ent age groups. Young people tend cessful place will have users on it patterns of movement and co-pres-ity, which incorporate with density. speed as well. The aspect related to enjoy more on the constructed continuously, watching and being ence.Statistically, it shows that double experience is important, because it amenities whilst elderly will be satis- watch with well-defined edge; pri-population size increases level of relates to riders’ perception, which fied on natural one. vate and public realms (Jacobs,productivity for six percents (Cic- nowadays people spend longer 1961) and a quality of transparencycone and Hall, 1996). Stead and time on moving from places to plac- or visibility.Marshall (2001) point out the reason es than in the pass. Houben (2003)why density is an important linkage illustrates that mobility route are notto travel patterns of people. It firstly only space for traffic, but also publicwidens the range of opportunities space and space to spend time in.for the development of local inter-action and activities without requir-ing a distanced travel. The conse- Proximity of Network Connectivityquence of an increasing number of Proximity of network connectivity inresidents calls for supporting serv- terms of more roads or path con-ices too. The average distance for nected one geographic area with SPATIAL INDICATORSpersonal trip will be reduced as a another, allows more direct travel.distance from homes, services and One of the way that land use influ-workplaces are shortened. In terms ence travel pattern is that people Diversity Density Proximity of net- Multi mode of Quality of space Safety Permeabilityof public transport, high densities tend to travel based on time not work connectivity transportare more amenable to public trans- distance (Litman, 2008). He alsoport operation and less amenable adds that a short walking trip oftento car ownership and use which replaces a longer automobile trip, The diagram showing spatial indicators of urban vitality, being used in the design part
22. 40 BKKs 2.4 CONCLUSION 2.5 BIBLIOGRAPHY MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 41The literature study, relating to the By creating open space network American Planning Bianchini, F. (1990), The crisis ofthesis, will support the author to as district and local scale recrea- Associations(APA). (2006), Planning urban public life in Britain, Planningbuild a theoretical underpin. In re- tional and flood mitigation areas, and urban design standard, New Practice & Research, vol. 5, no. 3,lation to the approach mentioned in the result helps make heritage sited Jersey, John Wiley & Sons. pp. 17-18.the first section (see illustration 2.2), survive. The city can benefit fromthe strategy is divided into four is- strengthening its image and iden- Appleyard, D. (1970), Styles and Butler, R. (1997), Modelling tourismsues for Bangkok. The first one is to tity. The last issue is to exploit new methods of structuring a city, En- development: Evolution, growth andmaintain an unique urban quality of developments. Functional and ty- vironment & Behaviour, vol. 2, pp. change. In: Tourism, developmentthe historic core of the city. To guar- pologies controls regarding local 100-116. and growth. S. Wahab & J.J. Pigramantee the long-term development in demands will contribute to positive (Eds), London, Routledge.the areas, the author links the issue gentrification, and at the same time Appleyard, D. (1979), The conserva-with spatial indicators of urban vital- local socio-economic dimensions tion of European cities, Massachu- Calthorpe, P (1993), The next Ameri- .ity as criteria to revitalize the herit- will be increasingly developed to- sets, The MIT Press. can metropolis. ecology, communityage sites. The following issue is the wards sustainability. and the Amercan dream, New York,improvement of accessibility. By Ashworth, G. (1990), Can places be Princeton Architectural Press.achieving multi mode of transport, sold for tourism? In: Marketing tour-superblocks, characterized historic ism places. GJAB Goodall (Eds), Castells, M. (1996), The Rise of theareas, will be opened-up. It helps lo- London, Routledge. Network Society, Oxford, Blackwellcal residents fully make use of pro- Publishers.vided options of transport means. Ashworth, G.J. (1994), From historyInvestments from the developers, to heritage: From heritage to identi- Cater, E. (1994), Ecotourism in theattracted by the MTS, can upgrade ty: In serch of concepts and models. third world. In: Ecotourism: A sus-public amenities to local dwellers. In: Building a new heritage. GJAaPJ tainable option?, C Lowman (Eds), Larkham (Eds), London, Routledge. Chichester, UK, Wiley. Ashworth, G.J. & Larkham, P .J. Ciconne & Hall. (1996), Productivity (1994), A heritage for Europe: The and the Density of Economic Activ- need, the task, the contribution. ity, American Economic Review, vol. In: Building a new heritage: Tour- 86, pp. 54-70. ism, culture and identity. G.J. Ash- worth & P Larkham (Eds), London, .J. Conzen, M. (1966), Historical town- Routledge. scapes in Britain: A problem in ap- plied geoggraphy. In: Northern geo- Ashworth, G.J & Tunbridge, J.E. graphical essays in honour of G. H. (1990), The tourist-historic city, Lon- J. Daysh. J House (Eds), Newcastle don, Belhaven. upon Tyne, UK, Oriel.56-78. Berke, P & Conroy, M.M. (2000), .R. Crump, J. (2002), Deconstruction by Are we planning for sustainable demolition: public housing, poverty development? An evaluation of 30 and urban policy, Environment and comprehensive plans, Journal of Planning D: Society and Space, vol. American Planning Association, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 581-596. 66, no. 1, pp. 21-33. Cullen, G. (1961), Townscape, Lon- Bertolini, L. & Spit, T. (1998), Cities don, Architectural Place. on rails: the redevelopment of rail- way station areas, London, E & FN Devies, K.D. & Herbert, D.T. (1995), Spon Heritage places, leisure and tour- ism. In: Heritage, tourism and so- Bertolini, L. (1999), Spatial Devel- ciety. D.T.Herbert (Eds), London, opment Patterns and Public Trans- Mensell. port: the Application of an Analytical Model in the Netherlands, Planning De Schiller, S.E.E. & Martin, J. Practice & Research, vol. 14, no. 2, (2006), Assessing Urban Sustain- pp. 199-210. ability: Microclimate and Design Qualities of a New Development., Bertolini, L. & Dijst, M. (2003), Mo- PLEA2006 - The 23rd Conference bility Environments in Network Cit- on Passive and Low Energy Archi- ies, Journal of Urban Design, vol. 8, tecture. Geneva, Switzerland.Illustration 2.2 The strategy extracted from the literature review no. 1, pp. 27-43.
23. 42 BKKs 2.5 BIBLIOGRAPHY MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 43Dupuy, G. (1991), L’Urbanisme des Hamnett, C. (1991), The blind men Jacobs, M. (2000), Multinodal Ur- MOX. (2009), Methematical Models Read, S & Rooij, R. (2008), Integrat- Tiesdell, S. (1996), Revitalizing his-Reseaux. Theories et Methodes, and the elephant: the explanation ban Structures : A Comparative in Urban Design, Milano, Politecnico ing Mobility Environments in the toric urban quarters, London, But-Paris, Armand Colin. of gentrification, Transactions of the Analysis and Strategies for Design, di Milano. City, REAL CORP 008 Proceedings terworth-Heinemann. Institute of British Geographers, vol. Delft, Delft University Press. / Tagungsband. Vienna, May 19-21English Nature (1992), Strategic 16, no. 2, pp. 173-189. Nagy, Z. (2010), Glove Actually: Inte- 2008 www.corp.at. Urry, J. (1990), The tourist gaze:planning and sustainable develop- Jansen-Verbeke, M. (1997), Sustain- gration and Gentrification in a com- Leisure and travel in contemporaryment. Consultation paper. David Hanson, J. & Zako, R. (2007), ability and planning: Diverse con- munity center in Budapest, Central Rees, W.E., (1989), Defining sus- societies, London, Sage.Tyldesley Associaties on behalf of Comunities of Copresence and Sur- cepts and close associations. In: European University. tainable development. Center forEnglish Nature, Peterborough, UK. veillance: How Public Open Space Tourism, development and growth. Human Settlements research bul- Walker, J. (2011), Human Transit: Shapes Awareness and Behaviour S.Wahab J.J.Pigram (Eds), London, Nasser, N. (2003), Planning for ur- letin. Vancouver, Canada: Center for How Clearer Thinking About PublicEwing, R. (1996), Pedestrian- and in Residential Developments., Pro- Routledge. ban heritage places: Reconciling Human Settlements, University of Transit Can Enrich Our Communi-Transit-Friendly Design. Report pre- ceedings of the Sixth International Conservation, Tourism and Sustain- British Columbia. ties and Our Lives, Island Press.pared for the Public Transit Office, Space Syntax Symposium, Istanbul. Jepson, E.J. (2001), Sustainabil- able Development, Journal of Plan-Florida Department of Transporta- ity and planning: Diverse concepts ning Literature, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. Salingaros, N. (2005), Principles Winden, W.V. & Berg, L.Van Den.tion. Harvey, D. (2006), Space as a Key and close associations., Journal of 467-479. of Urban Structure. Design/Sci- (2004), Cities in the Knowledge Word. In: Harvey, Spaces of Global Planning Literature, vol. 15, no. 4, ence/Planning Series, Amsterdam, Economy: New Governance Chal-Feilden, B.M. (2003), Conservation Capitalism.(Eds), London Verso. pp. 499-510 Nes, A.Van & Lopez, M.J.J. (2007), Techne Press. lenges, Rotterdam: Discussion Pa-of historic buildings, Architectural Micro Scale spatial Relationships per Euricur.Press. Healy, R. (1992), ‘The role of tour- Jokilehto, J. (1999), A history of ar- in Urban Studies: The Relationship Simpson, B.J. (1994), Urban pub- ism in sustainable development’, chitectural conservation, Oxford,UK, Between Private and Public Space lic transport today, London, E&FN Worskett, R. (1969), The characterFitch, J.M. (1982), Historic preserva- the IVth World Parks Congress on Butterworth-Heinemann. and Its Impact on Street Life, Pro- Spon. of towns- An approach to servation,tion: Curatorial management of the National Parks and Protected Areas. ceedings, 6th International Space London, Architectural Press.built world, New York, McGraw-Hill. Karpati, T.H. (2008), Management of Syntax Symposium, İstanbul. Smith, N. (2002), New globalism, Hillier, B. (1996), Space is the Ma- World Heritage Sites, VDM Verlag. new urbanism: Gentrificatin as aFlorida, R. (2002), The rise of the chine, Cambridge, Cambridge Uni- Newby, P (1994), Tourism-Support . global urban strategy. In: Spacescreative class. And How It’s Trans- versity Press. Larkham, P (1990), Conservation .J or threat to heritage. In: Building of neoliberalism: Urban restruct-forming Work, Leisure, Community and the management of histori- a new heritage: Tourism, culture ing in North Amercan and Westernand Everyday Life, New York, Basic Hillier, B. & Hanson, J. (1984), The cal townscapes. In: The built form and identity. G.J.Ashworth & P .J. Europe. N Brenner & N TheodoreBooks. Social Logic of Space, Cambridge, of Western cities. T.R. Slater (Eds), Larkham (Eds), London, Routledge. (Eds), Oxford, Blackwell Publishers. Cambridge University Press. Leicester, UK, Leicester University Press. Norberg-Schulz, C. (1985), The Spencer, C. & Dixon, J. (1983), Map-Furze, B, Lacy, T.D. & Birckhead, J. Houben, F. (2003), Mobility, A Room Concept of Dwelling, New York, Riz- ping the development of feelings(1996), Culture, conservation, and with a View, Rotterdam, NAi Publish- Larkham, P .J (1995), Heritage zoli. about the city, Transactions of thebiodiversity: the social dimension of ers. as planned and consserved. In: Institute of British Geographers, vol.linking local level development and Heritage, tourism and society. Nordahl, D. (2008), My Kind of Tran- 8, pp. 373-383.conservation through protected ar- Hubbard, P (1993), The value of . D.T.Herbert (Eds), London, Mansell. sit: Rethinking Public Transportationeas, John Wiley. conservation: A critical review of be- in America., Center for American Stead, D. (1999), Planning for less havioural research, Town Planning Larkham, P (1996), Conservation .J. Places. travel – identifying land use char-Gehl, J. (1996), Life between Build- Review, vol. 64, no. 4, pp. 359-373. and the city, London, Routledge. acteristics associated with moreings: Using Public Space (2nd ed), Oncu, A. & Weyland, P (1997), . sustainable travel patterns., Unpub-Copenhagen, The Danish Architec- Litman, T. (2011), Measuring Trans- Struggles over Lebenstraum and lished PhD Thesis, Bartlett Schooltureal Press. ITE Smart Growth Task Force. portation, ITE Journal, vol. 73, no. social identities in globalising cities. of Planning, University College Lon- (2003), Smart Growth Transporta- 10, pp. 28-32. In: Space, culture and power: New don, London.Golledge, R (1977), Learning about tion Guidelines., Institute of Trans- identities in globalising cities. PW A.urban environments. In: Timing portation Engineers. Lynch, K. (1960), The image of the Oncu (Eds), London, Zed Books. Stead, D. & Marshall, S. (2001), TheSpace and Spacing Time. P Carl- .T. city, Cambridge, MA, MIT press. Relationship between Urban formstein (Eds), London, Edward Arnold. Jacobs, J. (1961), The death and life Orbasli, A. (2000), Tourists in histor- and Travel Patterns. An International of great American cities, London, Lynch, K. (1981), A theory of good ic towns: Urban conservation and review and Evaluation, EJTIR, vol. 1,Graham, S & Marvin, S. (1996), Vintage Books. city form, Cambridge,MA, MIT heritage management, London and no. 2, pp. 113-141.Telecommunications and the City. Press. New York, E & FN Spon.Electronic Spaces, Urban Spaces, Jacobs, K. (1969), The economy of Steinberg, F. (1996), ConservationLondon, Routledge. cities, London, Edware Arnold. Marshall, S. (2005), Streets and Pat- Read, S. (2001), Neighbourhood and rehabilitation of urban herit- terns, London, Spon. Spatial Processes: Notes on Pub- age in developing countries, HabitatGraham, S & Marvin, S. (2001), Jacobs, M. (1991), The green econ- lic Space, ‘Thick’ Space, Scale and INTL., vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 463-475.Splinter Urbanism, London and omy: Environment, sustainable de- Montgomery, J. (1998), Making a Centrality, Faculty of Architecture,New York, Routledge. velopment, and the politics of the city: Urbanity, Vitality and Urban De- Delft University of Technology. Sternberg, E. (2000), An integrative future, Concord,MA, Pluto. sign, Journal of Urban Design, vol. theory of urban design, Journal of 3, no. 1, pp. 93-116. American Planning, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 265-278.
24. 44 BKKs MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 45 Chapter 3 CONTEXT RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS Source : www.skyscrapercity.com
25. 46 BKKs 3.1 CITY PROFILE MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 47In this section, the context research For the city itself, as above men- 350%and analysis are organized logically tioned, Bangkok is a high dense 0.3%with research questions. It starts city. When looking at the population BMA:72% 20%form an introduction about Bang- of the city, it shows that the city has BMR:28%kok, and then studies on how the more than a half of urban popula- 99.7% 50%city develop by the historical re- tion of a whole country. However, BMA:80% BMR:20% 80% 1% Shanghai Tokyosearch. Lastly, it links the theoretical about thirty percents of the whole 13,447,000 12,790,000study to Bangkok by showing up population are commuters (see il-two issues, which are the change of lustration 3.3). The given budgetBangkok transport means and gen- from the government and resources Bangkoktrification in Bangkok after 1999 (the in the city are not in an appropriate 10,161,694 SingaporeMTS construction) proportion. That is why the market 50% Kuala lumpur 7,300,000 5,000,000 become dominant in the city and theBangkok, the capital city of Thailand conservation planning is not so ef- Area GDP Population Jakarta Density 8,500,000with the history of over 200 years, fective (Askew 2002).is located in the delta area of ChaoPhraya River (see illustration 3.1). Bangkok was divided into 50 dis-The city is in an urbanized triangle tricts. The dense areas are clusteredof Thailand covering five provinces, around the inner city and the historiccalled Bangkok Metropolitan area. core. Conversely, in suburban ar- 350%Two airports and three lines of rapid eas, mainly agriculture areas, the 0.3%mass transit serve the city. Almost density is lower. With a car based 20%all developments of infrastructure, infrastructure development, most BMA:72% BMR:28% Bangkok Metropolitan Region[BMR]occupation, functions, and eco- of the areas in Bangkok are reach-nomic activities are focused highly able only by car. Moreover, without a 99.7% 50% BMA:80% Thailandin Bangkok (World Fact Book, 2009). good traffic planning from the past, BMR:20% 80% 1%Comparing with the whole country many superblocks take place (see Illustration 3.1 Location of Bangkok ,Source : www.mapofworld.com(see illustration 3.2)., Bangkok is illustration 3.4). The effect is thatone of the smallest cities in Thailand. currently Bangkokians are highlyHowever, with its economic position, suffered from the traffic problems.the role of Bangkok as a capital city 50%makes Bangkok more important. Ahigh-tech airport, mass transit trans- Area GDP Population Area 7,761.50 sq.km. Concentration of urban populationport, the stock market and CBD are Density Inhabitants 11,971,000 ppllaid in the city producing 50 per- Registered 5,695,956 pplcents of the whole countries’ GDP . Density 4,051 ppl/sq.m. Non-Urban population :In terms of population, it shows that Districts 50 42,802,000the city is extremely dense. Twenty Infrastructurepercents of the countries’ residents Airport 2 Urban population : 50 Districtslive in making Bangkok denser than Port 1 19,361,000 0 km. 10 km. Illustration 3.2 general information of Bangkok Population of Bangkok Metropolitan :other cities for 350 percents. in comparison with the country, Thailand Highways 6 11,971,000 Expressways 8 Subway 1 Rail system 4,346 km. Population Density (person/sq.m.) Bus 7,064 More than 30,000 Minivan 5,519 25,000 - 30,000 Population of Bangkok 20,000 - 25,000 Water bus 9 15,000 - 20,000 10,000 - 15,000 Facilities Density 5,000 - 10,000 Governance Paliament Education 45 universities Expo/ Conference 4 Park 16 Economic Stock market, CBD, internat- Infrastuctures Main Highway ional offices Registered East-Asians Indian Population (Thai) Toll way (Motor way) International Embassies Non-registered Expressway Population (Thai) Thai-Chinese Others Ring road Metro Infrastructure Airport link rail Illustration 3.3 Concentration of Bangkok population , Illustration 3.4 Summary of Bangkok infoma- Source : Department of Interior(website) tion Source : Department of Interior(website)
26. 48 BKKs 3.1 CITY PROFILE MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 49City icons 1 2 3 N W 5 6 N N W W N Illustration 3.6 The MTS of Bangkok in 2030 in comparison with the current con- dition, Source : Bangkok planning stand- ard(2010) S 8 9 W N First city N Second city Third city W W S S E N E N NCity images , Source : www.flickr.com W S W Portraits of the city heritage items, in a form not only 2030 vision (see illustration 3.6), the CBD E 1. Siam paragon The photos of the current condition places or temples, but also unique government has defined a new eco- of Bangkok are selected not only opened-air local market, which draw nomic ring surrounded the central W Commercial center 2. Khaosan road 3. Traffic congestion to give an impression about the big attentions from tourism indus- business district (CBD) of the city, S Community center 4. The grand palace city, but also to elaborate the top- tries generating big money flows to and together with a plan for mass S 5. Jatujak outdoor market ics more practically. Together with the city. However, the condition of transit expansion, which will finish in 6. Food vendors and motorcy- the pictures, the current condition the historic places, when the mass 2030(see illustration 3.7). as well. cle taxi of MTS is always built on top of the transit comes, it still uncertain. Along with the vision, it gives us a S 7. Skyline road. The elevated rail system usu- big chance to think about how to 8. Suvarnabhumi airport ally, plug in to the prestigious func- Bangkok’s government vision balance the long-time spontaneous 9. Bangkok rapid mass transit tions, such as high-class hotels and Bangkok is a monocentric city. From development with the new mass system luxurious huge department stores the regional level, it was designated transit expansion. The connection (Mcgrath 2009). He adds that the as the first city surrounded by sec- between each area, which recently lower level, in where more dynam- ond and third cities respectively. connects by private vehicles, needs ic functions located with informal With its high economic position, to be re-established and the spatial economic sectors- street vendors every logistic route passes Bang- development needs to be re-con- and food stalls, is left to bad condi- kok (see illustration 3.5 ). It acts as a sidered as well as the role of the ar- S Illustration 3.5 Bangkok from the national tions by the very congested traffic. stepping stone connecting north to eas need to be re-identified. vision, Source : Bangkok planning stand- However, city has many high-valued south and east to west. In the city ard(2010) S
27. 50 BKKs 3.1 CITY PROFILE MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 51 Land use City urgencies Role of Bangkok districts kok Noi, Khlong San and Bangplad The economic status of the two The distribution of land use shows According to the city vision in 2010, BMA has already stated the urgent prob- From the development plan 2004, ). The area is designated as cultural zones that more than a half of the land has lems in their development plan of the city. the government already divided and heritage tourism sites with the The economic status of Bangkok been occupied for residential rea- It aims to... Bangkok into twelve areas. The role diversity in traditional communities. is separated by the twelve areas. sons. The most dense area clusters 1. mitigate the water problem. is different based on their poten- It locates on the west bank of the Information used is the tax col- around the centre and less dense 2.expand the capacity of the city and its facility as a metropolitan region tial and characters(See illustration Chao Phraya River and used to be lection between 1999(the first areas respectively gradient far away 3.increase access to green areas 3.8). The historic core of Bangkok a first-established area of the city. two lines of the MTS opened) to towards periphery. Businesses and 4.provide equal access to public transports throughout the city covers two groups. The first group The historic value of the area is high, 2006(See illustration 3.9). The ex- other facilities are more dispersed is named as Ratanakosin group. It because its location, architectures, isting lines of the MTS run mostly in the outer area as same as green Although, the project will not confront with the city scale like BMA does, the situates on the east of the riverbank. arts, traditions and traditional com- within three zones, which are open spaces. As a car based city , proposed strategy will not only take these urgent issues into account, but The area consists of historic areas munity life. Moreover, the Banngkok Lum Phini, Vipavadee and Chao it makes difficult to the local people also function in line with the government intervention and help solving the (Ratanakosin Island in Phra Nakorn Metropolotan Administration(BMA) Phraya zones. After eight years to move freely throughout the city. ongoing issues. district), institutional and govern- names the combination of the two of the first implementation of the In particular, the preserved area ment offices (Dusit district) and tra- groups as the arts and culture pres- MTS, the tax collection of three ar- has a highest density of population ditional commercial district (Pom- ervation and the tourism promotion eas increases enormously – more and locates far away from the other prab Sattuprai and Samphantawong zone. The thesis will locate within than 100 percents. Conversely, functions. districts ). The second group is the this zone as a testing site for the with the others, particularly in the Thon Buri group. It covers five dis- context analysis on the following two focusing zones (Ratanakosin tricts( Thon Buri, Bangkok Yai, Bang- section. and Thon Buri), their economic status increases less comparing with the others. To know the eco- nomic consequence by the MTS, it gives a chance to the focusing area what the existing condition and a challenge is in terms of economic viability. Before zoom- 40x20 km. ing in to the analysis of nine districts within two zones, to be Legend Living better understood about Bang- Low density residential area (51.12%) kok fabric, historical research is Medium density residential area needed. High density residential area Commercial area Industrial area Working & Facilities Cargo area (7.74%) Conservation Ratanakosin Thon Buri Country-side &Agriculture protected area Lumpini Economic Vibhavadi focus Chao Phraya Country-side &Agriculture area Thaksin Phranakorn Neur Protected area City Burapa expansion Srinararin Goverment offices area Landscape Suwintawong Agriculture (41.15%) Mahasawat Public space 40x20 km. area Sanam chai Illustration 3.8 The difference in development focuses of Bangkok’s districts, 40x20 km. Source : Bangkok planning standard(2010)ving1.12%) Living (51.12%)& Facilities Working & Facilities74%) (7.74%)area Landscape (41.15%)dscape41.15%) Illustration 3.9 The economic conditions of the city divided by different designated districts, Illustration 3.7 Bangkok land use, Source : www.bangkok,go.th Source : Bangkok planning standard(2010)
28. 52 BKKs 3.2 HISTORIC DEVELOPMENT MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 53In order to understand the mecha- 1.Establishment of original Bang- community centre. The city was for- 2. 1st Modernization wave(1852- of civilisation and progress (Askew, urban scene (see illustration 3.12).nisms and anticipate effects, the kok(1782-1852) tified by wall and river, which was as 1885) 2002). Lot of projects concerning However, the indigenous structurehistoric analysis aims at seeking Before establishing a new capital, not only a defensive component, but Western people influenced the ur- modernization were elected such as remained. Five temples were builtfor the relationship between infra- King Rama I determined to plan and also a main mode of transportation. ban development in this period. road construction and infrastructure and more than twenty were restored.structure developments and the city rebuild the new capital city as close Canals network indicated the pat- The two main significant events improvement (see illustration 3.11). Heritage started to draw attentiongrowth from the past. The trans- as possible to the Ayutthaya proto- tern of urban development in early transformed the city in both social Thailand preserved the formal sov- from the rulers in this period. Kingformation of urban space and pat- type, the former capital city (Warren, Bangkok. Based on its location as and physical terms. First, Thailand ereignty of its monarchs together Rama IV used modern technolo-terns of development are studied. It 2002). Canals were enlarged on the a port city, Bangkok continued its signed the Bowring Treaty with UK. It with the realm’s hierarchical struc- gies to renovate heritage from Kingunfolds the history of the city from east side to link with the main river, role as a successful trading city of led a dramatic change in the socio- ture (Askew, 2002). With these two Rama II.the origins and driving forces trig- Chao Phraya River, making city sur- the east. In this period, a number of economic process of the country. strategies, many roads were built togering changes. In this analysis, the rounded by water. It was called Ra- new canals were dug and widened The contract allowed the westerns to facilitate commercial expansion par-history is divided into five significant tanakosin Island nowadays. The city while many existing canals were engage in the local socio-economic alleling with the Chao Phraya River.periods. was built with hierarchical order. In deepened to facilitate shipping structure (Yantrasast, 1995). The It routed to commercial districts and other words, inner areas were highly (Yantrasast, 1995). Although most city expansion served for trading foreign consulates whose land was important (see illustration 3.10). urban development activities were and business demands. Besides, royally granted to establish foreign Within the wall, the Grand Palace carried out through the King’s vision more and more Westerners started relations (Office of Natural Resourc- represented the highest order sur- and aspiration, existing physical settling in the city that created a big es and Environmental Policy and rounded by temples. The temples condition, politics and socio-culture impact to Thai society. For the sec- Planning, 2004). Bangkok became for Thai society were everything, seemed to play significant roles in ond reason, the strategy to avoid land-based settlement. The build- for example, they function as public defining the urban space (ibid). the threat of colonisation was to ing of shop houses and markets school, library, hospital, garden and present the country with a spectacle along new roads adjusted vastly theIllustration 3.10 Bangkok in the first period, Source: Committeefor the Conservation and Development of Krung Rattanakosinand The Old Towns, 2004 Built-up area Water Built-up area Water Road Illustration 3.12 Picture showing the Western influence in the De- velopment and Modernity of Bangkok, Source: Yantrasart 1995 Illustration 3.11 Bangkok in the second period, mainly focusing on the infrastructure expansion, Source: Yantrasart 1995
29. 54 BKKs 3.2 HISTORIC DEVELOPMENT MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 553. City expansion by the transporta- stead of expanding the urban area, NOTE 4. Road network development nicipalities, east and west side. Thistion revolution(1886-1934) most of the sixth King’s works paid Based on the ancient laws, the King (1935-1959) system let them participate more inAs same as King Rama IV’s period, more attention to the addition of was officially the owner of all the The Second World War played im- local government (Askew,2002). Ac-shop houses were a main function amenities in order to modernize city. lands. With the shift in economy af- portant role in development of ur- cording to Askew (1994) while theto stimulate economic activities. For instance, hospitals, universities ter the Bowring Treaty and the canal ban structure in this period. Popula- monuments and architecture of theWith this development, commercial and public Park were created. Es- excavation, there was a reformation tion grew rapidly, and a number of fort city of Rattanakosin were histori-communities provided places for lo- pecially, the first and biggest public of the land law. In order to encour- urban migrations and the political cized through monument preserva-cal people to live and job opportu- park in Bangkok, Lumpini Park, be- age the canal excavation company power changed towards democracy tion legislation, many royal palacesnities too. To relate to a strong will came the most important of his work to engage in land development, in 1932. Unsurprisingly, it triggered and royal residences were modifiedto modernize the city, beautification and still being used nowadays (see the land title was systematically es- a new urban phenomenon. With to become government offices. Withwas set as a main concept to shape illustration 3.13). Not only had he tablished to end the disagreement ending of the absolute monarchy, their new function, these buildingsBangkok. It was a big change in this produced spatial configurations, but over landholding and profit (Askew, military government was appointed resulted in land use change (see il-period that visual aesthetic of the he also did a change in reformation 2002). as a new leader (Yahtrasast, 1995). lustration 3.14).city’s physical appearance had ma- of land law . Though Bangkok had To response to a large amount ofterialized in planning issues (Askew continued to change, it occurred population, this period infrastruc-2002). Additionally, the development with slower pace during this period. ture drew a main attention. Bangkokof Bangkok reflected the urban de- Because of the reformation of the was still building road network andsign concept, which was the city in land law, there was an increase in bridges that connected to the otherthe park. King Rama VI took the pol- the involvement of private landown- side of the river, one-fifth of city’sicy from his predecessors. He start- ers and developers within urban de- population relocated. As a chain re-ed to build more roads and bridges. velopment. action, the governance system wasUnlike the two previous Kings, in- divided into two administrative mu-Illustration 3.13 Lumphini Park; the biggest public park of Bang- Illustration 3.14 The change in built-up areas, Source: Beek 1999kok, Source: www.flickr.com Built-up area Water Road Train Built-up area Water Road Train
30. 56 BKKs 3.2 HISTORIC DEVELOPMENT 3.3 INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 575.Urban development and land use 1960. However, the plan was criti- constructing resulting in 30 percent This section discusses on the rela- The declination of canals sultants, but not entire strategy haschange(1960-1990) cized and not being implemented. of size expanded (see illustration tionship of infrastructure and urban In a consequence, canals went been implemented. Bangkok tookThe city had a rapid growth of popu- The next city’s plan was produced in 3.15). The development surged out- development from the history of the less important conversely with the and built an idea of expresswayslation from one million to five millions 1971. The Department of Town and wardly as a low and medium den- city of Bangkok. nationwide road network develop- from the U.S. vision. The express-in three decades. While the demand Country Planning brought the first sity, at the same time the inner are Canals as the first mode of transport ment. Until 1936, the enactment of ways caused changes in land use,of housing of the middle-classes revision of Plan for the Metropoli- adapted to be apartments, condo- The infrastructure construction of building code controlled townscape B when it spurs new developments, withTransporta- A Establishment of Original 1st Modernization wave C City ExpansionBangkokians increased, many tan area. The second plan aimed miniums and very expensive single the city was built with a purpose of Bangkok. From852) Bangkok( 782- 1 1 1951-1975(Viet- mainly in suburb. This process ac- 886-1934) ( 852- 885) 1 1 tion Structure( 1slums also raised ten times than the at solving environmental problem houses. Private land ownerships to connect one place to another. nam War), Bangkok got a financial celerated urban sprawl in Bangkok.last period. The city was unable to in Ratanakosin Island. In 1976, the and the dynamics of the urban land Bangkok relied on water transporta- aid from U.S. by offering as a base Furthermore, it also affects to in-provide affordable shelter for low- Committee for the Conservation of market were a key influence on the tion via canals for more than a cen- camp. The transportation infrastruc- crease in traffic volume.income people. Therefore, the clear- Valuable Historical, Archaeological, appearance of the architecture and tury after its establishment. Canals ture was upgraded throughout the To conclude, in the past, infrastruc-ance of some major slums repre- Cultural, and Architectural Buildings urban space of the city (Asker 2002). became a boundary that defined city. ture followed urban development.sented the direct intervention of the within the Bangkok Metropolitan Entering the new era of global city the size of the city. The size of old An introduction of elevated express- People started to settle beforegovernment through the means of area was appointed to define poli- in 1990s, numerous projects were Bangkok was 346 ha and became ways thinking about transport. However,urban development (Askew, 2002). cies and measures for the renova- planed contributing to compete 640 ha in 1851(IER, 1989). With the After World War II, planners started nowadays infrastructure planningIn the late 1950s, concerned with tion of significant buildings in Bang- nearby regions, economic growth absolute power of the Kings, big to act in 1960. Greater Bangkok Plan becomes an activator in urbanthe rapid increase in the city’s pop- kok for the Bicentennial Anniversary and tourist’s attraction, for exam- canals were constructed for the mili- was produced along with U.S. con- transformation.ulation, the Thai government com- of the city in 1982(Yahtrasast, 1995). ple, a new international airport, fast tary purpose.missioned the American consultant This was the first committee about trains and new business districts. Requests for roads by foreignersteam to create a development plan urban design that was under the However, these projects were driven In 17th and 18th centuries, Thailandfor Bangkok. After three years of control of government agency. by private sectors and the market took the idea from the European co-study, the first proposal ‘The Great- However, with an unavoidable rea- rather than urban planning and the lonial empires. Kings Rama IV ander Bangkok Plan 2533’ (A.D. 1990) son of the blooming population, design system of the city itself (ibid). V considered modernization as awas submitted to the government in new roads and freeways were still necessity. In the middle of 19th cen- C tury, the Bowling treaty was signed A Establishment of Original that 1st Modernization wave B allowed international firms to lo- C City Expansion withTransporta- A D Road Network Development Suburb Development and E Land use Change(1960- 990)Illustration 3.15 An origin of compact buildings to serve popula- Bangkok( 782- 852) 1 1 D cate(1852-1885) offices in Bangkok. Con- 1886-1934) their tion Structure( ( 935- 959) 1 1 1tion booming, Source: Beek 1999 sequently, because of the emer- gence of foreigners, the land based transportation was created along with canal to serve their needs. E Infrastructure led urban develop- B ment Bangkok became a trading center Built-up area Water Road Train in the late 19th century by the con- struction and operation of railways. Modernization through Chakkri rev- olution improved the transportation infrastructure facilities in Bangkok A B C D E such as streetlights (Kishiue et al., 2005). There was a big change when King Rama V toured to Europe. Bangkok was framed by moderni- C zation and westernized townscape. The first development is to relocate A the palace to the new area, Dusit, D taken Hyde Park from London as a model. Secondly, Champ-Elyeese of Paris was an ideal of the widest road in Bangkok, Rachadamnoen. More than 50 roads were E prepared B and transportation infrastructure started functioning to guide the de- velopment (ibid, p.4312). Due to a convenient accessibility, high class residential areas took place in the new constructing roads, Sathon, Surawong and Si Phraya, which at that time located in the suburban Illustration 3.16 The different focused modes of transport of area of old Bangkok. Bangkok through time, Source: www.flickr.com
31. Private vehicles A B C D E 58 BKKs 3.4 PLANNING SYSTEM MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 59 Urban development This section will provide an over- 2.Master plan kok had no clear vision, but every five decades, building code was 100% Population all understanding of the planning Urban planning emerged in Thai- development paved the way for enacted in 1936 including sanitation system of the city of Bangkok. It is land under King Rama V in 1892. modernization of the city until 1960. and environmental concerns. In the Urban area divided to six main issues, which The avenue plan, the road network The GBP helped by U.S. planners, period of resolution of Bangkok in Density are decision-making, master plan, and design control were included suggested new road system. Two 1941, based on building code 1936, vision, scope, planning tools and in the plan for Dusit area (Kishiue ring roads and an expressway re- minimum open space ratio(OSR), E 50% revision of plandevelopment Urban respectively(see il- et al., 2005). Before the era of King sulted from the GBP Not until 1992, . height control and road width, build- lustration 3.18). Rama V, there is only a purpose the Bangkok comprehensive plan ing materials were added. During 1.Decision making Population for beautification. The road widen- emerged which would be revised in 1992, zoning control and land use All of the urban planning projects Urban area ing, height control and façade de- every five years. plan became available and used and implementation of infrastruc- sign were carried out during 1870s. until nowadays. Density ture projects was activated by Thai The Greater Bangkok Plan (GBP) 4.Scope and coverage A B C D E governments led by Kings. In case brought the district plan and single The plan, made before 1960, was 6.Frequency of Revision of Plan of urban planning, it was acceler- component plan to the city in 1960. limited for specific areas. Project Before 1990,as above mentioned, ated strongly by King Rama the Nevertheless, the GBP did not based development was taken none of plans were officially ac- fifth in the period of Modernization have any enforcement power and part in road, canal construction cepted. The National Economic and Transportation of Bangkok. When urban planners implementation (Tasaka, 1998). At and streets beautification. The first Social Development Plans (NESDP) Water transportation 100% were elected., Bangkok is fully re- the same year, national economic plan that called for public participa- was agreed by law and reproduced Train sponsible for creating its own city development plans were prepared tions and covered the whole area of every five years. Transportation plan. Nevertheless, its general plan- and transport infrastructure projects Bangkok was the GBP in 1960. Tram ning process is based on the same Water transportation were carried out with the multi- Road transportation principles and regulation—Town component plans. However, law 5.Planning tools 50% Train Private vehicles and Planning act 1975— as the ur- supported no plans. Until 1992, the Panning tools utilized in Bangkok ban planning system of the country. Tram comprehensive urban plan with le- during the 1800s were designa- E The plan has been created under gal based became available. tion of date and temple for crema- Road transportation the Department of City Planning of tion and the regulation of facto- the BMA, and public participation Private vehicles 3.Vision ries with stream engine to control has been recognised as an essen- In 1782, the establishment of Bang- smoke(Kishiue et al., 2005). Height A B C D E tial procedure in the development of kok aimed at rebuilding the former and design control were implement- Illustration 3.18 The summary of Bang- The tables showing development focus in each period a Comprehensive Bangkok Plan. capital, Ayuttaya. After that, Bang- ed in Bangkok around 1870s. After kok’s planning systemLAND Illustration 3.17 The summary of the relationship between urban and infrastructure development USE / P L A N P L N N N GN G P L A NA G I NI NITRANSPORT P A P APEARTNREN N T T T T ET R Water-Based Transport Water-Based Transport Water-Based Transport Water-Based Transport Phrasing and Walking Period Transport Modernisation Period Modernisation Period Governance Governance Governance and Walking Walking Period Period and Period Walking and Transport Modernisation Period Period Period Transport Modernisation Transport Modernisation Modernisation Period Period Period Modernisation Modernisation Physicle info. (Rama I-IV) (Rama V-VIII) (Rama IX) Stratigies Stratigies Stratigies (Rama I-IV) (Rama I-IV) I-IV) (Rama (Rama V-VIII) V-VIII) V-VIII) (Rama (Rama (Rama IX) (Rama IX) (Rama IX) Public trans. Areas Areas Areas Establishment of Original 1st Modernization wave City Expansion withTransporta- Road Network Development Suburb Development and Establishment of Original Original 1st Modernization1st Modernization waveCity Expansion withTransporta- Road Development Establishment of Establishment of Original 1st Modernization wave Expansion withTransporta- withTransporta- NetworkNetwork Development wave City City Expansion Road Network Road Development Development and Development and Suburb Suburb Development and Suburb Private vehi. Bangkok( 782- 852) 1 1 tion Structure( 886- 934) 1 1 ( 935- 959) 1 1 Land use Change( 960- 990) 1 1 OutcomeOutcome Outcome Bangkok( Bangkok( 782- 852) 1852) 1885) 1885) 1885) tion Structure(Structure( 886- 934)935- 959) 1959) 1959) 1782- 852) 1 1782- ( 852- ( 852- ( 852- 1 Bangkok( 1 tion 1886- 934) 1 1886- 934)( 935- ( 935- tion Structure( ( 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Land use Change( Land 1990) 1990) 1990) Land use 960-use 1960- 1960- 1 Change(Change( ( 852- 885) 1 1 1 1 1 100% Urban development King RAMA Governance Governance Governance Absolute Monarchy AbsoluteAbsolute Monarchy Monarchy Constitutional Monarchy Constitutional Monarchy Constitutional Monarchy (I-IX) Population Year Urban area Implementation/Implementation/ Royal Government of Government of Royal Government of Royal Government of Government of Royal Government of Royal Government of Government o Implementation/ Kings, Kings, Royal Government ofRoyal Government of Government of Royal Government of Royal Government of Government of Royal Government of Kings, Royal Kings, Kings, Kings, Royal Kings, Kings, Kings, Royal Kings, Kings, Kings, Royal Kings, Kings, Kings, Royal ( 700s- 900s) 1 1 leader leader leader Thailand Thailand Thailand Thailand Thailand Thailand Thailand Thailand Thailand Thailand Thailand Thailand Thailand Thailand ThailandLAND 50% Population USE / DensityTRANSPORT ppl) E (200000 Urban development Built-up area Water-Based Transport Population Master Master Plan - Master Plan Plan - - Chakri ‘s Chakri ‘s Dynastry DynastryChakri ‘s Dynastry for DusitforPlan for Dusit Area network network develop- Plan Plan AreaDusit Area Road Road develop-Road network Greater Bangkok’90 develop-Greater Greater Bangkok’90 Bangkok’90 Phrasing ( 000 ha) 1 and Walking Period Transport Modernisation Period Modernisation Period /Plans /Plans /Plans RevolutionRevolution Revolution ment plan ment plan plan ment Social Economic Social Economic Develop- Social Economic Develop- Develop- Physicle info. (Rama I-IV) (Rama V-VIII) (Rama IX) ment Plan 1960 ment Plan 1960 ment Plan 1960 Public trans. Density Urban area General Plan’92 General Plan’92 General Plan’92 Establishment of Original 1st Modernization wave City Expansion withTransporta- Road Network Development Suburb Development and Private vehi. (25 ppl/ha) Bangkok( 782- 852) 1 1 ( 852- 885) 1 1 tion Structure( 886- 934) 1 1 ( 935- 959) 1 1 Land use Change( 960- 990) 1 1 Density Canal length King RAMA Vision Vision Vision Rebuilding of Rebuilding of Modernization of Rebuilding of Modernization of ModernizationModernization of of Modernization of Modernization- of - - - - - ( 50 km) 1 (I-IX) A B C D E AyutthayaAyutthaya Ayutthaya Bangkok BangkokBangkok Bangkok BangkokBangkok Road length Year (400 km) ( 700s- 900s) 1 1 Scope and Scope and Scope and Bus/ Coverage Coverage Old castle castle castle Coverage Old Old Bangkok Bangkok Bangkok Dusit Area Dusit Area Area Dusit Nationwide Nationwide Nationwide Bangkok Bangkok Bangkok Population 100 ppl (200000 ppl) Trams/ area Built-up 100 ppl Planning Planning tool toolSmoke control (temples controlHeight control(partially) control(partially) Height control(partially) tool Planning Smoke control (temples and Height control(partially) Smoke and (temples and Height Height control(partially) control(partially)BuildingBuilding code, Zonning Zonning Height Building code, code, Zonning ( 000 ha) 1 factories)factories) factories) MinimunMinimun open space ratio, ratio, open space ratio, Minimun open space Rail route length Density Material control, Material control, Material control, ( 0 km) 1 (25 ppl/ha) Height control control control Height Height Rail route length Canal length ( km/10000 sq.km) 1 ( 50 km) 1 Developement Developement of temples alongof temples along residences in BKK, in BKK, in BKK,EU onof EU on SE Asia,SE Asia, U.S.A, U.S.A, U.S.A, Industrailization, Greater Greater Developement Built Built of Built canals, Foreign canals, Foreign residences temples along canals, Foreign residences Interest of Interest Interest of EU Financial Financial from from Industrailization, Industrailization, SE Asia, on from Financial Greater Motorcycle/ Military service for the for the for the Infrastructure, shophouses, Rama V tour Europe, Europe, Europe, housing, BuildingBuilding Bangkok Plan, Urban plan plan Military Military service service Infrastructure, shophouses, Rama VRama V tour housing, Buildinghousing, Bangkok Plan, Urban plan Plan, Urban Infrastructure, shophouses, King King King tour Public Public Public Bangkok Road length 10000 ppl construction of general general general to China,to China, New political system, political system, code, Commercial buildings 1stcode, 1st socio-economic construction of construction ofOpen route route route to China, New political system, code, Commercial buildings Open Open New code, socio-economic socio-economic code, Commercial buildings code, 1st (400 km) infrastructure infrastructure Public facilities, facilities, Slave Import Dutch and Uk and Uk andimmigrants for immigrants development plan, FAR, infrastructure Public Slave facilities, Slave Import Dutch Dutch for Uk for immigrants Public Import development plan, FAR, FAR, development plan, Bus/ Car/10000 ppl liberationliberation liberation planners planners planners Condominium, Zonning Zonning Condominium, Condominium, Zonning 100 ppl Trams/ 100 ppl
32. 60 BKKs 3.5 RELATION OF TWO DYNAMICS MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 61The illustration showings a relation between infrastructure and urban development in that during different periods of time either urban orinfrastructure got priority over the other one depending on situations and intention of the government sometimes lead sometimes follow. Establishment of Original 1st Modernization wave City Expansion withTransporta- Road Network Development Suburb Development and Bangkok( 782- 852) 1 1 ( 852- 885) 1 1 tion Structure( 886- 934) 1 1 ( 935- 959) 1 1 Land use Change( 960- 990) 1 1 1782 - 3 Canala and Chao 1880s - Private sector in 1886 - 1892 Railway - Infrastructure development 1976- Inner ring road Intrastructure Development Phraya river as transport Infrastructure 1888 - Sathon rd., canal - Road network built 1981 - Expressway Transportation and means 1853 - Rama IV road, canal 1897 - Surawong rd, canal - Canal for irrigation 1852 - Pradung Krungkasem 1861 - Silom canal 1894 - 1934 Tramway, 1951 - Commercialization of canal 1862 - Charoen Krung rd., Streetlight Railway request from Westerns 1889 - Ratchadamnoen rd. 1906 - Road network plan 1990 - First automobile 1903 - Emerge of 4S area 1934 - First bridge 1782 - Define the Palace, 1880s - trading firm, embas- 1887 - Class A residential area 1936 - urban area 4300 ha, 1960s - Large shopping Uban Developmetn walled city(7 km length) .23 sies by private investors Control of Townscape in BKK center constructed 1785 - 346 ha for BKK, 1851 - Urban area 640 ha 1890s - Hub of cargo 1947 - Lost of role of com- 1971 - population double, built temples, emerged of 1854 - Population 400,000 1897 - Palace moved to Dusit mercial district suburb development commercial district 1855 - Foreign firms from 1919 - Removal of wall - 1950s - prohibition of trade 1979 - BKK sprawl, 1840s - BKK double size Bowring Treaty (527,000 ppl) between China and Thialand 1992 - 4S became hish rise 1853 - Wall destruction along 1882 - Open trade to China, - 1957 - pop. 1831000 ppl, bd. canals 370000 migrants Landuse of 4S changed to commercial aspect Priority +3 +2 +1 I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX 1782 1852 1885 1934 1959 1992
33. 62 BKKs 3.6 A CHANGE IN TRANSPORT MEANS 3.7 GENTRIFICATION BY THE MTS MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 63The phenomena of changing from 3. When a number population in- as a sewage disposal. Besides, gate severe traffic problems. Althoughwater based to land based develop- creased enormously, Investors look communities also spatially blocked diversity in functions can be seenment at this phenomenon as a chance to local people to public services, be- in the area as a whole, it was spa-The city of Bangkok was firstly char- build gate communities and some cause outsides were not allowed to tially divided by gate communities.acterized by water. Particularly, for industrial functions. The result is that access in private land. With its wall-surrounded character, itthe historic core, water played an local residents began selling their 5. The more gate communities were generates many urban voids. Livelyimportant role in the city develop- plots by cutting out their agricultural built, the more water was polluted. commercial functions are limitedment. Water is the first mode of set- areas, but still kept their living areas Consequently, riverside activates along the roads. Areas without ac-tlements of the city. It reflects how in place. decline regarding water quality. Fi- cess to the main roads becomethe city develops in terms of com- 4.When the selling lands along new nally, traditional riverside communi- unused and neglected. These allmunity life, production, consump- roads were used as a gate commu- ties become slums for a reason that factors lead finally to a loss of tra-tion and how people transport. In nity, its orientation was laid parallel- residents cannot get to main roads. ditional riverside communities andthe period of the city moderniza- ing with roads. Moreover, functional It makes properties owners, mostly activities.tion, during King Rama the forth and changes can be seen via commer- pioneers, had to move out. The phenomenon of changing waterthe fifth, roads, rail transport and cial activities clustered along the 6.Small roads, which were cut by based to land based development Illustration 3.21 The picture showing the cases caused negatively by the MTS, Source:diesel trains were built. However, roads. It led a negative conse- private owners to connect with main is a widespread action in relation www. google.comduring that period, the relationship quence to the water enormously. roads, are used over their capac- with an urban expansion. It givesbetween the land and water based The investors not only replaced ca- ity. The private-made roads cannot the author better understanding nottransport still balanced. Water was nals with roads, but also used some meet new demands, which result in only on historic value of the heritagea key factor of Bangkokians’ life. It site, but also on the city’s expansioninfluences in size of lands and ac- when the mode of transport chang-cessibility, which makes the city es. The traditional community life, In order to generate positive gentri- There are still many cases that thefruitful by using water transport for local economic activities and histor- fication, this section displayed the historic ones were beaten by inter-trading and riverside economic ac- ic identity can be destructed if there phenomenon, which already hap- ventions of the market and finally,tivities. However, in 1932, the policy is no sophisticated plan. The two pened to traditional communities in local people are forced moved out.to develop the city focused on the zones, in the past, are heavily charz- Bangkok. The lately one is Nakorn Kasem. Itland based infrastructure devel- terized and symbolized by the water. In Bangkok, the development of the is a traditional commercial district,opment. As a chain result, the city Nowadays, this problem still remain rail transport has been increasing which situates within the two zoneslost in water orientation. Many ca- in the areas. Many superblocks also from the government policies. How- in Pomprab Sattuprai District. Thenals were filled up and replaced by locate in the area, because of the ever, they do not give an importance case happened after the masterroads. Small plots along the water change. It leaves outside areas, enough to historic values of the des- plan of the MTS had announced.network were combined to be a close to the road, functioning very ignated areas, in terms of land use The landowners, the aristocraticbig plot with a new compact func- well, while the inside areas cannot and transport network. These cause family from the past, did not want totion, such as a condominium, gate even access by car and become un- many conflicts between the existing lease it to the local people anymore.communities or department stores, used or slums. uses and new top-down develop- They sold their land to the marketserved by road connection. The ment. For instance, Saphan Taksin whereas local residents, stayingsix factors, causing changes in this The characteristics of Thai public Station locates on Charoen Krung there for several generations, try tophenomenon, are unfolded(see il- space road (see illustration 3.21). Before buy their land back. Investors, wholustration 3.19and 3.20). According to Atipothi(2005), a Thai the mass transit came, this historic bought the land, have planned to re- Illustration 3.19 The change from water to land based development in Bangkok through1.Traditional settlements always time, Source: Yantrasast 1995 experienced urban planner, Thai area function as a link between wa- place all the traditional communitiesoriented towards water by turning successful public space consists ter and land based mode of trans- with high-rise building. It will resulttheir front side to the water and their of five physical aspects, which all port, between West (Thon Buri) and in a big change to urban fabric andbackyard to be used for agricultural aspects also relate to the ideas East (Phranakorn), with mostly be- grain of the city. The role of the areaactivities. from many theorists. Firstly, space ing used locally(fine grain). After an and the district will change. In par-2.The urban form of Bangkok usu- should be small, but being linked implementation of the mass transit, ticular, city of Bangkok has lost oneally grows along the main roads, as a public space network (Whyte, the area changed enormously. For of the high-valued historic commu-which was built to connect to the 1980). Secondly, the space should example, it is accessible easily with nity already. Without any strategiccentral areas of the city with the allow visitors to sit permanently and various modes of transport, resulting intervention and strategies togethersuburb. The BMA was responsible temporarily, especially on ground in many daily traders coming every with a support from the government,for building main roads, while local as same as idea from Gehl (1996). day. This phenomenon conversely in 2030 Bangkok will experience thisdwellers had to build small roads Thirdly, due to the hot weather of generate without a long-term vision, repeated phenomenon again and fi-by their own to connect from main Thailand, the space must provide so that currently, this area severely nally become just a generic city.roads to their properties. shade for all day activities and faces with a heavy traffic congestion should be facilitated by second- . Furthermore, with new investments ary functions such as food (Jacob, in property business, high-rise con- 1961). Lastly, the successful space dominium and hotel, resulting from acts as natural amenities for local the rail transport, degrade the his- people (Clark, 2003), which in Thai toric values. For example, localIllustration 3.20 The picture showing dif-ferent modes of transport in different pe- context, it is located close to the wa- opened market and old buildingsriod, Source: Yantrasast 1995 ter and has water access. were replaced by new architectures.
34. 64 BKKs 3.8 CONCLUSION MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 65 The conclusion of this chapter is GLOBAL SCALE INTERVENTION SYNERGY LOCAL SCALE INTERVENTION that the urban and infrastructure de- GLOBAL SCALE INTERVENTION SYNERGY LOCAL SCALE INTERVENTION velopment of Bangkok always relyMass Transit System (MTS) Integration Heritage heavily on each other. Due to theMass Transit System (MTS) Integration Network + Urban form Heritage plan of the MTS, It brings positively GLOBAL SCALE INTERVENTION Gentrification Network + Urban form SYNERGY Conflict LOCAL SCALE INTERVENTION a big opportunity to the city to solve Gentrification A SYNERGETIC VISION FOR A Conflict traffic congestion, which its dwell-Mass Transit System (MTS) Integration PATCHWORK LINKING GLOBAL Heritage ers are struggling with nowadays. Non place Non place - a loss of value, identity Network + Urban form AND LOCAL SCALE Social : However, this development also Threat Gentrification - generic city Testing location Conflict - enclave tourism Threat generates a big threat. Because - Potential to integrate - market-oriented of a transformation of urban fabric - Not meet local needs, - High historic value development Non place heterotopias - In danger by negative effects from - selection of the city especially in the historic - No right to be - Social segregation the global scale intervention Spatial : core of the city, a conflict between - Poorly connected within the - building instead of Threat protected officially the two dynamics base on not only Single concern spatial network urban Widespread by law Widespread spatial conditions, but also social Single concern Landscape as community places - facidism problem and economic differences. There- - invite community engagement - authenticity problem Clash - build a sense of community and Economic : fore, this project aims mainly to pro- Clash - Movement is not necessary vide a synergetic vision and mutual improve quality of life - Heritage as a product Widespread Single concern - Distance is an end in itself - places to connect and interact - Disneyfication - Poverty benefits between the two in order to - Clash in scale when not a means to an end - bring diverse mix of people - Tourist life cycle - problem Urban sprawl complement in harmony. - Virtual city - Heritage value lost imposeClash level on local - Inequity; mode, social status, - Automobiled oriented - Segregation of living location, urban activity pattern - Lack of aspects related - Spatial fragmentation land use pattern URBAN VITALITY URBAN VITALITY MTS Acessibility URBAN Place Making VITALITY Living Heritage Heritage MTS Acessibility Place Making Living Heritage Heritage- Link global - Flow, connectivity, - Face-to-face contact - Traditional communities - Proximity MTSfunctions Acessibility multi-mode Place Making - Local interaction, Living Heritage - Contain historic value Heritage - Fine-grained pattern- Disengage at - Personal mobility benefits - Still in use currentlylocal level (reduced mobility) - Cohesion instead ofphysically and - Opportunities segregationfunctionally - Improved land use - Positive gentrification accessibility - Functional approach Network to prolong life span Network City Goverment Support Goverment Support Heritage City Heritage TOD - Market control Value Network TOD - Environment protection Value - Places as a product - Cross subsidization Goverment Support City Spatial Indicators of network Spatial Indicators Heritage - Impact on everyday - Tradition and qualities of - Redevelopment along Heritage a society Value people life process, TOD transit corridor - Diversity Heritage movement - Density Tourism - Important parts of its Tourism character Spatial Indicatorsmode) - Non-motorized (Multi - Proximity of network connectivity - Quality of space Heritage Mobility - Preserve historic value - Safety Tourism and identity Mobility - Permeability Thai succcessful space - Provide long-term Conflict development Thai succcessful space Conflict Potential - Diverse visitors brought - small space network Potential Mobility by connection - be able to sit - Connecing place to place Thai succcessful - shaded area space Conflict - relate to food - water access MTS Integration Potential Heritage MTS Integration Heritage Illustration 3.22 The diagram showing the MTS Integration Heritage framework of the whole project
35. 66 BKKs MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 67 Chapter 4 EMPIRICAL RESEARCH Source : www.skyscrapercity.com
36. 68 BKKs 4.0 INTRODUCTION MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 69In the first part of this section, it aimsat choosing strategically the testinglocation, which highly needs to beintervened. The selection criteriahave been developed based on fourissues, which are spatial conditions,economic status, social dimen-sions and historic value. Therefore,the condition of the testing locationis spatially fragmented and poorlyconnected, but has potentials tointegrate within the network. It mustcontain high heritage value and stillbe in use nowadays. Lastly, the areais endangered by negative conse-quences from the rapid develop-ment and will get worse causing bysegregation after the implementa-tion. The second part will providein depth research on the currentconditions of the strategic locationand define the desirable goal, whichwill contribute to the next section inwhich the strategy will be proposed.Illustration 4.01 showing general infor-mation of the nine districts classified intothree crucial issues.
37. 70 BKKs 4.1 SELECTION CRITERIA MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 71 WEST BANK EAST BANK Selection criteria Fortunately, the East bank already In order to know where is the strate- registered as city heritage sites, gic location that needs an interven- which literally means they have tion, the selection criteria has been been protected officially by laws.Negative conse- developed. According to the previ- Moreover, Bangkokians have learntquences by the MTS ous section, BMA already specifi- from the first implementation of theThreat by the cally defined the development area MTS in 1999 in that the market ini-market as art, cultural preservation and tially intervened in the area, in which tourism promotion zone, which are the land price was lower(see illus-Historic value separated into nine districts along tration 4.4). It represents that the two sides of the river. The East and land price on the West is five timesConnectivity to the the West of the riverbank have dif- lower than in the East. To conclude,MTS ferent characters, whereas they the West bank is in danger to get share similar historic components, a threat by the MTS and requiresPotential todevelop which they both used to be capital more research to prevent and keep city of the country of Thailand. The it maintaining in 2030. The followingIllustration 4.2 showing the selection criteria searching for vulnerable areas that highly city settled on the West bank before part will focus spatial analysis on theneed interventions west bank in order to know current moving to the East for military rea- sons. Therefore, both of them have conditions of the area. WEST BANK EAST BANK strong historic values and impor- West bank : unregistered heritage tant buildings (see illustration 4.3); for example, on the East, the grand palace, the national museum, the throne hall and many old temples are located and on the West, there are more traditional communities and living heritage. +5 East bank : registered heritage 0 $ Illustration 4.3 showing significant build- ings on both sides of the river Illustration 4.04 showing land price on the catchment area of the historic core, Source : the Treasury Department
38. 72 BKKs 4.1 SELECTION CRITERIA MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 73Spatial conditions The illustration 4.06 reveals the three Note: The motor cycle taxi is the ba-Zooming in to the West, the illustra- steps analysis, which shows the in- sic mode of transport of Bangkoki-tion 4.5 shows an axial analysis on ner areas from the main road need ans. With the long time car basedthe network of streets and avenues complicated ways to reach. Moreo- development, it is widely acceptablethat organize the area. Warm colors ver, together with the public trans- and has been considered as preindicate areas with more street-level port catchment, it displays that the transport mode for a short commuteintegration; this means streets that far away areas can be reached only within two kilometers radius.intersect a greater number of other by private transport (see illustrationstreets of the network. We can see 4.7). Besides in 2030 (see illustrationthe area has a small role in the glo- 4.8 & 4.9), when the urban networkbal level only on the north south improves enormously, there are stillconnection from the warm colors some remaining voids,especially,and it integrates more on the lo- even combined with the privatelycal level. The map also represents owned transport like the motor cyclefragmented areas. The fragmented taxi (see illustration 4.10).areas can be seen how hard peoplegetting to the area are. Boat 100 m. High integration Bus, minivan 300 mIllustration 4.5 showing spatial connection Illustration 4.6 showing current condition Illustration 4.8 showing spatial accessibil- MTS 500 m Low integration: Global and Local Integration of accessibility of the area ity to the MTS in 2030 Illustration 4.7 showing current condition Illustration 4.9 showing transport catch- Illustration 4.10 showing catchment area of public transport catchment ment in 2030 of the complementary mode of transport in 2030
39. 74 BKKs 4.1 SELECTION CRITERIA MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 75Consequences of spatial fragmen- Therefore, as previous mentioned,tation this strategic location has historicThe poorly connected network also value, endangers by the negativeeffects the distribution of functions. consequences from the MTS, poorlyFrom the illustration 4.11, cultural connected to the network, but has afacilities locate in the historic area high tendency to integrate within thealong the river, while business activi- spatial network and the historic coreties and catering enterprises cluster situated on the opposite side of thealong main roads, which leave the riverbank. Moreover, the strategicin- between area as a mono func- area matches with the governmenttional zone which is only residential. plan on a necessity of preservationThe illustration 4.12 reveals clearly on nearby area of the city heritagethe void in the area with no public sites (see illustration 4.15).transport and functions, but accord-ing to the spatial analysis by spacesyntax, it reflects a high possibilityto develop in the future (see illus-tration 4.13). The light blue colorinside the void shows that the areacan be developed to be vital streets. Boat 100 m. High integration Bus, minivan 300 m Illustration 4.12 showing the relationship MTS 500 m Low integration between the distribution of function and Illustration 4.13 showing spatial accessibil- public transport catchment in 2030 ity with low metrical radius WEST BANK EAST BANK Negative conse- quences by the MTS Threat by the market Historic value Connectivity to the Cultural facilities Business activities Catering enterprises MTS Potential to inte- grate with the core Registered area ? ? Nearby area Illustration 4.15 showing the government plan on preservation on the nearby area of Illustration 4.14 showing the conclusion of the process of site selection, the registered heritage sites, Source : De-Illustration 4.11 showing the distribution of function which two districts are taken into account partment of City Planning
40. 76 BKKs 4.2 THE STRATEGIC LOCATION MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 77The next part will underline on firstly, General condition 2 5the general condition of the area The area covers two ,districts namedand then, the current problems of Bangkok Yai and Bangkok Noi. In Shophousesthe strategic location, which has 2030, there are two lines of the MTSbeen categorized into three crucial passing the area on the main roadsissues, which is the mobility issue (see illustration 4.16). The spatialfrom the fragmented network and network of the area directly con-its consequences. The next one is nects north to south, while the east- Gate communities 4the landscape issue relating to how west connection is fragmented(seethe area has been formed. From the illustration 4.17). It indicates on thephenomena of changing from water social attribute of the area, whichbased to land based, the area used demonstrates different typologies 3to be fruit gardens transformed to and economic status. For example, 6 Medium-densitythe dead void. The last one is the shop houses are more expensive, residences 2problem of built environments. The grounded along the main road as 5effects of the network causes ad- similar as modern living units, gatedversely on how people use space communities, whilst low income res-nowadays. idents live in higher density areas or High-density slums far away from the main road residences (see illustration 4.18). 1 3 6 7 Illustration 4.19 showing images of current conditions of activities along each road 1. Bangkok Yai Canal 2. Mon Canal 3. Jaran Sanitwong Road 4. Pharn Nok Road 5. Itsaraphap Road 6. Arun Ammarin Road 7. Alleys 1 4 7Illustration 4.16 showing the MTS lines Illustration 4.17 showing road networks in Illustration 4.18 showing social attributepassing the area in 2030, Source : Bangkok the areaRapid Mass Transit AuthoritiesN KM.0 1 2
41. 78 BKKs 4.3 SPATIAL NETWORK FRAGMENTATION 4.4 FROM ORCHARDS TO BARRIERS MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 79Existing problems Spatial network fragmentation riod of population booming it was From orchards to barriersTo integrate the MTS into the historic In terms of mobility, the problem of planned to facilitate quantity of ve- The illustration 4.22 expresses thecore, there are three keys issues the area results from the fragmenta- hicles with straight, wide and long location with rich green quality. Thethat might cause conflicts when im- tion of spatial network of the area. road systems. This action makes all area was used for agricultural activi-pose the global infrastructural net- The illustration 4.20 exhibits on role functions and facilities concentrate ties before the construction of roadwork on to the fine-grained fabric of of each road. The warmer color re- along the roads. Consequently, the systems and the urban develop-the historic core. veals the traffic pattern connecting remote areas from the main roads ment (see illustration 4.23). Relating to the road network throughout the have not been drew any interest to to the previous section, it reflects on city, served by public transport. In be developed. how the green void exists. contrast, the cooler color represents local streets, which can be reached by private vehicles. According to the historic development (see illus- tration 4.21), it becomes clear that the spatial network is fragmented since the city has cut the roads. In the past, road systems were cre- ated by local seen from a set of very short and small streets around local areas. However, when the city constructs the roads in the pe- 1. Traditional settlements oriented 2. Urban form grew along main towards water. Their front and back- roads built by BMA, while local yard functioned for agricultural ac- residents took responsibility in con- tivities. structing small roads to connect to their properties. A simplified version of network hierarchy High way (ELEVATED FREE WAY) Traffic arteries (JARAN SANITWONG RD.) City road (PHARN NOK RD.) Void High street (ITSARAPHAP RD.) Residential street (ARUN AMMARIN RD.) Woonerf (BANGKOK SOI) Canal (KHLONG) Illustration 4.22 showing green quality ofIllustration 4.20 showing network hier- the area, Source : www.googleearth.comarchy 3. Investors bought lands from the 4. Gated communities turned to local in order to develop mostly as barriers blocking locals from public Illustration 4.21 showing the historicN KM. development of the area starting when Illustration 4.23 showing historic develop- gated communities in the period of services so that riverside areas the city built road systems, Source : ment of the area, Source : Royal Thai Sur- population booming. The orientation unfavorably became slums and0 1 2 K.Wongtimarat(2003) vey Department turned towards new roads. ghetto.
42. 80 BKKs 4.5 A LIMITATION OF LOCAL MOVEMENT 4.6 CONCLUSION MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 81A limitation of local movementThe illustration 4.24 tells a result ofan interview 40 local people fromfour crucial areas, which are localfresh market and traditional com-munities. The answer shows thatresidents of the area have no con-nection to newly developed roads.As shown in illustration 4.25, localdwellers, who live in the historicarea, are more likely to go to theother side of the river and ones,who live along the main traffic arter-ies, limit themselves along the mainroad. These two sides are not con-nected to each other functionallyand physically .Due to effects of thenetwork fragmentation and spatialbarriers, it leads to a limitation of lo- The diagram showingcal movement. distribution of function1. The biggest and oldest fresh 2. The Fresh market (ground) 3. Traditional dense communi- 4. Traditional communitymarket (River) ty close to the conserved area (before digging the river) economic issueIllustration 4.24 showing results of the interview on where local residents cultural issue Existing model Inevitable condition 2030 condition Proposed networktend to commute such as fresh markets, religious places and social spaces. social issue THE WEST BANK THE EAST BANK Illustration 4.26 showing a simplified ver- Production Consumption Relational space sion of an integration of the area Higher scale ACTIVITIES URBAN SPATIAL PATTERN NETWORK Local scaleTourist Conclusion : The consequence of spatial fragmentation and Goals of the project Making a linkage between two dy- namics 1. The current condition of the area, ?? ? ? 3. The interface acts as a bridge to link them and creates mutual ben- efits in terms of new spatial networkLocal in which social relation bounds to- connection, transform positively gether in terms of production and barriers and make use of mobil- consumption ity improved to enhance social and economic dimension towards urban 2. In 2030, an inevitable condition vitality. will change the area, when the MTS comes on the main road. The hier- 4. To be more concrete, the inter- archy and capacity will increase, face helps increase local access while the local form has to be kept. and reorganizes the hierarchy of Row house Areas Traditional Communities Historic Items River Bank Preserved Areas City Centres (CBD & CSD) Therefore, the interface area in be- road systems. Finally, an integration tween both global and local patch between heritage and the MTS isIllustration 4.25 showing the relationship becomes a crucial spot. achievable.Newcomerwith spatial structure and local movementTourist
43. 82 BKKs 4.6 CONCLUSION MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 83 THE WEST BANK THE EAST BANK2012Problems : Spatial fragmenta-tion loading to a limitation of ?local movement VISION : MAKING A LINKAGE BETWEEN TWO DYNAMICS 1. Mobility issue : to strengthen network connectivity and achieve multi- modal transport2030 2. Landscape issue : to transform spatial barriers and fragmentationPotentials : Spatial transfor-mation providing a good living to be a place with cultural richnessquality and an improvement 3. Built environment : to exploit from tourist industries from heritageof mobility tourism notions and to make use of the infrastructure development to improve local access.
45. 86 BKKs 5.0 INTRODUCTION 5.1 CASE STUDY MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 87From the analysis in the previouschapter, it ended up with the pro-posed vision for the historic coreof Bangkok. To achieve the vision,therefore, this chapter will developthe strategy, which will be extractedfrom the framework of the project inthe previous chapter theoreticallyand empirically. The strategies havebeen separated into four significantissues, which are the infrastructuralnetwork, natural network, touristindustries and human network re-spectively.It starts with an exploration on relat-ed strategies from the selected casestudy of car-based cities. Secondly,the strategic location will be ana-lyzed on its current condition and ananticipation of problems in 2030 inrelation to the four earlier-mentionedstrategies, and then the strategieswill be unfolded. Consequently, torealize that the proposal fits withinthe government framework on thecity scale and will transfrom the citytowards sustainable manners, thecombined strategy will describepositive effects of an integration be-tween infrastructure and urban tis-sue of Bangkok in 2030.The diagram showing the structure of thestrategy part based on the analysis on theformer parts PROBLEM 1 STRATEGY 1 Case study milenio is a good practice. It can The five selected case studies were be applied to Bangkok in the far THEORETICAL chosen from the similar case, based away area from the MTS to facili- RESEARCH on the idea of car dependent cities tate local mobility and at the same mostly from the US. The first one time, with its conditions, it brings a PROBLEM 2 STRATEGY 2 from Seattle is a development of big chance to develop areas along. trolley buses. This idea help to en- Fourthly, an example of reorganize sure a number of raiders on the pub- urban void with a landscape mix- + lic vehicle by sharing it with tourists, which is relevant to Bangkok to pre- ture of farmlands and open spaces fit perfectly to the strategic area to vent the failure of tourist supported open up the dead void. Lastly, the PROBLEM 3 STRATEGY 3 transport like we were confronted on form of the MTS on the elevated the last decade. The second one is level leaves many unused spaces social housings, which can replace under the huge structure. The case EMPIRICAL slums in order to firstly, increase the of New York shows a positive trans- RESEARCH land value from the proximity to the formation of the potential neglected transit stop and secondly, support space by adding functions and turn- PROBLEM 4 STRATEGY 4 local from an expropriation. To get ing it to be an open space. a sustainable bus system, Trans-
46. 88 BKKs 5.1 CASE STUDY MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 89Illustration 5.1 showing the five-selectedcase studies
47. 90 BKKs 5.2 INFRASTRUCTURAL NETWORK MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 91From the long-term car oriented de- Zooming in to the area, it illustrates N KM.velopment, the city structure can be that there is no secondary roads to 0 1 2categorized by urban grid size into connect. Besides, when it has beenfour types. Grid size displays not compared to other cities or even the BANGKOKonly how hard it is to get to the area, area on the opposite site of the river- 1X1 KM.but also an opportunity to catch on bank, the coherence of spatial con-public transports. The brown color nection is very low and much morerepresents the smallest grid size, fragmented (see illustration 5.3).which clusters mostly around the In terms of public transport, whenhistoric core on east bank of the riv- there is no spatial connection, thereer (see illustration 5.2). However, on is no public transport too. It resultsthe west bank is not coherent. It has in travel distance constraints. Lo-more mix of colors and, especially cal residents rely mostly on privatein the strategic area has 3x3-grid vehicles, while public transport hasstructure, which leads to a limitation been served only along main roadsof movement and spatial fragmen- (see illustration 5.4). Therefore, the THE EASTBANKtations. mode of transport of Bangkok is special in that it requires a comple- mentary mode. This mode consid- ers privately owned transport as a pre transport within a short distanceIllustration 5.2 showing the urban grid (R=2km.) before riding on publicstructure of the city of Bangkok, Source : transport for a long distance (see il-R.Kanjanapanyakom(2010) lustration 5.5). THE WEST BANK Illustration 5.3 showing a comparison of COMPLIMENTARY MODE urban grid structure among other cities,KM. Source : www.doobybrain.com 1x1 2x2 3x3 4x4 Illustration 5.5 showing complementary modes of transport in Bangkok. PUBLIC TRANSPORT PRIVATE TRANSPORTN KM. Illustration 5.4 showing different mode of0 10 20 transport served in 2012
48. 92 BKKs 5.2 INFRASTRUCTURAL NETWORK MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 93 N KM. The effects of the strategy reveal a Therefore, for Bangkok in 2030, a co- 0 1 2 x new coherent grid system by mak- operation between private and pub- ing new connections. The illustra- lic transport leads to large choices tion 5.8 shows that the existing spa- of transport and provide access to tial structure has been undersized all ranges of people (see illustration especially in the historic core of 5.9). Eventually a five-minute city the city characterized by small grid is achievable, which means within structures. five minutes one can get into the Illustration 5.7 showing proposed public Connect potential Reorganize the hierarchy Multi - modal transport transport modes in order to achieve a com- transport system and travel freely existing road of the road system achieved plementary mode throughout the entire city.Proposed strategy on infrastructural 5.6), it reflects a big tendency to ac- PROPOSED TRANSPORT Mnetwork complish multi-modal transport byThe goal of this strategy is to con- L emphasizing on the contemporarynect and reorganize the spatial net- S modes, which privately owned vehi-work hierarchy in a systematic way. cles are used within short distance,First of all, according to the space M while public transports are able tosyntax analysis, it shows the poten- serve long journeys (see illustrationtial streets to be developed to vital 5.7). Linear green connectors Tranform grid to curvilinear Maximizing interactionsstreets in terms of spatial connec- and slow traffic pattern on the bordertion. The strategy will focus on thosestreets and next reorganize spatial xfragmentations of road network hi-erarchy. When the street has already Illustration 5.6 showing desirable roadbeen organized (see illustration network hierarchy in 2030 Proposed modeKM. MTS 1x1 BRT Bus Various experiences 2x2 Different time consuming Shared transport with local to increase riderships 3x3 4x4 Density gradient Programme clusters around Densifying potential areas by the new open space exploiting new connectionsN KM. N KM.0 10 20 0 10 20Illustration 5.8 showing a coherent grid Illustration 5.9 showing spatial network ofstructure from new connections public transport of Bangkok in 2030
49. 94 BKKs 5.3 NATURAL NETWORK MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 95Illustration 5.10 showing a dispersionof green network in Bangkok, Source :R.Kanjanapanyakom(2010) FRUIT GARDEN HISTORIC STREAM NO USE NATURAL WALL GARBAGE SPRAWL Illustration 5.11 showing current condition of the urban void, Source : www.googlee- arth.com Looking at the green network of Bangkok, it is much dispersed. Lit- erally, it shows 0.25 percentages of green areas per person. Unfortu- nately, most of them are not acces- sible that in particular on the west, there is no public open space de- signed for local residents (see illus- tration 5.10). To zoom in to the strategic location, the urban void represents the fact that the rich green quality still lasts seen via existing fruit gardens and historic stream run through, which Accessible greens by public transport exhibits great potentials to inter-N KM. Inaccessible greens by public transport vene. However, when no one uses it, it turns to be barriers (see illustra- Urban fabric0 10 20 tion 5.11).
50. 96 BKKs 5.3 NATURAL NETWORK MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 97In order to know the physical fea-tures of the park, the case studieshave been selected based on the 1 1 13 3 3similar size to understand what typeof spatial network and activities willhappen in the transformed void (see 95 ha 95 ha 95 haillustration 5.12 & 5.13). 2 2 24 4 4 166 ha166 ha166 ha 5 5 5 1.Regent1.Regent park, LondonLondon Zuiderpark, DenZuiderpark, Den Haag park, London park, 1.Regent 2. 2. Zuiderpark, Den Haag 2. HaagIllustration 5.12 showing a study on road 57.6 ha57.6 ha 57.6 ha 80 ha 80 ha 80 ha 237 ha237 ha237 hanetworks classified into 3 categories sur-rounded parks Roads with metro stationsNote : In the case of the urban void, images Roads with bus stationsare used as references Road without public transport 3.Prospect park, 3.Prospect park, New york 4. Lumphini park, Bangkok 3.Prospect park, New york 4. Lumphini park, Bangkok park, Bangkok voidThe void void New york 4. Lumphini 5. The 5. 5. The
51. New connections help break through the urban super grids of Bangkok ,caused by mobile dependent development, and reorganize the98 BKKs 5.3 NATURAL NETWORK hierarchy of road systems in the systematic MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 99 way. Connect potential Reorganize the hierarchy Multi - modal transport existing road of the road system achieved Natural network M By transforming urban fragmentations, the L neglected green between the two patchs, S global and local, become a crucial resource for urban quality. A barrier is turned out to be active and livable spaces. M Linear green connectors Tranform grid to curvilinear Maximizing interactions and slow traffic pattern on the border Proposed strategy on natural net- The strategy creates spaces for work residents as cultural landscape. The Human network The strategy revolves around three linear green can be perceived from scales of open space networks the roads as open rooms and acces- with an objective to transform urban sible gates guiding to the heritage New connections provide new access to the fragmentations into coherent urban areas (see illustration 5.14). Due to spaces. The city scale aims at con- its cultural richness, this urban park Tourist existing urban systems and work as stimulants necting green areas into a network reflects cultural values and can make for future densification and mixed develop- ment in monofuntional fragments by using linear green connectors use of soil quality. Besides, by con- and Varioustraffics. Second, a gradienttime consuming existingShared transport with localin slow experiences Different necting streets, it results from grid structure to curvilinear pat- slow networks throughout the area. to increase riderships tern is proposed on the district scale. The park generates new accessible Areas along the border are used to public spaces and introduces new maximize interactions and avoid cultural functions and living environ- abruptness of territory. ments. The borders of built urban fabric adjacent to Business open space are densified surrounded open protected spaces as a permeable barrier. Urban park New living and working environments are created which benefit from both urban proxim- ity to accss and open spaces Linear green Density gradient Programme clusters around Densifying potential areas by the new open space exploiting new connections Slow traffic Promenade Water Illustration 5.14 showing proposed natural network strategy Illustration 5.13 showing possible three types of activities (Environmental, rec- N KM. reational and public) happening inside the new transformed void 0 0.5 1
52. 100 BKKs 5.3 NATURAL NETWORK 5.4 TOURIST INDUSTRIES MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 101 The effects of the strategy provide Heritage tourism is one of the strat- However, poor network connectivity access to the west and together egies towards sustainability. In the makes the area hard and requires with an improvement of mobility, the case of Bangkok, tourist industry is complicated way to reach. Tourists percentage of green area per per- an important sector that provides have to use water transport or pri- son increases to 0.95 in 2030 (see financial supports and helps trig- vate transport (taxi) to visit their de- illustration 5.15). To integrate the ger development. According to the sired destinations. Moreover, these green network with waterfront re- tourist map (see illustration 5.18), phenomena also create an area of generation planned by the govern- the attractions cluster around the enclave tourism, where inaccessible ment, the strategy also proposes a riverbank. areas are left out of the map. As a plan to regenerate city’s waterfront result, benefits from tourists have by defining the role of the area in re- not been channelled back to local, lation to the character of the areas but tourist companies. (see illustration 5.16 ), which helps keep historic identity and traditional districts functioning (see illustration 5.17). Accessible greens by Illustration 5.18 showing Bangkok tourist public transport map, Source : thai.tourismthailand.org Inaccessible greens by public transport Waterfront regeneration Preserved greens + + ++ Tourist destinations N KM. 0 10 20 Illustration 5.15 showing an integrated network between blues and greens struc- tureIllustration 5.16 showing a guideline ofdifferent types of waterfront regenera- Institution Heritage Multi culture Transition New development Illustration 5.17 showing historic and traditional districts preserved ?tion plan Metropolitan linkage inside the historic core
53. L S102 BKKs 5.4 TOURIST INDUSTRIES MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 103 M Linear green connectors Tranform grid to curvilinear Maximizing interactions and slow traffic pattern on the border x The effects of this strategy bring much potential to connect and re- organize the existing fragmented network. Together with aforemen- tioned strategies on infrastructure and open space network, the vital streets have a tendency to be con- nected, densified, added new pro- Various experiences Different time consuming Shared transport with local gramme and regenerated environ- to increase riderships mental quality (see illustration 5.20).Proposed strategy on tourist indus- Due to the earlier mentioned strate-tries gy, when the way to travel becomes The diagram showing different charactersThe goal of the strategy is to pro- more convenient by a large choice of area along the routes providing various Illustration 5.20 showing potential areasmote cultural and heritage tourism of transport. Tourists will be able to experiences to be developedwith local benefits. Visitors can en- choose how to travel and what kindjoy specific characters of the histor- of experiences to be perceived suchic area with various experiences of as, riverside communities, and tra- CURRENT CONDITION PROPOSED CONDITIONroutes, which they choose. In addi- ditional commercial district. Eventu-tion, the strategy offers different op- ally, the route for tourists become ations Density gradient of time consuming with many clusters around Programme completed loop by not only areas by Densifying potential focus- the new open space exploiting new connectionsmodes of transport. To keep appro- ing on one side of the river (see il-priate number of raiders, tourist bus lustration 5.19)will not be separated independentlyonly for travelling purposes, but it Illustration 5.19 showing a Bangkok touristwill be shared with local resident to map in 2030 (current tourist destinationsincrease ridership. colored in red) Deadend : to be connected Woonerf : to be densified Global road: to be added Water : to be regenerated Local road : as references programmes 7 8 1 6 10 6 5 2 4 11 N KM. 0 1 2 3 12
54. connections provide new access to the ng urban systems and work as stimulants 104 BKKs 5.5 HUMAN NETWORK MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 105uture densification and mixed develop-t in monofuntional fragments Various experiences Different time consuming Shared transport with local to increase riderships The strategy on human network is a An attachment of micro mobility Linking to complementary mode result of a combination of the three from infrastructural network, motorborders of built urban fabric adjacent use new con- strategies in order to to cycle taxi, considered as pre trans- space are nectionssurrounded open densified as catalysts. port mode with an aim to overcome +ected spaces as a permeable barrier. congested traffic, is not like normal living and working environments are taxi that raiders can get on every- ed which benefit from both urban proxim- where, but on a station. The station accss and open spaces usually attaches to other functions Density gradient Programme clusters around Densifying potential areas by with different scales. With this strat- the new open space exploiting new connections Daily functions Local businesses Global functions egy, it helps increase a number of S M L nodes that make people get to pub- lic transport more easily. Proposed strategy on human net- The result of new connections bring work a lot of opportunities to the area, The proposal defines a density which increase density along new gradient, which high density con- road with mix functions served all centrates along the transit corridor, social classes. It helps shorten trav- while faraway areas have lower el distance and improve access for density. The new opened-up open residents to create living and work- space attracts new programmes. ing environments. (see illustration Lastly, the potential streets can be 5.21) Illustration 5.21 showing strategies related densified by exploiting chances human network from new connections. MTS stations Tourist attraction Global roads Images showing general locations where motor cycle taxis work, Source : R.Kanjanapanyakom Global service areas Local roads Local service areas Building orientation Water network Green network N KM. 0 1 2 Illustration 5.22 showing development principles of building density.
55. 106 BKKs 5.5 HUMAN NETWORK MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 107In terms of building typologies, the following tableshows types of buildings, which can be used as areference. To assume what kind of building is suita-ble for the urban fabric, a calculation is made, basedon the PERMETA index. It reflects building density ofthe site. Along the transit corridor is the most densearea with living and office buildings, while the areaclose to the historic core has lower density.Illustration 5.23 showing references of typologies(based on the index of urban use)
56. 108 BKKs 5.6 EFFECT MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 109Effects of a combination of the pro- It creates a flexible ring, buffer zone, Together with the government planposed strategies between the historic core of the city on the city scale, the model of Bang-Instead of a replacement or con- and outer zones in order to preserve kok will change from the single coreflicts between new and old devel- the historic core and support nearby city, mostly focusing on the eastopments, the strategies provide a areas simultaneously (see illustra- bang, to the multiple core city (seecrucial opportunity and mutual ben- tion 5.24). illustration 5.25). The proposed buff-efits between these two dynamics er zones will function and cooperateto function and complement each to other areas among different ac-other in harmony. tors, which they share benefits with each other (see illustration 5.26).Illustration 5.24 showing effects of a com-bination of strategies resulting in mutualbenefits between the two dynamicsN KM.0 5 10 15 Local HIS CE SPA TO R EN IC OP VA LU E NS TIO NC FU SE CO ER S DIV T ACCESS New SERVICE Tourists comers Periphery Illustration 5.26 showing the three user groups retrofitting each others creating a coopera- Economic cluster tive relationsip among them Dense communities Buffer Zone Historic core 2012 2030A flexible ring(red) to preserveand support simultaneously Illustration 5.25 showing a comparison of Bangkok’s between probable and desirable model
57. 110 BKKs 5.7 CONCLUSION MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 111The strategies use different types ofexisting quality (potential roads, ur-ban void, heritage sites and the areaalong transit corridor) to revitalizethe area. The synergetic vision be-tween the historic core and the MTShas been provided, which integratethese two dynamics by starting withthe infrastructure and open spacedevelopment and then, develop ontourist industries and new mixedfunctions. Illustration 5.27 showing an impression of a combination of the strategies
59. 114 BKKs 6.1 PROJECTS INVENTORY MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 115In this part, several samples of tion with strategies. Then, four de- Strategies Mobility Mobility Mobility Landscape Landscape Typology Mobility Landscape Landscape Typology Typology Patch Patch Patch Patch Typologystrategic design implementation sign projects will be selected based INFRASTRUCTURE OPEN SPACE TOURIST INDUSTRIES URBAN DEVELOPMENTwill be mentioned. The solution is on the idea of “from quality to quan-not meant to be an end, but rather tity” . Finally, the development phas- + + +guidelines of the desirable results of ing of the project will be unfolded inan implementation of the strategic order to create a better quality of life to MTS to MTS to MTS to MTSplanning on the selected locations. for people in the process of imple-The result may not be the best solu- mentation.tion for implementing the strategies INFRASTRUCTURE OPEN SPACE TOURIST INDUSTRIESMass transitMass DEVELOPMENTUrban park Urban parkUrbanTOD Mass transit URBAN transit Urban park Mass transit park TOD TOD TOD Station areaStation area Station area Station areaintegrating the historic core with theMTS, regardless of any conflicts that - Cooperate with private - Has an initial role of the - Cooperate with civic - Cooperate with privatemight rise, such as the claiming of + developers - Control by policies and + process of tranformation in both green and blue sectors in terms of partici- + pation and rising aware- sectors to develop areas along transit corridorsland or the demolition of buildings. bonus systems networks as same as main- tainance them ness. - Promote heritage tourism - Invest in basic needs; affordable housing to bringThe part will start with design inven- - Subsidize nearby areas social mix to the area Illustration 6.1 showing four selections oftory of possible key projects in rela- strategic location as pilot projects. - Cooperate with public - benefit from a chance to - Benefit from accessibility - Cooperate with public sectors invest in service functions to tourist destinations sectors INFRASTRUCTURE OPEN SPACE TOURIST INDUSTRIES - Invest in the infrastructure URBAN DEVELOPMENT transport transport back square square which help maintain Public Public transport - Channel benefit transport Public Station toStation - Develop towards diversityLocal business businessGlobal patch Public Station square Station square Local business Local Global patch Local business Global patch Global patch development and its openspaces lacal as financial support and density proximity (transit corridor) and tax to be used as - Provide work and live - Cooperate with private - Has an initial role of the - Cooperate with civic subsidy - Cooperate with private environment to local developers process of tranformation in sectors in terms of partici- sectors to develop areas + - Control by policies and + - Benefit from the improv- both green and blue + -pation and rising aware- Benefit from accessible - Worktransit corridors along with the state - Benefit from diverse bonus systems ment of mobility andmain- networks as same as multi openspaces and functions ness. - Strengthen historic values Invest in basic needs; typologies and functions modal transport tainance them which reduce travel tourism - Promote heritage and cultural identity bring affordable housing to - Get a chance to refurbish distance nearby areas - Subsidize - Benefit from tourist social mix to the area existing quality - Maintain the cultural industries - Enhance local economy landscale and social cohesion - Cooperate with public - benefit from a chance to - Benefit from accessibility - Cooperate with public sectors invest in service functions to tourist destinations sectors - Invest in the infrastructure which help maintain Strategy - Channel benefit back to INFRASTRUCTURE OPEN SPACE TOURIST INDUSTRIES URBAN DEVELOPMENT Private towards diversity - Develop PrivatePublic sectors transport transport Private sectors green transport Private Private transport Linear Linear green Civic sectors Linear functions functions functions functions patch Local patch Linear green Dailygreen Daily Daily Daily Local Local patch Local patch development and its openspaces lacal as financial support and density proximity (transit corridor) and tax to be used as - Provide work and live - Cooperate with private - Has an initial role of the - Cooperate with civic subsidy - Cooperate with private environment to local developers process of tranformation in sectors in terms of partici- sectors to develop areas + - Control by policies and + - Benefit from the improv- both green and blue + -pation and rising aware- Benefit from accessible - Work with the state along transit corridors - Benefit from diverse bonus systems networks as sameandmain- ment of mobility as multi openspaces and functions ness. - Strengthen historic values - Invest in basic needs; typologies and functions modal transport tainance them which reduce traveltourism - Promote heritage and cultural identity affordable housing to bring - Get a chance to refurbish distance nearby areas - Subsidize - Benefit from tourist social mix to the area existing quality - Maintain the cultural industries - Enhance local economy landscale and social cohesion - Cooperate with public - benefit from a chance to - Benefit from accessibility - Cooperate with public sectors invest in service functions to tourist destinations sectors - Invest in the infrastructure which help maintain Strategy - Channel benefit back to Public sectors - Develop towards diversity Private sectors Civic sectors development and its openspaces lacal as financial support and density Slow trafficSlow traffic Slow trafficSlow network network network network Blue traffic Blue Blue Riverside Riverside community community Blue community Riverside Riverside community Interface Interface Interface Interface proximity (transit corridor) and tax to be used as - Provide work and live - Cooperate with private - Has an initial role of the - Cooperate with civic subsidy - Cooperate with private environment to local developers process of tranformation in sectors in terms of partici- Illustration 6.2 showing projects inventory re- sectors to develop areas A : THE STATION AREA - Control by policies and both green fromblue improv- - Benefit and the pation and from accessible - Benefit rising aware- along transit corridorsfour-mentioned from diverse - Work with the state garding to historic values the - Benefit strategies B : TRANSFORMED OPEN SPACE bonus systems networks as same asand multi ment of mobility main- openspaces and functions ness. - Strengthen - Invest in basic needs; typologies and functions modal transport tainance them which reduce travel - Promote heritage tourism and cultural identity affordable housing to bring - Get a chance to refurbish C : RIVERSIDE AREAS distance - Subsidize nearby areas - Benefit from tourist social mix to the area existing quality D : LOCAL CONNECTIONS - Maintain the cultural industries - Enhance local economy landscale and social cohesion - Cooperate with public - benefit from a chance to - Benefit from accessibility - Cooperate with public sectors invest in service functions to tourist destinations sectors - Invest in the infrastructure which help maintain Strategy - Channel benefit back to sectors Public - Develop towards diversitysectors Private Civic sectors development and its openspaces lacal as financial support and density proximity (transit corridor) and tax to be used as - Provide work and live C subsidy environment to local - Benefit from the improv- - Benefit from accessible - Work with the state - Benefit from diverse ment of mobility and multi openspaces and functions - Strengthen historic values typologies and functions RIVERSIDE modal transport which reduce travel and cultural identity - Get a chance to refurbish AREA distance - Maintain the cultural - Benefit from tourist industries existing quality - Enhance local economy landscale and social cohesion B Strategy Public sectors Private sectors Civic sectors PUBLIC SPACE D LOCAL STREETS A Tourists MTS Local residents STATION LOCAL New comers SCALE DISTRICT Illustration 6.3 showing user diagram along ma- SCALE jors connections
60. 116 BKKs 6.2 THE STATION AREA MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 117 C Strategy Stakeholders -New stations and transport stops GOVERNMENT AGENCIES: B need to be gathered to create a BMA, MTS station, Bus station, BRT convenient environments to get on station, Ministry of transport, MTS D and to be reachable by multi modes divisions, BRT Company, Motorcy- A of transport. cle taxi organization - The new connections will be cre- SOCIETY: ated in terms of fast and slow traffic Land owners, Local developers, Lo-A: The Station Area in order to have a continuous traffic cal enterprisesInfrastructure development are flow in every scale: locally and re- INVESTORS:very crucial for the new design. It gionally. Private developers, Private inves-strengthens the role of city, district - The new connections will restruc- tors, Private transportation compa-and local positions of the geograph- ture the existing streets, integrated nies Pical territory. With an improvement pedestrian and pre-transport routes.of mobility, the MTS, BRT, bus and - Park and ride facilities will be Actionsprivately owned transport stops placed along main roads and traf- - Large-scale infrastructure projects Pprovide connectivity within the city. fic arteries as well as special zones combined station together with pre-The consequence of these develop- for developments, which develop by transport modes and slow trafficsments will attract more diverse func- public –private partnership to make - Reorganizing existing streets andtions and activities due to the con- economically feasible. spatial network hierarchynected spatial network. Regulations - Connecting regionally to the other - Mix functions development with liv- Existing buildingsand stimulants can help to create parts of the city, bus corridor will get ing and working environments New buildingsactive and vital places connecting priority over other means of trans- Square Residence Apartmentdirectly to the station, which bring Apartment and will be combined with pe- port Key words Apartment Commerce Green arearesidents to their desirable destina-Office destrian and pre transport routes. Office Equity in Mobility, Transport node, Service Park Commerce Commerce Info.tions throughout the city. Station Multi-modal transport, Street life office Government Tea house Footpath School Library Road Bank Community centre Gated community Bus stop Sport Tree Social housing Plantation Front facade Water N M.Functional diagram Masterplan 0 50 100 150 200 Mobility Landscape Typology Patch Existing situation to MTS Residence Mobility Mass transit Landscape Urban park Typology TOD Patch Station area Apartment Apartment Office Office Commerce Commerce Station Government office School to MTS BankInventory and Management strategyINFRASTRUCTURE Mobility Landscape Typology Patch Mobility Mobility Publictransit Mass transport Landscape Landscape Stationpark Urban square OPEN SPACE Typology Typology Local business TOD Patcharea INDUSTRIES TOURIST Global Station URBAN DEVELOPMENT Patchpatch INFRASTRUCTURE OPEN SPACE TOURIST INDUSTRIES URBAN DEVELOPMENT + + + + + + to MTS to MTS to MTS Mass transit Mass transport park Urban Private transport Mass transit Public transit Urban park TOD Linear green Station park Urban square Local business area TOD Station Daily functions TOD Local patch Station area Global patch Station area Infrastructure Programme Mobility Landscape Typology Patch Strategy - Cooperate with private - Has an initial role of the - Cooperate with civic - Cooperate with private - Cooperate with private - Has an initial role of the - Cooperate with civic - Cooperate with private developers process of tranformation in sectors in terms of partici- developers sectors to develop areas tranformation in process of sectors in terms of partici- sectors to develop areas - Control by policies and both green and blue pation and rising aware- policies along transit corridors and blue - Control by and both green pation and rising aware- along transit corridors
61. 118 BKKs 6.2 THE STATION AREA MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 119 Traditional MTS model Proposed MTS model P PThe section shows the location ofthe MTS stop. This crucial locationprovides firstly an equal conditionto get to public transport for bothsides of the road( both private andpublic transport on ground and MTSon the top). Secondly, road patterns The traditional model of the MTS creates negatively to the urban quality. With The new MTS model helps improve spatial quality of the area. The light structure requires less columns to sup-are downgraded from 3 lanes to 2 its machine-like conditions, the huge concrete structure obstructs sun light and port. In other words, there are more useful shading spaces on the ground in particular when the model separateslanes to give priority to the BMW wind to penetrate through, which leaves the ground floor fully with dust and cars pedestrian out from traffic. The ground level can be used dynamically in terms of recreation, commerce and so exhaust fumes. This produces uncomfortable walking environment (Jenk, 2003). on. Besides, it also can get sun light and natural ventilation.conditions (bike, metro and walk) ,which provides the mobility systemto all ranges of people. Thirdly, ittriggers new mixed function areasclose to the transit stop with com-mercial functions and offices mixedwith residences. Living and workingconditions are created together withliving quality and local job opportu-nities increased.Images showing existing quality of areas under the MTS, Source : http://thinkofliving.com, www.mnn.com Reference images showing spatial quality brought by the MTS (Beatrixlaan, The Hague), Source : http://www.zwarts.jansma.nl
62. 120 BKKs 6.2 THE STATION AREA MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 121 Phasing 1. Current condition of the area P P P P 2. It starts with a selection process , which dilapidated buildings and slum are demolished. Good and functioning buildings are kept and getting subsidy to renovate. 3. New connection has been con- structed, which helps commuting more conveniently and reorganizes road network hierarchy.The section shows a new connection to the MTS The section shows a car free and pedestrian friendly zone.station. Motor cycle taxi lanes are separated to get Street life with commercial activities and slow traffic are intro-a fast and flexible link to the destinations. duced to the area as well as historic streams. 4. MTS construction completes at the same time with offices and mixed functional buildings facilitat- ing local needs and supporting the project financially. 5. Apartment buildings are built to create working and living environ- ment at the same time supporting new comers to the area and in- crease land value with a proximity to MTS nodes.An impression of the inner court connecting to the MTSstation with pedestrian friendly environments
63. 122 BKKs 6.2 THE STATION AREA MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 123Isometric showing the new development The captures of the movie showing se-areas adjacent to the transit stop (new quences of activities in the area.buildings are colored in white) Full movie is available online at: http://youtu.be/ldDTd0QgUsc An impression shows the new develop- ments along traffic arteries with mixed functions by using TOD concepts
64. 124 BKKs 6.2 THE STATION AREA MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 125 Mobility Landscape Typology PatchCurrent condition of the area, which as plan, the MTS is going to be implemented EQUITY OF MOBILITY to MTS a. All social classes will be able to get on the public transport system Mobility Mass transit Landscape Urban park Typology TOD Patch Station area b. The gradient of development from transit corridors to local areas together with an improvement of spatial quality c. New functions will improve access and economic status regarding to de- mands to MTS Mobility Landscape Mobility Mobility Publictransit Mass transport Typology Landscape Landscape Stationpark Urban square Typology Typology Patch Local business TOD Patcharea Patchpatch Global Station to MTS to MTS to MTS Mass transit Mass transport park Urban Private transport Mass transit Public transit Urban park TOD Linear green Station park Urban square Local business area TOD Station Daily functions TOD Local patch Station area Global patch Station area
65. 126 BKKs 6.3 TRANSFORMED OPEN SPACE MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 127 C Strategy INVESTORS: - New social housings help serve Private developers, Private investors B people who suffer from an expro- priation process D - Flexibility of room types and Actions A various typologies make housing - Accessible greens on the west projects more sustainable bank improving living quality - Apartments are allowed to be built - Affordable and social housings C: Transformed Open Space to support financially. with diverse typologies Together with the mobility strategy, - Local functions are created to - Economic activities are located on new connections help break trough serve new communities and facili- the ground floor of new buildings. urban grid, which can transform tate users of the park - Apartments are constructed for the barrier(void) to be an accessi- - Public space is the key issue to financial reasons, mix social class ble open space for the area and the blend local and new residents and and value added. West bank. Slums will be replaced stimulate interactions by social housings with retail func- Key words tions on the ground floor to stimu- Stakeholders Flexibility, Diverse typologies, Finan- late interaction and attract people. GOVERNMENT AGENCIES: cial support, Cohesion, Local and Urban farm is possible to maintain Local administration, BMA, Bang- service functions the green area. In terms of mainte- kok conservation divisions, Social nance, private developers will get housing authority Existing buildings bonus to develop when they take SOCIETY: New buildings care of green quality. For local peo- Local residents, Land owners, Local Square ple, local and park related functions developers, public organisations, Green area are placed as well as mix functions cultural organizations Park handling financial supports. Footpath Road Apartment Residence Bus stop Commerce Apartment Service Office Tree Info. Mobility Landscape Typology Patch Commerce Functional diagram Tea house Library Service Tea house Plantation Community centre Gated community Government office Temple Front facade Sport Pier Social housing School Water N M. to MTS Masterplan 0 50 100 150 200 Mobility Landscape Mass transit Typology Urban park Patch TOD Station area Existing situation esidence Apartment partment CommerceOffice Service ommerce Info.Government office to MTS Tea house chool Library ank Mass transit Mobility park Urban Public transport Landscape TOD Station square Typology area Station Local business Patchpatch Global Community centre Gated community Sport Social housing to MTS Inventory and Management strategyINFRASTRUCTURE OPEN SPACE TOURIST INDUSTRIES URBAN DEVELOPMENT TOURIST INDUSTRIES URBAN DEVELOPMENT Public transport Mobility Mass transit square Station Private transport Landscape Urban park business Local Linear green TypologyINFRASTRUCTURE Patch OPEN SPACE TODGlobal patch Daily functions Local patch Station area + + + + + + to MTS Private transport Mass transit Public Slow trafficgreen transport Linear UrbanDaily park Station square functions Blue network TOD Local business patch Local Riverside community Station area Global patch Interface Open space Programme Mobility Landscape Typology Patch Strategy - Cooperate with private - Has an initial - Cooperate with private role of the - Cooperate with civic initial role of-the - Has an Cooperate with private with civic - Cooperate - Cooperate with private developers process of tranformation in developers sectors in terms of partici- process of tranformation in to develop areas terms of partici- sectors sectors in sectors to develop areas - Control by policies and both green andControl by policies pation and rising aware- and blue along transit corridors - blue and both green pation and rising aware- along transit corridors
66. 128 BKKs 6.3 TRANSFORMED OPEN SPACE MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 129 1 Phasing 1. Current condition of the area 2. Gated communities are kept. At the same time, slums are removed. studio typeNew park will increase local living qual-ity. New connections transform spatialbarriers to urban park. Slums are re-placed by affordable housings with di-verse functions and typologies making itflexible to adapt in the future. It increas- 2es local access to greens, services andcommunities functions. To be more safefor residents, slow traffics are separatedfrom car roads. 3. Social housings are constructed first with various typologies to ac- commodate different people needs. For financial reasons, this section shows apartment buildings built adjacent to the urban park. With its small footprint, it will not block a view to the park. Besides, it provides a clear role of the open space, which inner courts are used by local communities and the park are welcomed to all range of people. The permeability, resulting from its typology, is created that can help trigger one bed room vibrant atmospheres on the street level by mixed functions on the ground. 4. New connections are built to open 3 up the void and to connect to the MTS stops. Simultaneously, when many people live in the area, it be- comes a community. Communities supported functions are created. 5. As mentioned, for financial rea- sons and to update land value, two beds room apartments buildings are estab- lished together with park supported functions. The plan shows examples of flexible room types of social housings. It covers 30 sq.m., which can be changed from studio type (1), one bed room (2) or two beds room for a family (3). Therefore, this flexibility can cope with different needs of tenants without a demolition in the future.
67. 130 BKKs 6.3 TRANSFORMED OPEN SPACE MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 131Isometric showing different sizes and fun- The captures of the movie showing se-tions of public space shared with local resi- quences of activities in the area.dents and new comers (new buildings arecolored in white). Full movie is available online at: http://youtu.be/BjB0V8oHwuo An impression of the accessible urban parks with diverse activities
68. 132 BKKs 6.3 TRANSFORMED OPEN SPACE MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 133 Mobility Landscape Typology PatchCurrent condition of the spatial barriers SOCIAL COHESION a. Accessible green spaces particularly to the West to MTS b. Public spaces stimulate social interaction Mobility Landscape Mass transit Typology Urban park Patch TOD Station area c. Proposed building typologies are designed aiming to blend new comers and local residents together by sharing the same social position to MTS Mass transit Mobility park Urban Public transport Landscape TOD Station square Typology area Station Local business Patchpatch Global to MTS Public transport Mobility Mass transit square Station Private transport Landscape Urban park business Local Linear green Typology patch TODGlobal Daily functions Patch Local patch Station area to MTS Private transport Mass transit Public transport green Linear Slow traffic UrbanDaily park Station square functions Blue network TOD Local business patch Local Riverside community Station area Global patch Interface
69. P134 BKKs 6.3 RIVERSIDE AREAS MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 135 C tions. With a support by the govern- INVESTORS: ment, profits from the tourist desti- Private developers, Private investors B nations must be channelled back to local to improve the living quality. Actions D - Urban projects are proposed to A Strategy regenerate the area along the river - New connections improve local and to retrofit potential spaces in the access to open space; blue and communities as public spaces in or-D: Riverside Areas green networks der to enhance living quality.Dense communities, located along - New open spaces can be used by - New developments done by lo-the river, are the character of the all range of people cal are possible to exploit from newarea from the past before roads - New public spaces and local pock- comers and tourists.were constructed. They hold historic et space help improve living quality - Public space will be regeneratedvalue and identity. The strategy aims - Local residents can benefit from and opened for public uses.to preserve them and at the same tourist industries in terms of jobs op- - Local residents will turn towardstime enhance living quality. New portunities and fiscal supports water oriented activities, whichsolutions provide exploitation from maintain historical continuity.tourist industries when the area is Stakeholderposted on the tourist map, passing GOVERNMENT AGENCIES: Key wordsby tourist towards tourist attractions Local administration, BMA, Bang- Tourism, Local access, Open space,brings big opportunities to the area. kok conservation divisions, Bang- Riverside communities, Historical Existing buildings ResidenceThis strategy can Apartment transform ghetto kok tourist division continuity New buildings Office Squareand low-income living area to be Commerce SOCIETY:livelier. On the oneService tourist can hand, Local residents, Land owners, Local Green area Tea house Parkenjoy riverside atmosphere and be Government office developers, public organisations,more convenient towards the attrac- Temple cultural organizations Footpath Pier Road School Bus stop Tree MobilityFunctional diagram Mobility Landscape Landscape Typology Typology Patch Patch Plantation Front facade Water N M. to MTS to MTS Masterplan 0 50 100 150 200 Mobility Mass transit Mass transit Landscape Urban park Urban park Typology TOD TOD Patch Station area Station area Residence Existing situation Apartment Office Commerce to MTS Service Tea house Mobility Landscape Typology Patch Government office Mass transit Public transport Public transport Urban park Station square Station square LocalTOD business Local business Station patch Global area Global patch Temple Pier School to MTSInventory and Management strategy INFRASTRUCTURE INFRASTRUCTURE OPEN SPACE SPACE OPEN TOURIST TOURIST INDUSTRIES INDUSTRIES URBAN DEVELOPMENT URBAN DEVELOPMENT Mobility Mass transit Landscape Public transport park Urban Private transport Private transport Typology Station square TOD Linear green Linear green Patch Daily functions area Station Local business Daily functions Global patch Local patch Local patch + + + + + + to MTS Publictransit Mass transport Private transport park Urban TOD Open space Tourist industries Slow traffic square SlowStation traffic Blue network business Local Linearnetwork Blue green Riverside functions area Station Daily communitypatch Global Riverside community Local patch Interface Interface Mobility Landscape Typology Patch Strategy - Cooperate Cooperate with private Has an initial role of the role of the Cooperate Cooperate with civic - Cooperate Cooperate with private - with private - - Has an initial - - with civic - with private developersdevelopers process of tranformation in process of tranformation in sectors in terms of in terms of partici- sectors partici- sectors to develop to develop areas sectors areas - Control by Control by policies and - policies and both greenboth blue and blue and green pation andpationaware- rising and rising aware-along transit corridors corridors along transit
70. 136 BKKs 6.4 RIVERSIDE AREAS MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 137 Phasing 1. Current condition of the area 2. Almost all buildings are kept.The green area has been trans- They carry historic value with an ori-formed together with reorganized entation towards water. The streetstreet patterns. It results in an ac- pattern are organized and connectcessible riverside open space. It to each other used by local.helps regenerate a promenadealong the riverfront connecting topublic space in the nearby temple.The public can be used by both lo-cal residents and tourists. The con-sequence is not only to improvelocal living quality, but also job op-portunities around the area along 3. Riverside communities initiallyboth side of the river. benefit from financial supports fromCommunities on both other side of the government to increase livingthe river are welcomed to use and quality; squares and pocket spacesget benefits from subsidy from tour- regeneration, in order to keep themist industries. stay in the area. 4. Local open spaces are construct- ed providing communities riverside parks for local. Moreover, prom- enades are connected to existing pedestrian walkways to complete the loop. 5. New functions are located to serve users of the park. It leads to local job opportunities increased.
71. 138 BKKs 6.4 RIVERSIDE AREAS MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 139Isometric showing the transformed river- The captures of the movie showing se-side public space that stimulates riverside quences of activities in the area.activities and identity (new buildings arecolored in white) Full movie is available online at: http://youtu.be/BGn48FFIEFw An impression of the riverside atmosphere from a point of view of tourists riding on the boat from the MTS station.
72. 140 BKKs 6.4 RIVERSIDE AREAS MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 141 Mobility Mobility Landscape Landscape Typology Typology Patch PatchCurrent condition of the traditional riverside area, which connects the MTS station and the historic core to MTS to MTS SOCIO-CULTURAL IDENTITY a. Maintain historic value and socialpark Mobility Mass transit Landscapeidentity of living heritage Urban park Typology TOD Patch Station area Mass transit Urban TOD Station area b. Keep physical form and local citizens historically continue c. Improve local living quality of the riverside area to MTS Mobility Landscape Mass transit Public transport Public transport Typology Urban park Station square Station square LocalTOD Patch business Local business Station patch Global area Global patch to MTS Mobility Mass transit Landscape Public transport park Urban Private transport Private transport Typology Station square TOD Linear green Linear green Patch Daily functions area Station Local business Daily functions Global patch Local patch Local patch to MTS Publictransit Mass transport Private transport park Urban Slow traffic square SlowStation traffic TOD Blue network business Local Linearnetwork Blue green Riverside functions area Station Daily communitypatch Global Riverside community Local patch Interface Interface
73. 142 BKKs 6.5 LOCAL CONNECTIONS MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 143 C Strategy - The new local connections, result- SOCIETY: B ing from the mobility strategy, will Local residents, Land owners, pub- provide big potentials to transform lic organizations, cultural organiza- D mono-functional area to be more tions, Local investors, Local enter- A diverse reducing unnecessary travel prises, street vendors organizations distance for local. INVESTORS: - To avoid radical changes, the Private developers, Private investors B: Local Connection streets are chosen strategically to Local routes are the result of new be upgraded or downgraded, which Actions P connections. It will guide people slow traffics and pedestrian paths - Improvement of local access by from the MTS on the main roads to- are combined with safety condi- new spatial linkages wards local areas: market, commu- tions. - Stimulating local businesses and P P nities and heritage sites. The routes - The potential areas along the services to improve living conditions will integrate new local businesses streets will be mostly developed by socially and financially and mixed-use areas (starters, local people, who live there before. - Providing well designed pocket street vendors, adaptable buildings, In other words, local residents get spaces for different activities to be P retails and so on) in relation with the priority over private developers. placed orderly human network strategy. New func- - Proximity of spatial connections P tions will cluster along the streets. to local fresh market brings more Key words Moreover, to get vital streets, new Residence diverse users and intensity to the Local quality, Safety, Local priority, Apartment Residence Existing buildings Apartment buildings will turn their front façade historic area. Commerce Commercial activities, Vital streets Apartment New buildings Office Service Office Square to the streets. Local vendors will be Commerce Info. Commerce put properly in pocket spaces, which Government office Stakeholders Tea house Service Green area act as local scale public spaces for School GOVERNMENT AGENCIES: Library Tea house Park Bank Community centre Government office Footpath different events or cultural activities. BMA, local administration, Ministry Gated community Temple From potential to active streets, they of transport, Conservation authori- Road Sport Pier create more diverse uses and op- ties, Municipal official (whose duty Social housing School Bus stop portunities to local Mobility dwellers. Tree Mobility Landscape care of Typology is to take Landscape cleanness) Typology Patch Patch Plantation Front facade Water N M. Functional diagram to MTSMTS to Masterplan 0 50 100 150 200 Mobility Mobility Mobility Landscape Mass transit Mass transit Landscape Landscape Typology Urban park Urban park Typology Typology TOD Patch TOD Patch Patch Station area Station area Existing situation Residence Apartment toto MTS MTS rtment to MTS Apartment Commercece Office Servicemmerce Mass transit Public transport park Mass transit Publictransit Mass transport Urban Station square Urban park TOD Stationpark Urban square LocalTODStation area business TOD Local business Global patch Station area Station area Global patch Commerce Info. on Government office Tea house School Library Bank Community centre Gated community Sport Social housing Inventory and Management strategyINFRASTRUCTURE OPEN SPACE TOURIST INDUSTRIES URBAN DEVELOPMENT INFRASTRUCTURE OPEN SPACE TOURIST INDUSTRIES URBAN DEVELOPMENT Public transport Private transport Public transport square Public transport Station Private transport Stationgreen Linear Local Station squarebusiness square Linear green Daily functions Local business patch Local business Global Daily functions Local patch Global patch Global patch Local patch + + + + + + Private transport Private transport green Private traffic Slow transport Linear Slow traffic Linear green Blue network functions Linear Daily green Blue network Daily functionspatch Riverside community Daily functions Local Riverside community Local patch Interface Local patch Interface Infrastructure Programme Mobility Landscape Typology Patch Strategy - Cooperate with private - Has an initial role of the - Cooperate with civic - Cooperate with private - Cooperate with private - Has an initial role of the - Cooperate with civic - Cooperate with private developers process of tranformation in sectors in terms of partici- developers sectors to develop areas tranformation in process of sectors in terms of partici- sectors to develop areas - Control by policies and both green and blue pation and rising aware- policies along transit corridors and blue - Control by and both green pation and rising aware- along transit corridors
74. 144 BKKs 6.5 LOCAL CONNECTIONS MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 145 Phasing P 1. Current condition of the area P PThe section is made in the area of 2. Good quality historic buildingslocal connections. It describe a new and housings are kept and devel-street profile, designed as woon- oped to enhance street life witherf -like conditions, which streets commercial activities and livingare mostly used by local residents. quality. In terms of this adaptability,Slow speed traffics are available in local dwellers get prior opportunitiesterms of car, motor cycle and bike. to invest over private developers.To encourage street life, pedestriansidewalks are designed to providesafety for local. Parking is allowedtemporarily along the street. Newand existing adaptable buildingshelp promote mixed functions to 3. New side walks are built in orderthe area, where commercial pro- to get a safe pedestrian conditionsgrammes locate on the ground floor. leading to the other road, where the MTS is located P P 4. New buildings are inserted in va- P cant spaces with mixed functions. Commercial activities take place on the ground floors.The section shows the existing of arich green quality on the street of thearea. New buildings have to followthe urban rules to preserve streetambiences. Developers will get 5. To keep a richness of existingsubsidy in a form of tax reduction quality, local residents will get sub-and fiscal supports as same as lo- sidy to maintain their front facadescal residents. This rule also includes and nearby areas (small pocketnearby areas such as interiors, pri- spaces, green areas and interior ofvate green areas or pocket spaces. their buildings).When the MTS completes, local willget a priority to develop in terms ofan adaptability of functions, areaextensions. However, parking is notallowed permanently on streets, butinner areas.
75. 146 BKKs 6.5 LOCAL CONNECTIONS MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 147 Isometric showing the street atmosphere, The captures of the movie showing se- which slow traffic get a priority in order quences of activities in the area. to get vitality (new buildings are colored in white) Full movie is available online at: http://youtu.be/mwJLXmfQTFc An impression of the street life atmosphere along the vital street
76. 148 BKKs 6.5 LOCAL CONNECTIONS MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 149 Mobility Mobility Landscape Landscape Typology Typology Patch Patch to MTSMTS to Mobility Mobility Mobility Landscape Mass transit Mass transit Landscape Landscape Typology Urban park Urban park Typology Typology TOD Patch TOD Patch Patch Station area Station areaCurrent condition of the street directly linking to traffic arteries to MTS toto MTS MTS AN IMPROVEMENT OF LOCAL QUALITY a. Contribute to Public transport bottom-up development Public transport park Station square Stationpark Mass transit Mass transit Mass transit Urban Urban square Urban park TOD LocalTODStation area business Local business TOD Global patch Global patch Station area Station area b. Stimulate social surveillance c. Create vital streets with pedestrian oriented conditions Public transport Private transport Private transport Public transport square Public transport Station Stationgreen Linear Local Linear green Station squarebusiness square Daily functions Daily functions Local business patch Local business Global Local patch Local patch Global patch Global patch Private transport Private transport green Private traffic Slow transport Slow traffic Linear Linear green Blue network functions Blue network Linear Daily green Daily functionspatch Riverside community Riverside community Daily functions Local Local patch Interface Interface Local patch
78. 152 BKKs 7.1 EVALUATION MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 153 After testing the strategies on the four strategic projects, now this chapter will elaborate on how to realize the vi- sion by keeping the core objectives of the project still. The first part will conclude all proposals regarding to the city plan. Then, a set of recommendations on man- agement rules will be elaborated in terms of govern- ance structure, phasing and stakeholders to guarantee acceptable outcomes of the project. In addition, the ur- ban rules in the last part will be described crucial parts of the project and applicable to similar projects. Illustration 7.1 showing conclusion as a meaning of integration: overall proposed strategies in relation with the government plannection Strategy and Reflection Reflection Strategy and Reflection Reflection (Landscape) (Mobility) Strategy(Mobility) Reflection Strategy and and Strategy Reflection (Mobility) and and Strategy (Mobility) (Mobility) (Landscape) (Mobility) (Landscape) (Mobility) (Tourism) (Landscape) (Mobility) (Mobility) (Tourism) (Landscape) (Tourism) (Landscape) (Tourism) (Tourism) (Landscape) (Landscape) (Landscape) (Tourism) (Tourism) (Programme) (Tourism) (Programme) (Tourism) (Programme) (Programm (Programme) (Programme) (Programme) (Programme) (Programme) Water Water management Water management management WaterWaterWaterWater management - region region - Watermanagement Metropolitan region -- Water management - management management Metropolitan - - managementUrgenciescies ies transport City Urgencies Urgencies City City City City Urgencies Public Publictransport transport -- Public City Urgencies Urgencies PublicPublic transport transport Urgencies transport Public transport PublicPublic transport Public transport Metropolitan Metropolitan region Metropolitan region region Metropolitan Metropolitan region Metropolitan region Metropolitan r Open space space Open Open space OpenOpenOpen Open space Openspacespace Open space space space SCALE SCALE SCALE SCALE SCALE CITY CITY CITY CITY CITY MTS MTS MTS WaterfrontMTS MTS MTS Waterfront MTSMTS Waterfront MTS Waterfront Waterfront New development -- -- Waterfront Waterfront development - Waterfront New New development - Waterfront - -- NewNew development development New development New development New development New developnment Plan Plan Plan Government Plan Plan Plan Plan Government Plan Plan Government Government Government Government BRT BRT BRT Regeneration Regeneration BRT BRT Regeneration BRT BRT BRT BRT Regeneration Regeneration areas areas Regeneration Regeneration Regeneration Regeneration areas areasareasareas areas areas areasurrent FragmentedCurrent spatial Fragmented Current Current Fragmented spatialspatial Currentspatial FragmentedCurrent Current spatial Neglected Neglected Neglected Fragmented spatial Out of Out ofNeglected Fragmented spatial Out of the Neglected FragmentedFragmented spatial Neglected Neglected Monofunction theof theof the Monofunction Monofunctio Fragmented spatial Neglected Neglected the the Out of Outof Out Out of the Monofunction theOut the of Out Monofunction Monofunction Monofunction Monofunction Monofunctionsoblemss Problems Problems network Problems Problems Problems open space space networktouristtourist open spacespacetourist touristmaptourist map Problems network network open space network opennetwork network network network tourist map open open open map spacespace open map space space open tourist mapmap tourist maptourist map DISTRIC DISTRIC DISTRIC DISTRIC DISTRIC SCALE SCALE SCALE SCALE SCALEoposedd Proposed Proposed Proposed Proposed Proposed Proposedyrategy Infrastructural Strategy Strategy Natural network network TouristTourist Natural network TouristTouristindustries industries Infrastructural network network Strategy Strategy Strategy Strategy Natural Infrastructural network Natural Infrastructural network Naturalnetwork networknetwork Infrastructural Infrastructural Natural Natural network Human network industries industries industries Human network industries Human network Infrastructural network Infrastructural network networkNatural network Natural network Tourist industries Infrastructural network Tourist industries network Tourist industries Tourist Tourist Human network Human network Human network Human net Human network Human network SpatialSpatial connections Openspace Spatialnetwork Heritage tourism OpenspaceNew city Heritagetourism Spatial connections connections Openspace networkconnections OpenspaceSpatial connections tourism network New city model model tourism New city model city modelmode Spatial connections Heritage Openspace network New tourismHeritage tourism New city model city network SpatialSpatialconnections connections Spatial connectionsOpenspaceOpenspace network Openspace network network model tourism Openspace network Heritage tourism Heritage city Heritage Heritage tourism Heritage NewNew model city New New city model INTEGRATION INTEGRATION INTEGRATION INTEGRATION INTEGRATION -- coherent grid grid coherent grid - coherent -- -integrated--grid and grid grid - -integrated and and --and -andexpandedmodel integrated blue - blue grid ---expanded --tourist touristblue and -polycentric- tourist coherent blue and and -- -coherent grid integrated grid coherent coherent expanded touristblue blue polycentric --model expanded -tourist-polycentric polycentric m coherent coherent integrated integrated and blue -expanded tourist integrated expanded integrated polycentric model blue- integrated blue expanded tourist polycentricpolycentric model - expanded tourist expanded tourist -- polycentric model - polycentricmodel model model -ffects -- completed Effectstransport green green--networktransportmap greengreengreen network - map map map completed transport Effects- completed completed transport map green network -- diversemap map - Effects completedEffects transport Effects Effects green networkcompleted transport greennetwork - -completed completedmap network network network - transport green completed transport transport network diverse typologies map diverse typologies typologies - diverse typologies typologies -- diverse typologies - -diverse typologies typol diverse -typologies diverse diverse network network network -- network network waterfront network waterfront -network network waterfront network waterfront waterfront - -waterfront -- waterfront waterfront ---financial support waterfront - financial -- financial support financial support - financial support and programmes support and programmes -support supportandprogrammes and financial financial and programmes - -financial programmes support support financial and and programmes programmes and programmes and programm -- cooperative mode mode regeneration- cooperative modemaintained identity cooperative mode - cooperative regeneration cooperative modemodemaintained identity -- access -maintained maintained access increased increased regeneration cooperativemaintained - -cooperative mode cooperative - - regeneration regeneration regeneration - regeneration - cooperative modemode --regeneration identity regeneration access increased- identity - identity -- access increased - maintainedmaintained identity - -access increased increa - -accessmaintained identity increased identity -- identity increased maintained access increased access - access of transport of transport of transport -- of transportgreen green accessibleof transport accessibleof transport -of transport transportand historic--value- value greengreenand historic valuevalue value accessible green of transportof - accessible accessible green - -accessible green accessible and historic green accessible green and historic value accessible and historic value value and and historic value historic historic and historic and
79. 154 BKKs 7.2 GOVERNANCE STRUCTURE MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 155Inflexibility: Drawbacks of the tradi- Local participation Involving partiestional model To deal with potentials of an im- To realize the goal, the illustrationThe current condition of the city proved spatial quality, which will 7.2 and the diagrams below showsmanagement structure is that the be done better than the ordinary involving sectors of the project.municipal parties and other pub- model, it is very important to reor-lic sectors regulate city spaces ganize the governance structure ofthrough zoning systems, capital the city. The new model welcomesplanning and other kind of regula- local people to be in the planningtory frameworks. The intensity of process. The reason is that for the PUBLIC PUBLICcontrol makes plans more inflexible historic core, the historical continu-and anti organic growth. ity is crucial. Localness will be pro-The thesis focuses on a potential duced by local inhabitants. With this Caof flexibility in planning, which is approach, it brings sustainability to Investors Government (m ptia ain l- i tai nteable to accumulate and cope with the areas. Besides, many conflicts Real estate n, op nsive BMA erachanges and demands of local in- can be solved more easily, when the developers te) sus senhabitants. By enhancing crucial three parties are put together in a Land District Co n ntr ol owners In Su centi Co ally)aspects to facilitate local patterns discussion, which leads to common bsi ve (Le g d Ga y,Ta Bonu ( Public-in order to make city life continue interests and a balance in power re- INTEGRATION u x rev rante break s, Private MODEL en ed ,and leave other parts still the same, lation among those groups. These ue s) Partnershipthese step-by-step changes can vulnerable groups will be preserved PRIVA PRIVfulfil basic needs of local residents and able to get reasonable benefits Promised benefits TE AT Neighborhoodand give a chance for initiatives from global development. There- E organizationand individual decision making in fore, as never happened, integra- S S EN ENreprogramming by civic parties. tion of the MTS and the urban tissue Non governmetnal IZ IZ Evaluation, IT organization C ITTherefore, public policies are highly results from cooperation between Direction Cneeded, which will provide a regu- global and local dimensions. Internationallatory framework regarding specific organizationcontext. The diagram shows different involving parties in The diagram shows inputs and outputs from different three working scale. parties with the idea of public-private partnership.Illustration 7.2 showing responsible par-ties of the project in line with proposedstrategies Public sectors Private Sectors Citizens Public Public GOVERNMENT GOVERNMENT BMA BMA ORGANIZATIONS ORGANIZATIONS The infrastructure development in Private sector is the main investor of The role of citizens is to participate Sector Sector Bangkok is usually done by public the project to keep the project going into the project. The main goal of the sectors. Responsible authorities more dynamically and flexibly. Sev- project is to improve integration be- Department of Department of Bangkok Mass Natural and Cultural Natural and Cultural Bangkok Tourist also give a plan to cope with expect- eral private sectors, who can join tween the historic core and the MTS, Resposible Environmental UNESCO Resposible Divisions Department of City Planning City Planning Department of Traffic and Transport Traffic and Transport Bangkok Mass Transit Authority Transit Authority Environmental Conservation Division Bangkok Tourist Division Division UNESCO ed consequences, and then private the project, are banking companies, thus it is important to know the exist- Divisions Conservation Division sectors come in and take actions on transport related organizations, real ing quality of life in affected neigh- the investment. Therefore, authori- estate developers and so on. Some borhoods. Local residents will get a Build spatial ties need to be fair democratically private sectors may benefit directly higher priority to invest in the project Support heritage Actions Actions Plan Plan Build spatial connections connections Monitor Monitor Environmental control Environmental control Heritage tourism Heritage tourism Support heritage conservation in making decision and clear objec- from the project. One example is the and give a decision on the ongo- conservation tives. They should provide oppor- MTS station along the main Road, ing process. This is the reason why tunities to invest for public interest where the adjacent building and real a variety of building typologies and and ensure to be safe that the core estate are connected directly to the scale is very important in mixing bal- Developer’s Developer’s Facilitate tourism objectives will not change. Moreo- MTS stop or new open spaces. The ance of functions and the provision Actions MTS construction Maintainance Investment Actions(private sectors,local initiatives) MTS construction Maintainance Facilitate tourism industries industries Investment ver, they should bring local into the financial strategy for this condition ( new housing and affordable hous-(private sectors,local initiatives) process, because it is important for is to include the adjacent building ing) . In terms of local businesses, the area, which has historic value, and real estate as the investor of the typologies provided are adaptable, to have local participation and raise adjacent stop. In other word, the ad- which economic activities are possi- their awareness. This management jacent building and real estate need ble to take place on the ground floor. Infrastructural network Natural network Tourist industries Human network Strategy Strategy Infrastructural network (Mobility) Natural network (Landscape) Tourist industries ( Urban Heritage) Human network (Programme) leads to a consensus and common to maintain the MTS stop and open Besides, pocket spaces are allowed (Mobility) (Landscape) ( Urban Heritage) (Programme) interests of cooperation between space with bonus and subsidy to to use by local temporarily such as these three sectors, initially done by get acceptable profits by maintain- open markets. As a result, it will pre- the government. ing and supporting the strategy. serve local quality of Bangkok
80. 156 BKKs 7.3 PHASING 7.4 STAKEHOLDERS MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 157Illustration 7.3 showing the phasing The flexibility of planning The illustration 7.3 reveals the rela- It starts with an introduction of thestrategy of the project classified into Short term goals Long term goals In relation with the phasing strategy, tion between project phasing and integrated and connected networkshort term and long term objectives this project is based around a set actors. Public sectors are respon- on potential areas to create a flow of guidelines to protect threats by sible for basic needs of citizens, for the increasing people and trans- the MTS towards local inhabitants. which in this case, are infrastruc- formed urban quality. The second The expansion of MTS brings more ture , public spaces and other lo- phase is a refurbishment of the Government plan people to a place that is once un- cal related facilities, considered as existing building into a compact connected because of the increas- short term objectives. For long term mixed-use residential-retail devel-INFRASTRUCTURE ing traffic and low mobility as well as goals, after the MTS completes in opment and the enhancing urban the fragmented network will be reor- the area , interventions by the state quality by transforming open spaceMTS to the area throughout Bangkok ganized and connected. Therefore, encourage urban development to create a more efficient land use of as mentioned before, the phasing mostly done by local initiatives and the area. In terms of quantity, afterReorganization of BRT strategy is divided into two parts, private parties. These actions aim the completed MTS, the third strat- before and after the implementation to add value in sustainable ways by egy is the establishment of mixed-Upgrade to tram of the MTS. making use of potentials of integra- use functions and housings to cre- tion of two dynamics. ate more space in order to increase value of the area and attract users to stimulate economic activities. Proposed proporsal Therefore, after the MTS completion in the area, the evaluation is need- Illustration 7.4 showing the roles of differ-INFRASTRUCTURE ent stakeholders in accordance to the four ed in order to develop the flexible proposed strategies framework (see illustration 7.4).Bus stopDemolition of buildingsNew road connections INFRASTRUCTURE OPEN SPACE TOURIST INDUSTRIES URBAN DEVELOPMENTSlow traffic networkOPEN SPACE + + +Linear parkCanal regenerationPublic parkWaterfront regenerationTOURIST INDUSTRIES - Cooperate with private - Has an initial role of the - Cooperate with civic - Cooperate with private developers process of tranformation in sectors in terms of partici- sectors to develop areasTourist bus - Control by policies and both green and blue pation and rising aware- along transit corridors bonus systems networks as same as main- ness. - Invest in basic needs;Defined tourist areas tainance them - Promote heritage tourism affordable housing to bring - Subsidize nearby areas social mix to the areaURBAN DEVELOPMENT - Cooperate with public - benefit from a chance to - Benefit from accessibility - Cooperate with publicNeighborhood transformation sectors invest in service functions to tourist destinations sectors - Invest in the infrastructure which help maintain - Channel benefit back to - Develop towards diversityAffordable housings development and its openspaces lacal as financial support and density proximity (transit corridor) and tax to be used as - Provide work and liveRetail in the local areas subsidy environment to localService functions - Benefit from the improv- - Benefit from accessible - Work with the state - Benefit from diverse ment of mobility and multi openspaces and functions - Strengthen historic values typologies and functionsDevelopment along modal transport which reduce travel and cultural identity - Get a chance to refurbish distance - Benefit from tourist existing qualitytransit corridors Estimated completion time of the mts - Maintain the cultural industries - Enhance local economy landscale and social cohesion 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 Strategy Public sectors Private sectors Civic sectors Strategy Public sectors Private sectors Civic sectors
81. 158 BKKs 7.5 URBAN RULES MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 159Selection of urban rulesIn order to guarantee and control the out-come of the strategy, urban rules are devel-oped. + Bottom-up Street vendors Temporary market Continuity of front facade Continuity of shading devices +Local collaboration is the optimal choice Street vendors are not allowed to occupied Squares can be used as a temporary market. New building must follow the existing histor- Due to the hot weather in Bangkok, simi-to develop. They get a priority to develop walkways, which will be returned back to Local residents, who live nearby, will get a ic building by creating a continuity of front larly to the front facade rule, owners will getas well as participate in a making decision city’s residents. They will be put in pocket right to work. Prefab and temporary structures facade. For existing ones, owners will get an incentive to construct shading devicesprocess. spaces situated along the local streets. This or shading devices are permitted. a subsidy to regenerate and preserve their to cover walk ways. The incentive can be idea can be applied throughout Bangkok. architectural quality. formed as tax reduction, bonus or revenues. Bottom-up Street vendors Temporary market Continuity of front facade Continuity of shading devices + B/M/W Natural ventilation and daylight Parking BMW Priority Building height Harmonic materials + B/M/W Natural ventilation and daylight Parking BMW Priority Building height Harmonic materialsDevelopers must not only follow develop- Alike vendors rule, parking is not allowed on Slow traffic and public transport will get prior- New building must reach an agreement Materials of new constructions should be inment principles and building codes, but also the local streets except temporarily. Drivers ity. When new developments take place, slow among the town preservation authorities in a harmony with the existing one. Investorsprovide the condition that new architectures need to find a place to park, such as their traffic must be provided and at the same time, order to keep vibrant street feeling. In par- will get a bonus to do in a proper way.must get a proper amount of natural ventila- properties or any form of rental car parking a convenient link to public transport especial- ticular if it affects a sight line from the citytion and daylight. spaces. ly mass transit has to be created. heritage, building plans must be approved from the responsible parties.
83. 162 BKKs 8.1 EVALUATION MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 163 01 02 05 06 08 INTRODUCTION THEORETICAL STRATEGY STRATEGIC PROJECTS REFLECTION RESEARCH Problem definition The MTS Infrastructure MTS stations Recommendations Project aim Heritage Landscape Spatial barriers Planning tools Methodology Spatial indicators Tourism Riverside areas Design guidelines of urban vitality Built environment Local connections 04 EMPIRICAL RESEARCH 03 07 CONTEXT RESEARCH MANAGEMENT Site selection AND ANALYSIS STRATEGY Historical research Framework Evaluation City urgencies Approach Stakeholders Top-down plan review Vision PhasingIllustration 8.1 showing the conclusion of the city of Bangkok and strategies challenged by the new infrastructure ity, integration definition becomes The forth chapter analyzes on the built environments (to use organ-the study of Bangkok Synergy; a synergetic through the exploration of probable development, which passes the his- concrete and also spatial indicators rapid process of city development. ized network connections as cata-spatial vision to preserve the historic coreof Bangkok, integrated with the expansion future in 2030. Secondly, to develop toric core, but unfortunately without to be used in the design process. The effect of the process unfolds lysts for urban development).of the rapid mass transit system network, design instruments for planners, coordinating with any preservation The theoretical framework gives several spatial problems of the stra-including both research and design process decision makers and related disci- plan. Therefore, the definition of the author opportunities not only tegic location that needs to be in- The design part is a concrete prod- plines enables to translate scientific the approach and the methodology to construct concrete evidences tervened, classified in three issues uct of the strategy of the project. knowledge into an approach, which was decisive to formulate the the- and knowledge, but also to identify (spatial fragmentation, environmen- It illustrates spatial impacts of the planners can cope with developing sis project to fill this gap by sharing weaknesses and threats provided tal degradation and social segrega- strategy with optimal solutions. The strategies for a sustainable future. the goal to make use of potentials by academic research. tion respectively). main components and projects willIntroduction The assessment will reflect the an- by this top-down intervention and not define all elements, but identifyIn the evaluation part, the thesis swers of the proposed questions at the same time protect the city’s The part context research and analy- The strategy part is the most ex- and visualize the main ideas to re-will be summarized with the reflec- on how the thesis responds to the heart. sis explains the main elements in or- plorative as the exercise of visioning spond to the objective of the thesis.tions and recommendations. The aims. How the thesis relates to the der to have a better understanding concepts on different layers in orderassessments have been developed research questions stated at the The second part lies on a project of the context from the past shaping to create the desirable future. The The strategy management part isin two levels: first, the reflection of beginning of the process? What are framework by starting from theo- the existing urban form. It provides four strategies tackle with different evaluated the outcomes in relationthe process of the thesis (research), the recommendations that the con- ries. It provides a clear concept of a comprehension of city dynamics issues; mobility (to reorganize spa- to the top-down plan by the govern-and second, the assessment of the clusion suggests? both two dynamics (the MTS and showing opportunities and poten- tial network hierarchy and propose ment. Additionally, the managementresult of strategy. heritage), such as spatial network, tialities. The applied methodology multi modal mobility), public space strategy is defined in a way of bothAs mentioned before, the main aim Reflections TOD and mobility for the MTS. Liv- allows the author to explore each (to transform urban fragmentation short-term and long-term goals toof the thesis is to provide a syner- A significant part of the process is ing heritage and heritage tourism layer that structures the society on into coherent urban spaces), tour- coordinate with different stakehold-getic spatial vision for the MTS to the definition of the thesis plan, as are in line with the heritage related the following section from the em- ism (to promote cultural and herit- ers, which define a success of anintegrate with the historic core of described in the thesis, Bangkok is aspects. With a goal as urban vital- pirical research. age tourism with local benefits) and implementation of strategy.
84. 164 BKKs 8.2 CITY MODEL REVIEW 8.3 INTEGRATED ACTIONS MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 165Critiques on the government plan Since the construction of express- ment trends, this spatial and socio- Integrated actions lic spaces and community environ- D: LOCAL QUALITY IMPROVEDAlthough the project is subject to ways in decades, it had a great economic segregation will definitely A: EQUALITY OF MOBILITY ments will bring up social interaction Local neighborhood areas are char-fill in the gap and functions com- impact on the urban from of the take place again, when the city ex- The MTS increases connectivity of among different users from all social acterized by a fine-grained patternplimentarily in the same line with city. The elevated expressed ways pands the MTS throughout the city. the historic core to other areas within classes and multi use of spaces with an intimate characteristic suchthe government plan, it is crucial to concentrated in the city centre and Therefore, without any coordination the city. Besides, new connections through different time. Due to a as narrow streets with high flexibilitypoint out the shortcomings by the directly connected to the periphery between infrastructure and urban bring a lot of opportunities to get transformation of spatial barriers, of uses and flow of behaviour. Whentop-down plan in order to optimize areas, resulting in that real estate development, guidelines for the his- through this top-down intervention a good quality of living will be im- car becomes dominant in plan-mutual benefits of integration to- developments clustered around the toric core are highly needed to not more quickly and conveniently. This proved by new connectivity in terms ning ideas for roads development,wards sustainability of a synergetic exits supported by commercial ac- only preserve a high value and iden- infrastructure development gives of more convenient travel patterns, streets become unattractive for lo-vision. tivities and private residences. This tity from negative effects, but also a condition for accessibility, which social control, new mixed functions cal to use because of traffic flows or phenomenon creates sub-centre provide a sustainable plan to handle brings more people to the area and and accessible open spaces. not in a pedestrian friendly conditionInfrastructure aims to provide ac- areas around Bangkok called “The with this rapid change. for local dwellers to get to public such as unsafe and no designatedcessibility and connectivity to pub- Bangkok Model”(BMA, 2010) with a transport networks as well. With a C: SOCIO-CULTURAL IDENTITY spaces for them. The MTS devel-lic transport for all range of people. road network directly linking to the The question regarding on how in- completed service of public trans- To maintain identity of Bangkok his- opment offers an opportunity toUrban development aims to foster centre, facilitated commuters from tegration between infrastructure port system, collective mobility will toric core, it is very important to en- redesign and re profile potential pe-development to meet demands and rural areas to reach the city core by development and historic preser- reduce a number of private vehicles. hance vitality, localness and public destrian-oriented streets, which willavoid conflicts. private vehicles. It turned Bangkok vation planning will affect daily life Therefore roads will be downgraded awareness of the areas. An open facilitate local residents with comfort to be an absolute car based city of inhabitants? What kind of urban providing more space for pedestri- space network with water related and safety for pedestrians. To bringBased on Graham and Marvin since then. intervention can create synergy that ans. For the urban dimension, this activities has been rooted in Thai so- people back to the street, it results(2001), Bangkok is a market-ori- improves spatial quality? connectivity creates an opportunity ciety from time to time together with in street vitality with various activitiesented city, which makes an infra- With conditions of market oriented To give an answer, the crucial design to improve economic status that specific typologies along the river- stimulating interaction among resi-structure and urban development and car-based city, market interven- interventions that has been done in can respond to local demands and front. It brings a sense of historical dents and social surveillance, whichheavily dependent on each other ,in- tions introduced global facilities and the historic core on urban and infra- new development along transit cor- continuity. Taking an example, water is classified as a main character offluenced by the market, either lead- housing projects by taking advan- structure aspects are based on the ridor by taking those advantages tourism will enhance vitality along historic areas. As a result, quality ofing or following. To elaborate this tages of the proximity to the infra- strategy to both preserve the area from proximity to transit stops. the corridor contributing to develop- local environment will be enhancedconcept, relating to the city profile in structure development as well as it and improve living quality in the ment through the area. It will draw as well as vital streets can trigger ur-the third chapter, the expansion of already happened recently after the strategic location. The core objec- B: SOCIAL COHESION an attention from the government ban development with strong sensecity development goes along cru- first two lines of the MTS implemen- tives of the strategy will be elabo- Public space network designed in to develop the area. Local residents of belonging leading to bottom-upcial freight routes towards industrial tation. Consequently, while inacces- rated in the following part. the area will increase connectivity will benefit from new developments approaches.clusters surrounded by second and sible areas had low economic pro- and a number of accessible open in terms of living quality increasedthird cities. Even in the BMA scale, file, reachable and accessible areas spaces. It also provides an advan- and opportunities to transform theirthe economic corridor becomes by either mainly private or public tage for creating a new social and properties for economic purposesdominant in terms of city develop- transport make land price higher at- economic relationship. By creating like offering a home stay, service Illustration 8.3 showing the desirablement. Due to those facts, Bangkok tracted certain types of facilities with social housings and medium-in- functions, floating market, building model of the city by taking positive aspects from the top-down interventions plus theis structured as a mono-centric city. generic urbanity and soulless plac- come residences, new comers will maintenance and so on. This will Illustration 8.2 showing the probable mod- four proposed strategies, which invite lo- es (Richardson and Jensen 2008). el of the city without interventions being share the same social status and increase economic life of local resi- cal residents participation into the planing To sum up, according to develop- made in the historic core blend within the existing fabric. Pub- dents along the corridor. process. The negative effects from the government plan The effects of synergetic spatial vision Due to a lack of integration between not only urban and infrastructure development, but also The proposed strategies( illustrated in chapter five) create an integrated outcome, which plan- INFRASTRUCTURE URBAN global and local interventions, the unwilling consequences are INFRASTRUCTURE URBAN ners and decision makers can use as a design guideline, planning tools or common interest. DEVELOPMENT DEVELOPMENT DEVELOPMENT DEVELOPMENT 1. INEQUITY OF MOBILITY 1. EQUITY OF MOBILITYCity a. New mode of transport will facilitate specific social groups (for Bangkok case : elite class) City a. All social classes will be able to get on the public transport system b. Low profitable areas will get less public transport services, and number of private cars in- FILTER b. The gradient of development from transit corridors to local areas creased (Planning Tools & Design Guidelines) c. New functions will improve access and economic status regarding to demands c. Patch model is created and continue growing along transit corridor 2.SOCIAL COHESION Top-down plan + StrategiesDistrict 2.SOCIAL SEGREGATION District a. Accessible green spaces particularly to the West a.The gap between rich and poor expanded between transit corridor and existing urban tissue b. Public spaces stimulate social interaction b.Lacking of bottom-up interventions to involve local inhabitants c. Proposed building typologies are designed aiming to blend new comers and local residents c.It leads to less power and cannot participate in the process of decision making together by sharing the same social positionLocal 3.FRAGMENTED OPEN SPACE NETWORK Local 3.SOCIO-CULTURAL IDENTITY a. Environment deterioration through pollutions with a number of car increased a. Maintain historic value and social identity of living heritage b. Landscape degradation and invasion b. Keep physical form and local citizens historically continue c. Privatization of public open space by market-oriented development c. Improve local living quality of the riverside area 4. BUILT ENVIRONMENT 4. AN IMPROVEMENT OF LOCAL QUALITY a. Over production of urban built stocks a. Contribute to bottom-up development b. Over population from the countryside b. Stimulate social surveillance c. Imbalance profits distribution between market and local residents c. Create vital streets with pedestrian oriented conditions
85. 166 BKKs 8.4 POSSIBLE SIDE EFFECTS 8.5 RECOMMENDATIONS MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 167Possible side effects of the project Illustration 8.4 showing the Suan-Lum night bazaar, which was replaced by a huge de- Recommendations ConclusionsThis part aims to describe an uncer- partment store and high class condominiums, Source : http://www.chiangmainews. The MTS network of Bangkok needs The urban fabric of the city has atainty, affected the project. These co.th to be observed not only a solution disorganized street network. Differ-uncontrollable factors might rise to overcome automobile depend- ent strategies have to be developedduring the process of development. ency, but also to integrate to spatial in order to implement large –scalePossible side effects will trigger a configurations of the city. The poten- infrastructure projects (MTS). Thediscussion or a debate among re- tial of integration will create a more main problem of Bangkok’s transitsponsible parties in order to accom- compact city, which will transform and the city has a low integration onplish the objectives successfully. It fragmentations and at the same the micro scale between the two dy-can be done by a set of solutions time revitalize existing neighbor- namics. To realize this, the strategybased on a common interest, regu- hoods. Due to an uncertain future, should provide a balanced strategiclation or other forms of control sys- the project has been made flexibly framework on both urban and infra-tems. In the project, they are three in terms of implementation. Be- structure aspects together with anrelevant issues regarding former sides, it is important that all kinds of in-depth research before interven-problems happened to Bangkok. people can benefit from the project. ing. On the infrastructure aspect, Collaboration between designers, the opportunity of equity of mobility1. A strong influence by the market planner, market and politicians are must be created. On the urban as-leading to gentrification (see illustra- crucial as well as local participation. pect, spatial organizations need totion 8.4) The evaluation of the results allows be reorganized to meet demands observing a package of recommen- for development and avoid conflicts2. Without cooperating, bottom up dations that have been consideredinterventions might not succeed as as being essential to the strategy. Allexpected (see illustration 8.5) of them lead to a construction of the Illustration 8.7 showing the transferable desirable future for Bangkok, which disciplines to similar projects dealing with a crash in exploded scale of spatial devel-3. Effects by a boost of tourism(see allows vulnerable groups to benefit opment and a conflict between global andillustration 8.6) from it. local levelAs aforementioned, Bangkok isclassified market oriented. In thehistoric core, cultural value and TRANSFERABLE DISCIPLINESidentity have been maintained by SUSTAINABLE MOBILITYlocal people from time to time. How- : to provide a large choices of transport modes, affordable and convenient transitever, when the market becomes : to increase accessibility by new connections and public transportmore dominant, the areas may start : to reduce car dependency and traffic congestion as consequential outcomesto be gentrified, which develops to- : to reduce environmental impact Illustration 8.5 showing a traditional commercial district (hundreds year old);Nakornwards economic issues rather than Kasem. It narrates a failure of bottom-up intervention when the state is not willing to : to redefine social and spatial fragmentationtry to preserve them. Consequently, preserve. Without a cooperation among stakeholers, the market intervened in this dis-bottom up process with local par- trict leading to a lost of living heritage, Source : http://www.prachachat.net OPEN SPACE NETWORKticipation is hard to achieve, if the : to create accessible greens to increase a quantity of green per personsocial structure has not been main- : to improve living quality of local residentstained. In other words, local citizens : to integrate open space into a networkmight not be able or interested toproactively engage in the creation of SUSTAINABLE TOURISMtheir cities. The other external factor : to provide cultural and heritage tourism with local benefitsis negative influences from tourism.These widely threats can be seen URBAN INTEGRATIONvia an enclave tourism area and an : to strengthen an economic growth through the integration of urban areasincrease of land price leading to an : to shorten commuting pattern and travelling time through land use planning and zoning regulationunaffordable condition for local resi-dents. Finally, it becomes artificial, EFFICIENT LAND MANAGEMENTwhich results from no longer local : to allocate land stocks reserved and the land value for the future based on the objectivesdwellers living in the areas. GOOD GOVERNANCE : to rebalance structure of governance in order to facilitate and support the process of spatial planning : to manage and distribute resources efficiently and allow all stakeholders to get reasonable benefits POLYCENTRIC CITY Illustration 8.5 showing the atmosphere of Khaosan Road, which has turned to be tourist : to transform dependent and independent areas into a complementary relation between the core and sub centres oriented development for decades resulting in an increase in land price and no longer lo- with an improvement of infrastructure and urban development cal residents living in this historic district, Source : http://www.siamvision.com : to reinforce sub centres to promote identity and integration of urban areas
86. 168 BKKs 8.2 BIBLIOGRAPHY MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 169LITERATURE Department of City Planning Bang- Marcuse, P ‘Dual City’: a muddy . Spit, L. & Bertolini T. (1998), Cities WEBSITESAppleyard, D. (1979), The conserva- kok Metropolitan Administrator, metaphor for a quartered city, In- on rails: the redevelopment of rail- Bangkok Expressway Co. Ltd.:tion of European cities, Massachu- Bangkok Comprehensive Plan. ternational Journal of Urban and way station areas, London, E & FN www.becl.co.thsets, The MIT Press. Available from: <http://cpd.bang- Regional Research, vol. 13, pp. Spon Bangkok Mass Transit System Co. kok.go.th/default.asp>. [10 Octo- 697–708. Ltd.: www.bts.co.thAskew, M. (1994), Interpreting ber]. Steinberg, F. (1996), Conservation Bangkok Metropolitan Administra-Bangkok, Bangkok, Chulalongkorn Mcgrath, B. (2005), Bangkok’s CSD, and Rehabilitation of Urban Herit- tion: www.bangkok.go.thUniversity Press. Graham, S & Marvin, S. (2001), 306090 Regarding Public Space, age in Developing Countries, Habi- Bangkok Tourism division. :www. Splinter Urbanism, London and vol. 9, pp. 46-53. tat INTL, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 463-475. bangkoktourist.comAskew, M. (2002), Bangkok Place, New York, Routledge. Department of City Planning, BMA:Practice and Representation, Lon- Montgomery, J. (1998), Making a Tasaka, T. (1998), Asia no Daitoshi www.bma-cpd.go.thdon and Newyork. Routledge. Graham, S & Marvin, S. (2008), city: Urbanity, vitality and urban de- 1, Nihon Hyouronsya, Tokyo.The In- Department of Traffic and Transpor- Splintering Urbanism: Networked sign, Journal of Urban Design, vol. stitute for Economic Research (IER) tation, BMA: www.otp.go.thAtipothi, K. (2010), Bangkok China- Infrastructures, Technological Mo- 3, no. 1, pp. 93-116. 1989, Sekai no Daitoshi, University Mass Rapid Transit Authority oftown World Heritage. Available from: bilities, and the Urban Condition, of Tokyo Press, Tokyo. Thailand: www.mrta.co.th<http://www.arsomsilp.ac.th/>. Annals of the Association of Ameri- Poboon, C. (1997), Anatomy of a Natural and Cultural Environmental can Geographers, vol. 93, no. 1, pp. Traffic Disaster: Towards a Sustaina- Urry, J. (2004) Social engineering: Conservation: www2.onep.go.thBalbo, M. (1993), Urban Planning 246-247. ble Solution to Bangkok’s Transport responding to Ken Livingstone. Office of the National Economic andand the Fragmented City of Devel- Problems, Murdoch. Planning Theory and Practice, vol. Social Development Board: www.oping Countries, Third World Plan- Hara, Y, Thaitakoo, D & Takeuchi, K. 5, no. 4, pp. 506–509. nesdb.go.thning Review, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. (2008), Landform Transformation on Pont, M. B. & Haupt, P (2010), .23–35. the Urban Fringe of Bangkok: The Spacematrix: Space, Density and Urry, J. (2007) Mobilities. Cam- need to review land-use planning Urban Form, Rotterdam, Nai Pub- bridge: Polity Press.Browder, JO, Bohland, JR & Scar- processes with consideration of the lishers.paci, JL. (1995), Patterns of Devel- flow of fill materials to developing Warren, W. (2002), Bangkok, Reak-opment on Metropolitan Fringe: Ur- areas, Journal of Landscape and Read, S. (2001), Neighbourhood tion Booksban Fringe Expansion in Bangkok, Urban Planning, vol. 84, pp. 74-91. Spatial Processes: Notes on Pub-Jakarta and Santiago, Journal of the lic Space, ‘Thick’ Space, Scale and Webster, D. (2000), Financing City-American Planning Association, vol. Jacobs, M. (2000), Multinodal Ur- Centrality, Faculty of Architecture, Building: The Bangkok Case, Stan-61:3, pp. 310-327. ban Structure: A comparative analy- Delft University of Technology. ford, CA: Walter H. Shorenstein sis and strategies for design, Delft, Asia-Pacific Research Center, Stan-Campbell, S. (1996), Green Cities, Delft University Press. Richardson, T. & Jensen O. B. ford University.Growing Cities, Just Cities? Urban (2008), How Mobility Systems Pro-planning and the contradictions of Jenks, M. (2003), Above and below duce Inequality: Making Mobile Whyte, W.H. (1980), The Social Lifesustainable development, Journal the line: Globalization and urban Subject Types on the Bangkok Sky of Small Urban Space, Washingtonof the American Planning Associa- form in Bangkok, The Annals of Re- Train, Built Environment, vol. 34, D.C.: Conservation Foundation.tion, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 296-312. gional Science, no. 37, pp. 547-557. no.2, pp. 218-231. Williams, A, Robles, E & Dourish, P.Central Intelligence Agency(CIA), Kanjanapanyakom, R. (2010), MIM: Rodwell, D (2008), Conservation (2009), Urbane-ing the City: Exam-The World Factbook, 2011. Available Micro Informal Mobility, Master the- and Sustainability in Historic Cities, ing and Refining the Assumptionsfrom: <https://www.cia.gov/library/ sis, Delft University of Technology. Wiley-Blackwell. behind Urban Informatics, Newpublications/the-world-factbook/>. York, Information Science Refer- Karpati, TH. (2008), Management of Rongwiriyaphanich, S. (2011), Shift- ence, IGI Global.Choiejit, R & Teungfung, R. (2005), World Heritage Sites, VDM Verlag. ing Paradigms of the Territorial Or-Urban Growth and Commuting Pat- ganization in the Bangkok Metropol- Yantrasast, K 1995, Bangkok’s Wa-terns of the Poor in Bangkok, Srina- Kempen, ETv. (1993), The Dual City itan Region: Impacts on form and ter Logic: A study on the phenome-kharinwirot University, SWU. Raja- and the Poor: Social Polarisation, speed of change in land utilization, non of water and urban transforma-mangala Institute of Techonology, Social Segregation and Life Chanc- Urbanism PHD research 2009-2013. tion, The university of Tokyo.RIT. es, Journal of Urban Studies, vol. 31, no. 7, pp. 995-1015. Sintusingha, S. (2006), Sustain-Clark, T.N. (2003), The City as an ability and Urban Sprawl: AlternativeEntertainment Machine, Oxford, El- Kishiue, A, Cal, PC, Amano, K & screnarios for a Bangkok super-sevier. Lidasan, HS. (2005), The Leading block, Urban Design International, Factors for the Urban Development vol. 11, pp. 151-172.Davies, W.K.D. & Herbert, D. T. in Asian Context: Case Studies of(1993), Communities with cities, An Makati, Cebu, Taipei and Bangkok, Smith, N. (1996), The new urbanurban social geography, London, Journal of the Eastern Asia Society frontier: Gentrification and revan-Belhaven Press. for Transportation Studies, vol. 6, chist city, New York, Routledge. pp. 4300-4316.