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  1. 1. SYNERGY Tridti Patarakiatsan Master Thesis Department of Urbanism Faculty of Architecture
  3. 3. 2 BKKs COLOPHON MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 3 BANGKOK SYNERGY A synergetic spatial vision to preserve Bangkok heritage, integrated with rapid mass transit system Master Thesis Tridti Patarakiatsan Student ID 4120086 Graduation Studio Complex cities Department of Urbanism Faculty of Architecture Delft University of Technology Delft, the Netherlands, 2012 Mentor Team Dr. Lei Qu Chair of Spatial Planning and StrategyIn support of: MSC3 Urbanism L.Qu@tudelft.nlResearch& Design Methods (AR3U011), Theory of Urbanism (AR3U022), Graduation Lab (AR3U030) Ir. Willem HermansAll of the visual information presented in this document has been collected from the sources listed below the items and reproduced by the author. Chair of Urban DesignWhen there is no source indicated, the authorship belongs to the author of this thesis.
  4. 4. 4 BKKs FORWARD MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 5 DEVELOPMENT THAT PEOPLE MATTER “The nature and shape of the future urban world is complex. Large and complex as it is, this is the arena where spatial plan- ners and designers should contribute to with their understand- ing of the way urban space is produced. It is their task to for- mulate tools and strategies to intervene and organize space in order to mediate disparate interests. ” (Complex cities studio guidebook 2011) For decades, city plans of Bangkok have been the preroga- tive of a few influential interest groups. Interests of the middle to upper class and more powerful groups have been protects and carelessly neglected the needs and interests of the low- er- income majority or other vulnerable groups, particularly those who live in unprofitable areas. The consequences of this approach can be seen in places, where a high propor- tion of population live in isolated areas lacking provision for basic infrastructure and services. In other words, when the city prioritizes global development towards efficiency and at- tractiveness, this exclusive approach results in segregation and fragmentation on the local level. Without being integrated to the urban tissue, this undesirable truth has triggered the author’s interest in seeking for the way to change the paradigm in which local level especially the vulnerable groups will also be able to participate and benefit from global interventions by the government. Therefore, it is very significant to promote urban vitality that enhances not only their living quality, but also economic viability and social cohesion. Thanks to the mass transit system (MTS) expansion plan of Bangkok launched by the government in last few years, the hypothesis of integrating global (infrastructure) into local dimensions (urban tissue) will be experimented. The thesis starts with a serious problem of the city brought by the MTS (elevated level) implemented on a fragmented and unorgan- Due to the limitation of the study time at TU Delft, a year of the ized urban spatial structure (ground level) of the city due to graduation project has been come to a close. However, the a rapid urbanization. Without any coordination to urban de- author and the mentor team hope the thesis project, Bangkok velopment, when the market begins to intervene, losers are Synergy, is a starting point to change the way of thinking in local residents seen via gentrification, segregation and ineq- planning between global - local dimensions and urban and uity. However, in accordance to the expansion plan, it covers infrastructure development especially in Bangkok or other the historic core of the city, which is crucially needed to be similar developing countries. With a support by the gradua- preserved. This is a high time to reconsider and integrate not tion lab “complex cities”, the report consists of both research only global and local planning, but also urban and infrastruc- and design process. It deals with a challenge of complexity ture development towards sustainability. and uncertainty in planning and seeks for an opportunity to test the hypothesis, in this case is integration between the By planning for local inhabitants, the inclusive approach aims MTS network expansion and the historic core of Bangkok. to prepare for the undeniable infrastructure development to meet local demands and basic services before it comes and By sharing my discovery, this project is just a start of a new to make use of it when it finishes to improve spatial quality way of thinking. The author hopes if the project helps shaping and to enhance socio-cultural dimensions together with eco- the society more or less, the thesis has already accomplished nomic conditions. To conclude, the author will focus on the its mission. Lastly, wish readers enjoy reading this book and local level and search for an appropriate linkage with the glo- inspire readers to contribute positively to your own city too. bal planning by using the MTS network expansion and the historic core of Bangkok as the study case. Tridti Patarakiatsan 17-06-2012
  5. 5. 6 BKKs THESIS STRUCTURE MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 7 CONTENT 1. Motivation 10 1. Case study 88 01 05 2. Principles and objectives 12 2. Infrastructural network 90 3. Problem statement 13 3. Natural network 98 4. Aim 14 4. Tourist industries 101 5. Research questions 15 5. Human network 104 6. Relevance 16 6. Effect 108 INTRODUCTION AND 7. Methodology 17 7. Conclusion 110 PROBLEM FIELD STRATEGY 8. Time working plan 22 1. Theories related the MTS 27 1. Projects inventory 114 02 06 2. Theories related heritage 31 2. The station area 116 3. Urban vitality indicators 38 3. Transformed open space 126 4. Conclusion 40 4. The riverside areas 134 5. Bibliography for the theory part 41 5. Local connections 142 THEORETICAL RESEARCH STRATEGIC PROJECTS 1. City profile 46 1. Evaluation 152 03 07 2. Historic development 52 2. Governance structure 154 3. Infrastructure development 57 3. Phasing 156 4. Planning system 58 4. Stakeholders 157 5. Relation of two dynamics 60 5. Urban rules 158 6. A change in transport means 61 CONTEXT RESEARCH MANAGEMENT 7. Gentrification by the MTS 62 AND ANALYSIS STRATEGY 8. Conclusion 64 1. Selection criteria 70 1. Evaluation 162 04 08 2. The strategic location 76 2. City model review 164 3. Spatial network fragmentation 78 3. Integrated actions 165 4. From orchards to barriers 79 4. Possible side effects 166 5. A limitation of local movement 80 5. Recommendations 167 6. Conclusion 81 6. Bibliography 168 EMPIRICAL RESEARCH REFLECTION
  7. 7. 10 BKKs 1.1 MOTIVATION MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 11Mode of transportation : the rail transport system The threat of historic areasNowadays, in the rapid urbanized period, the develop- A historic city has organically developed through sev-ment of the rail transport network, stations and transit eral decades. Their physical conditions are composednodes become a crucial strategy to develop city areas. by fine-grains in terms of small plot sizes, passagewaysTo make it function effectively, the rail transport should and the connection to local economic areas. The charac-be accessed easily. Particularly, it should be possible to ter and identity of historic areas will change dramaticallyget to by multi- modes of transport, such as, by car, bus from the past when new mode of transport has beenor walk. At the same time, the service facilities should implemented. Although, a number of optional modesbe provided, i.e., parking spaces and sub public trans- of transport will increase to serve modern needs, suchport stations (APA, 2006). Moreover, the development as new functions, the rapid change might negatively af-also magnets new activities into the areas, such as, new fect old living patterns and activities leading to a lostfunctions, people and so on. The consequence is that in “place” ( Bertolini and Spit, 1998). The most explicitthe role of the areas would be redefined. New infrastruc- structure is local streets (see illustration 2). In the past,tures developments would be created in order to serve it functions responding to small areas, but when the ac-those activities, which make the areas livelier as Berto- cessibility has improved, it has to serve an increasinglini and Spit name the station as place (1998). However, number of traffic as well. Consequently, when the size isthe way city build the rail transport is limited by space, not in a proportion with demands, which requires moreparticularly in the case of elevated rail tracks leading to spaces, it causes an expropriation in areas both alongnegative effects to the nearby areas (see illustration 1). local roads ,connecting to stations, and around stationsThe character of Bangkok is that it was planned on the (transit area services).elevated level, plugging in to global functions like de-partment stores and high class hotels and disengage tothe lower world functionally and physically. Illustration 1.3 the plan for the mass transit system expansion of Bangkok in 2030 (the officially preserved area of Bangkok is in the light green color) ,Source : Conflicts under the inevitable infrastructure expansion many theories about problems of scale and rapid devel- Many cities conceptualize the idea to develop the rail opment in that it causes spatial fragmentation (Graham, system to create a node and, at the same time, still Marvin 2008) and can tear the city apart (Read 2001),Illustration 1.1 the current condition of rail transport in Bangkok, Thailand,Source : maintain “place” for the areas. Bertolini and Spit add as with this rapid development, if we do not do it properly, it the renewal of existing fabric with a reason to deal with will be more likely to harm than benefit. future demands with the notion of Transit- Oriented De- However, it also provides a crucial opportunity and a big velopment (TOD). However, the historic areas are not on challenge to create a more sustainable transport mode, the list. Generally, TOD or the station plaza is applied in and at the same time, to prevent negative effects to the suburb or redeveloped areas. historic core of the city. In the case of Bangkok, the capital city of Thailand, especially, the rail systems are built on the upper level through urban communities. In particular, in 2030, gov- ernment have already planned for the elevated rapid mass transit system (MTS) throughout the city, which will definitely cross the historic core of the city (see illustra- tion 1.3). Although the MTS plan has been announced, there is no in-depth research on how this big infrastructure plan will affect the vitality of the city, particularly historic areas, where their economic status and quality of life are low. The MTS, currently, could solve traffic problem, but there is still lacking of integration between MTS and urban fab-Illustration1 .2 the current condition of local streets in Bangkok, Thailand ,Source : ric. As we have learnt a lot from the past experiences and
  8. 8. 12 BKKs 1.2 PRINCIPLES AND OBJECTIVES 1.3 PROBLEM STATEMENT MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 13The symbiotic relationship between The relation with Urbanism in order to preserve and maintain its The historic core of Bangkok, Thai- strong enough in the decision-mak-MTS and heritage described in the The problem definition demon- value. The last reason is that many land, has been developing through ing process (the Bangkok case), itprevious section is the backbone of strates an amount of urban-related studies usually focus on either TOD the history for more than a hundred can cause an intended economicthis thesis. From the MTS perspec- dimensions. The issues of planning or heritage itself. The conservation year. From the government vision, eviction to the local living in the his-tive, it requires a supporting net- for heritage places and a transit- model mostly put more efforts on an however, in 2030, the expansion of toric to integrate with other means oriented development can be a city area with a potential for economic the MTS will go throughout the city, All of the three aspects lead to spa-of public transportation. While the scale thinking. Moreover, the world- exploitation and leave the locally un- which will pass the historic core of tial fragmentation and a decay ineconomic position of nearby areas wide sustainability movement has listed area away. (Steinberg 1996). the city (see illustration 1.4). To im- heritage places in terms of socio-has to be improved by making use created the new developments in a Thus, this research deals with inte- pose the MTS on the historic core, economic dimensions, historic val-of an easily accessible rail trans- more compact way. It is a way to do gration of the two aspects on the negative consequences will occur ues and cultural identities. Besides,port network. From the historic area historic revitalization in order to re- local scale. Relating to Urbanism, to local people in the heritage sites these phenomena can make Bang-perspective, the long- time historic sponse to the urbanization process. those three aspects require spa- as it happened after the city built two kok become just a generic city. Thevalues and cultural identity will With a global force, the issues go tial interventions that can influence lines of the MTS in 1999, which are MTS spreads generic urbanity as itmaintain. Furthermore, the heritage broadly to a regional scale. There positively socioeconomic structure secession, confliction and displace- scatters soulless places(Richardsonplaces would contribute to urban are many reports about planning on the local level. ment. In the case of secession, it & Jensen 2008). The sustainable at-vitality in terms of socioeconomic for TOD at the regional scale by the takes place when the new develop- tention is not about to go against thedimensions to guarantee that they centre for transit oriented develop- ment is not oriented towards local- new developments following fromcan still last and continue. ment and many government docu- ity, such as gated communities and the MTS, but to search for how to ments. For the heritage, it draws condominiums that causes chang- protect the repeated-negative con-Relating to the hypotheses men- an attention in a global scale from es in the traditional community life. sequences from the MTS and maketioned before, the symbiosis rela- many international organizations, The second reason is confliction use of it. To conclude, with a low in-tionship, and the general objectives such as UNECSCO, ICOMOS and in different ways of uses of space tegration between urban fabric andare demonstrated. so on. However, this thesis will not between formers and new comers, the MTS, when the infrastructure de-1.We have to generate mutual ben- do like that. stemming from, such as, a differ- velopment has been implementedefits to the both sides, heritage and ent perception, background and on the historic core, it results in frag-the new development, when they This thesis will focus on the district comprehension. The worst case is mentations, a lost in urban vitalitymeet. and local-scale option, particularly displacement. When the market is and stimulates social segregation.2.We have to mediate the conflicts on the living heritage areas, in whichbetween the two as well. local people have been using them3.We have to transform current spa- from the past until nowadays, not 2012tial fragmentation into coherent ur- on legally registered city’s heritage.ban space. The objective is to help them survive4.All of the objectives have to cope and make use of consequences ofwith the uncertainty of the future the infrastructure expansion.and develop towards a sustainable The interest of the author is mademanner. by three reasons. The infrastructure expansions can enormously change the existing urban fabric. These change offer opportunities to rede- fine the role of the city and its spa- tial strategy leading to sustainability. The second reason lies on the spa- tial implications of the heritage issue 2030 Illustration 1.4 the diagram showing project position which takes a stand on the Illustration 1.5 the map showing the cur- district and local scale, combined with the rent MTS and in 2030 which will pass the government plan. Finally, it creates an in- historic core comparing with the existing tegration for Bangkok in 2030. condition.
  9. 9. 14 BKKs 1.4 AIM 1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 15 Mutual benefit and sustainable ap-proach posal and help strengthening the local economic and social viability. How to preserve the existing historic core ofThe aim of the project is to propose Eventually, the synergetic spatial vi-a strategy for the historic areas ofBangkok while integrating it with the sion will fill in the gap from the gov- ernment plan and provide a solution Bangkok when the mass transit system imple-expansion of MTS. The future vision to solve this widespread problem ofof the project does not replace theold with the new developments, but the city and work as a pilot project reflecting on the improvement of mentation, at the same time enhancing socialtakes a stand on that both process- urban form, socioeconomic issueses have their own dynamics. Thus,the strategy would combine two de- within a sustainable manner(see il- lustration 1.6) cohesion and economic viability?velopments and create a vision thatthe two are complementing eachother. For the historic areas, theheritages need to be preserved andgiven a framework towards socialand economic sustainability. Theoptimise uses of MTS to link uncon-nected areas and to create better liv-ing environment with improved pub- What kind of the strategic plan and spatial in-lic amenities would be proposed. Interms of the new development, newcomers will benefit from the pro- Illustration 1.6 a sustainable model from triple P to Quadruple P (Duijvestein 2008) terventions can be applied on the historic core of Bangkok in order to deal with potentials of spatial quality improvement and integrate it with the MTS in 2030? Fact Consequence OpportunitiesIdentityHistoric value Due to Bangkok has been formed In order to be able to understand the key elements of the main research by a market led development; an in- question, six sub research question need to be formulated. tervention usually is made from the 1. What are benefits and conflicts of the combination of historic and new top-down level, which always gives developments? a priority to infrastructure develop- 2. What is the collective network of these two developments? (to define: what ment. The integrated approach is kind of co-using spaces and sharing functions? Which corridors need to beSocial status missing in a connection with the strengthened?) existing urban form. Therefore, the 3. What are strategies for urban heritage conservation in relation with the research questions arise from soci- infrastructure expansion? oeconomic and spatial dimensions. 4. What is the role of the heritage places in 2030, when the mass transit This integrated model, between old comes?Economic status and new developments, creates two 5. What kind of spatial design tools are able to integrate physical linkages challenges. The first challenge is to between the heritage and new development in a sustainable way? exploit the new development by the 6. How to transform the heritage sites towards socioeconomic viability ? MTS towards sustainability. The sec- ond challenge is how to protect liv- ing heritage from the negative result. The aim is to achieve them both.Illustration 1.7 an approach summarized from the current conditions of Bangkok
  10. 10. 16 BKKs 1.6 RELEVANCE 1.7 METHODOLOGY MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 17Ethical Problems Societal relevance Scientific Relevance The selection of the study case and the limitation of theThe problem related to ethical is- The relevance of the thesis lies in This research will reflect on aca- researchsues arises in two cases. In heritage the fact that we have to deal with demic debates on the spatial inter- The historic core of Bangkok is chosen as the study case.sites,the first is the limitation of con- societal challenges of the current vention and strategic planning for Thailand is one of the developing countries in Asia thatservation areas, “enclave tourism” condition of Bangkok to prepare both the rail transport expansion is facing the spatial and socio-economic transformation.(Healy 1992). It occurs when the a solution when the MTS meets and heritage conservation planning. It displays characters of urban problems in developingtype and location of facilities are not the historic core. Nowadays, there In academic field, many researches countries, which are facing with negative consequencesoriented towards locality. As a re- is a demand from local people to have been done to sustainably pre- from the infrastructure development, such as interven-sult, money will not benefit the local protect their communities from the serve heritage. However in the de- tions from the market and infrastructure breakdowns oneconomy. This leads to an increase market that wants to develop the veloping countries, when market a local level, urban planning and governance failure. Al-inflationary pressure on local econ- areas around the MTS. However, becomes more dominant, preserva- though the city has been developing for hundreds years,omy. Price of land, products are the market also can financially sup- tion plans cannot be enacted suc- it still does not plan to coordinate and integrate betweenneither affordable nor responsive to port the existing area by improving cessfully as plans. Besides, to as- infrastructure and urban development.local needs .It leads to a loss of sov- connectivity, public amenities and sure positive results, this research The city of Bangkok has many heritage and high historicereignty for locals, which translates, living quality. For that reason, this contributes to urban vitality, which, value. A number of local people and traditional commu-into loss of control in decision-mak- research tackles with the general- in this case, is an integration of liv- nities still live in the historic core of the city. The researching and benefits. Every area is differ- unsolved problem of Bangkok. It ing heritage and the MTS as a main recognizes the different types of heritage that the cityent so that it will experience uneven provides an integrated approach, component. Based on the different has. Due to its complexity and character individuality,distribution in conservation efforts. which works as a pilot project, in or- context of each city, another contri- a different type of heritage sites deserves a specific ap-The outsider gains less favours and der to generate mutual benefits and bution of this thesis will stimulate a proach, which suits their situation.will see a rise in economic decay minimize social problems of the city. new approach to other cities to re- The thesis focuses on the producing a set of strategyand fabric deterioration, while fo- think and search for a new way to and recommendation that will be able to help plannercused areas receive priority aids. preserve its heritage to cope with an and decision makers to tackle with the MTS in the his-The second reason is observed urbanization process. toric core. The result also paves the way to an integratedin the style of approaching areas. strategy to different individual case of heritage site. How-From the policy level, it usually ever, the research will focus on only one types of herit-takes action on improving physical age, living heritage, to be demonstrated in the thesis.projects rather than social and eco- By narrowing down to only one case, the author can donomic dimension of the areas. From analysis in detail and deeper levels.the past experiences of Bangkok,when the city faces with new infra- The research focuses on the case of living heritage thatstructure development, the project will face with the MTS expansion based on certain rea-generally gives priority to land devel- sons.opment and new construction ratherthan the conservation of the existing 1. Living heritage, in the historic places, contain-historic communities. Therefore, this ing historic value, is still in use, has a certain degree ofthesis aims to not only create mu- maturity as a social, cultural and economic entity. It pos-tual benefits two new development sesses certain qualities that best signify the dynamics ofand heritage places, but also try to characters of the historic core.mediate negative effects to locals,such as an expropriation and gen- 2. Living heritage settles heavily along the formertrification. mode of transportation, mainly water, and usually close to new development areas, mostly high-rise and a gate community. It is an example of urban polarization of the city. With its historic value, it is a challenge by the con- temporary economic pressure by the market interests came with the MTS. 3. The configuration of function reflects the type of activities, which are commonly found in every old dis- tricts of the city, characterized by a large percentage of economic activities run by informal sectors. 4. Living heritage is not protected by laws as of- ficially registered ones. Besides, in the area itself, it stillImages showing recent social protestsagainst an expropriation,resulting from has traditional characters like low income, high density,interventions by the market, influenced and lack of accessibility to public amenities. The thesisby the MTS expansion, which invaded into aims at seeking for a sustainable way to develop the liv-traditional commercial communities in ing heritage of the city.2011, Source :
  11. 11. 18 BKKs 1.7 METHODOLOGY MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 19The method of empirical research Products among the other sectors, the sce-The research model is created in -Theoretical underpins for the as- nario will be set up based on the Main research questionsa relation to the research ques- pect related to the issue possible conditions between the Research Designtion. Various steps of the research -A historic overview for the city of market and conservation planning.model contribute to the challenges Bangkok By dividing into two scenarios, the How to preserve the existing historic core of Bangkok What kind of the strategic plan and spatial interventionsfrom research questions. The first -Developing criteria for choosing first one is extreme case, while the when the mass transit system implementation, at the can be applied on the historic core of Bangkok in order tostep represents the research part of strategic locations second is the moderate case. same time enhancing social cohesion and economic deal with potentials of spatial quality improvement andthe thesis. It consists of three inde- Methods viability? integrate it with the MTS in 2030?pendent parts and the results will be MAPPING THE CURRENT CONDI- -Case study of the car based citiescombined in order to design in the TION ON THE LIVING HERITAGE IN in order to know the possible strat-design phase later on. THE HISTORIC CORE OF THE CITY egy to be applied to BangkokThe design phrase will start from the The second part of the research will -Literature review Sub research questionssub research question four to six by study the existing conditions of the -Research by designproposing spatial intervention for two fields. From the heritage field, it Products What are benefits What are strategies What is the collec- What is the role of What kind of spatial How to transformthe living heritage in the area of his- will study on the local network of the -Vision and Strategies base on prob- and conflicts of the for urban heritage tive network of the heritage places design tools are the heritage sitestoric core of the city of Bangkok. The core, which needs to be kept and able scenarios combination of conservation in these two develop- in 2030, when the able to integrate towards socio-research model contains four sepa- enhanced in terms of spatial, eco- historic and new relation with the ments? mass transit physical linkages economic viability?rate parts to be explained, but the nomic and social dimensions. The AN INTEGRATED PLAN BETWEEN developments? infrastructure comes? between thetime phrasing will overlap. The rela- second one is from the MTS. It will HERITAGE AND THE MTS expansion? heritage and new development in ation and design phrase is not one- link to the first field in term of opti- Based on previous research, a de- sustainable way?way direction, but it is woven and mise uses and minimized unwanted sign will be created for the projectcan be changed over research(see results of the MTS. The thesis pro- area. The design will redefine theillustration 1.8). However, time vides a synergetic vision for 2030, role of heritage places in 2030 and Resultschedule will be explained later on. so a review on their potentials is improve the current situation to- The relationship Mapping the Possible scenarios An integrated plan between heritage and the MTS necessary. The result will build an wards the long-term development. between the urban current condition in the relation of approach to deal with the project The aim is to make use of the MTS development and on the living the two develop-A COMPREHENSION: THE RE- and design tools in the design pe- and its consequence and maintain infrastructure heritage in the mentsLATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE UR- riod. the historic value of the city and cur- expansions of historic core of theBAN DEVELOPMENT AND INFRA- Bangkok. city Methods rent fragmentations solved. The re-STRUCTURE EXPANSIONS OF -Mapping on current social, eco- sult of this thesis can be seen via aBANGKOK. nomic and spatial condition design on spatial intervention on the The first part of research will focus -Interview local residents in order local scale as a pilot project that willon the relation between the two de- to know the local network and how create a sustainable future.velopments. It describes the issues they use space Methodsfrom the history, because it will give Outcome -Space syntax in order to discover -Drawinga better understanding as they are An overview on Context research Vision Strategy Design tools Design criteria spatial condition and level of inte- -Design researchcurrently. The historic development History and theory Case study gration of the city and the area -Mappingwill be analysed since the city has -GIS to analyse and calculate data -Visualizationsformed as the capital city in a form and statistic Productsof maps. Another reason is to know Products -Specific intervention proposalsthe benefits, conflicts and driving -An understanding on the MTS im- based on the toolbox and criteria Interventionforces which already happened, pact -Integration of the existing situationand at the same time where has a -An overview on the existing social, of the historic core with the MTS tohigh chance to be preserved and An integrated model for Bangkok in 2030 economic and spatial issue of the create mutual benefitsthe risky one to be destructed. In living heritage expressed in built en- -Master plan for the arearelation to the design phrase, the vironmentpurposed intervention will be done -A toolbox that can be used in thein terms of living heritage conserva- design phasetion, which is necessary to antici-pate threats and potentialities. POSSIBLE SCENARIOS IN THE RE-Methods LATION OF THE TWO DEVELOP-A review through the history in a re- MENTSlation between the urban and infra- The purpose of this part is to searchstructure development, and at the for successful strategies that cansame time searching for the conse- apply to the city of Bangkok. Be-quence of the current MTS after an sides the MTS takes twenty yearsimplementation in 1999 to function, 2030, which the situa--Literature review tion can changes. Particularly, in the-Mapping city that the market is most powerful-Historic research Illustration 1.8 am empirical research model
  12. 12. 20 BKKs 1.7 METHODOLOGY MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 21 Target location Topic LITERATURE STUDY DESIGN The historic core of The mass transit expansion Target location Topic Bangkok, Thailand and heritage conservation LITERATURE STUDY DESIGN The historic core of The mass transit expansion Literature study Site analysis The historic core of Bangkok Scale Bangkok, Thailand and heritage conservation Literature study Site analysis The historic core of Bangkok Scale The role, potential and general Future role, potential and unique City identity of the infrastructure Problem statement expansion and heritage consear- identities of Bangkok scale The role, potential and general vation City Confliction between new and traditional developments identity of the infrastructure Future role, potential and unique Problem statement expansion and heritage consear- identities of Bangkok scale vation Confliction between new and traditional developments Literature review Mapping in order to know A vision for an integration 1.MTS current conditions of the city between the MTS and historic Objective a. Network city 1. Urban development areas Literature review b. Mobility Mapping in order to know Government A vision for an integration 2. vision A synergetic vision, integrated the MTS with heritage conservation 1.MTS current conditions of the3. Spatial condition; infrastruc- and historic city between the MTS Objective a. Network city c. TOD 1. Urban development ture, open space areas 2. Heritage b. Mobility a. Conservation 2. Government vision 4. Economic status A synergetic vision, integrated the MTS with heritage conservation c. TOD b. Heritage tourismSpatial condition; infrastruc- dimension; population, 3. 5. Social 2. Heritage c. urban vitality ture, open space density Research question a. Conservation 4. Economic status 3. Historical research 6. Land use b. Heritage tourism a. Urban development dimension; population, 5. Social c. urban vitality b. Planning systemdensity Research question 3. Historical research 6. Land use c. Infrastructure development a. Urban development b. Planning system Theoretical framework Empirical framework c. Infrastructure development Theoretical framework Empirical framework The role, potential and general Analysis on urban condition of the District identity of the infrastructure scale historic core of Bangkok expansion and heritage consear- City scale The role, potential and general vation Analysis on urban condition of the District identity of the infrastructure scale historic core of Bangkok Historial analysis expansion and heritage consear- City scale vation Literature review Mapping Hypothesis Current situation 1. Gentrification in Bangkok Selection criteria to seek for strategic Revitalization approach for 2. Traditional settlements locations to be intervened living heritage sites towards Historial analysis Literature review Mapping sustainability 3.Accessibility 1. Spatial conditions : study on Hypothesis Current situation for strategic Revitalization approach for 1. Gentrification in Bangkok good node Selection criteria to seek network connectivity and potential 4.A living heritage sites towards 2. Traditional settlements 5.Place making locations to be intervened integrate to 3.Accessibility sustainability 6.Role of government in conditions : studyEconomic status : search for the 1. Spatial 2. on District scale 4.A good node network connectivity and potential endangers by negative conservation planning area which 5.Place making to integrate effects by the rapid development Spatial analysis 6.Role of government in 2. Economic status : search Social status : look for the area 3. for the District scale conservation planning area which endangers bythat tends to be segregated after the negative Vision Socio-economic analysis effects by the rapid development implementation Spatial analysis 3. Social status : look for the area value : investigate the 4. Historic Vision Socio-economic analysis that tends to be segregated after the high value area which has implementation 4. Historic value : investigate the Reference area which has high value Evaluation projects Theoretical underpin on the Mapping spatial and socio- Local Reference relatioship between the MTS and economic problem on strategic scale Evaluation heritage conservation. locations. projects Theoretical underpin on the Mapping spatial and socio- A synergetic Local regard- strategy Evaluation relatioship between the MTS and economic problem on strategic scale ing new development from potential heritage conservation. locations. the MTS; function and typol- A synergetic strategy regard- and local benefits; public Strategies Evaluation transferable Literature review Mapping ing new development from ogy 1. Thai successful space amenities and connectivity 1. Infrastructural networkfunction and typol- potential model the MTS; improved 2. Cultural landscape 2. Natural network and local benefits; public Evaluation Strategies transferable Literature review Mapping 3. Spatial indicators of urban ogy 3. Built environment 1. Thai successful space vitality 1. Infrastructural network amenities and connectivity model improved 2. Cultural landscape 2. Natural network Evaluation 3. Spatial indicators of urban 3. Built environment Design vitality Design Illustration 1.9 the research model
  13. 13. 22 BKKs 1.8 TIME WORKING PLAN MASTER THESIS TU DELFT BANGKOK SYNERGY 23The phasing of this project was de- fined and positioned in the time-linefined by two angles; one is the pres- process. The outputs are the prelim-entation-based time (P1, P2, P3, P4 inary thesis plan, outline of reviewand P5), while the others base on paper, final thesis plan, conferencewhich should be done during the paper and final thesis.research process. The actions aredefined as follows; research, theo-retical framework and design task.Besides, there are some importantin-between products already de- P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 Research - Study on current conditions of Bangkok and its potential - Specified research in the field of design - Technical research Theoretical framework - Relation of TOD and urban revitalization - Spatial indicators of urban vitality - Positive gentrification - Conflicts between social and economic development Design task - Preliminary design proporsal - Design proporsal - Evaluation and reflection - Possibility study Literature study Implementation on vision Detailed design Specific project plan Theory paper Strategy Design parameter Evaluation Case study Design parameter Screnarios Conclusion Interview Analysis on existing layers Statistic research Vision DesignIllustration 1.10 Time working plan in relation to five times of graduation presentation