Household Food &Nutrition Security Roadmap<br />Trialogue CSI Conference<br />Wanderers<br />May 24 2011<br />Dr Miriam Al...
Food and nutrition security & government priorities <br />Food and nutrition security for all is foundational goal – food ...
Food security<br />National food security – is there enough food available nationally?<br />Household food and nutrition s...
Characteristics of food and nutrition insecurity in SA<br />
Household food insecurity, or hunger, has fallen dramatically since 2001. According to the GHS:<br />In 2002, 20% of child...
HH food insecurity in the downturn<br />1 mn jobs lost since 2009, likely to impact on FS<br />Revised food security modul...
Hunger versus Under-Nutrition<br />minimum nutritious food basket would cost (R262 pp pm at 2005 prices)<br />50% to 80% o...
Nutrition levels have not improved that much….<br />Although child hunger has fallen dramatically, indicators of under-nut...
Highest share of hungry households and most extreme levels of hunger occur in urban metros. 36% of all seriously hungry ho...
Special rural dimensions<br />Among the poorest half of households (i.e. those for whom monthly household income is less t...
Potential contribution of home production<br />Approximately 2.5 million households (4 million people) produce extra food ...
Ensuring affordable food at stable prices<br /><ul><li>Most households are purchasers of food. The poorest 40%  of househo...
Since 2007, food prices started increasing very steeply, explained by various factors:
Competition and pricing along the agro-food value chains (from farm to retail)
Exchange rates fluctuations
Input costs: fertilizer costs, packaging, wage costs
Why is it difficult for the poor to access a nutritious basket?
Healthier foods could cost 9%-12% more than similar less healthy foods
Poor buy in smaller quantities, and therefore higher unit prices
Retail is often local monopoly
Food prices not falling as they should
Why are prices higher in rural areas? This is not known for certain, but we can guess that partly explained by:
 structure of distribution and retail
 grown in rural areas, processed in urban areas, and transported back
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Making CSI Matter - Household Food & Nutrition Security Roadmap - Dr Miriam Altman of HSRC

1,299 views

Published on

Food Security: Identifying how corporates and non-profit organisations can participate effectively in the food security national road map and community-level food provision

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,299
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
22
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
19
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Making CSI Matter - Household Food & Nutrition Security Roadmap - Dr Miriam Altman of HSRC

  1. 1. Household Food &Nutrition Security Roadmap<br />Trialogue CSI Conference<br />Wanderers<br />May 24 2011<br />Dr Miriam Altman<br />Distinguished Research Fellow – HSRC<br />Commissioner – National Planning Commission<br />altmanm@mweb.co.za<br />
  2. 2. Food and nutrition security & government priorities <br />Food and nutrition security for all is foundational goal – food for all<br />Fundamental building block for human participation<br />Unlike many other poverty reduction interventions, food and water are essential to life. It is immediate need, not aspirational.<br />Nutrition is key foundation that influences effectiveness of other interventions<br />Although food insecurity has fallen dramatically, there is widespread and deep nutrition insecurity. <br />
  3. 3. Food security<br />National food security – is there enough food available nationally?<br />Household food and nutrition security<br />Available<br />Affordable<br />Quality<br />Accessible – can be obtained and stored<br />
  4. 4. Characteristics of food and nutrition insecurity in SA<br />
  5. 5. Household food insecurity, or hunger, has fallen dramatically since 2001. According to the GHS:<br />In 2002, 20% of children and 25% adults said that they were hungry ‘sometimes’, ‘often’ or ‘always’. <br />By 2007, 12.2% of children and 10.6% of adults said they were hungry<br />In 2008, 14.2 % and 13.4 % of children and adults respectively reported hunger. This is before large scale jobs losses!<br />Improvement seems to largely be explained by the expansion of social grants<br />Not sure why deterioration prior to downturn – might be due to price increases<br />HH food insecurity has fallen dramatically<br />
  6. 6. HH food insecurity in the downturn<br />1 mn jobs lost since 2009, likely to impact on FS<br />Revised food security module in StatsSA General Household Survey shows there might have been deterioration, but not directly comparable to previous years.<br />In 2009, 19% of households reported skipping meals, and 20% ran out of money to buy food<br />
  7. 7. Hunger versus Under-Nutrition<br />minimum nutritious food basket would cost (R262 pp pm at 2005 prices)<br />50% to 80% of households could not afford an acceptable nutritional balance, based on current prices and levels of fortification; Only 20% of households can afford a minimum nutritionally adequate diet on a regular basis (Jacobs 2009)<br />There is considerable emphasis on the experience of hunger. Under-nutrition is the more serious challenge = “hidden hunger”. Distinguish between:<br />Hunger = The experience of not being satiated. For eg. Skipping meals or running out of money for food<br />Hidden hunger = We need to know about food items consumed. Many poor households mainly consume low nutrient starches so they feel full. But there is a high prevalence of under-nutrition. People do not easily link their under-nutrition with their experience of being tired or ill.<br />Deeper analysis shows that improvements are not so dramatic <br />
  8. 8. Nutrition levels have not improved that much….<br />Although child hunger has fallen dramatically, indicators of under-nutrition have not noticeably improved<br />Stunting (inadequate growth in height) affects 1 out of 5 children, and improved marginally between 1999 and 2005. This is sign of chronic malnutrition.<br />1 in 10 children was underweight for height in 2005. There are signs of rising “wasting”, which is indicator of transitory food insecurity.<br />Average South African consumes 3.6 of 9 food groups – min should be 6<br />Although there are fortification programmes, micro-nutrient count not as effective as it needs to be:<br />Nationally 45% of children had an inadequate zinc status (NFCS, 2005)<br />One quarter of women, and 2/3 children nationally had poor vitamin A status <br />About a third of women and children iron deficient<br />Under-nutrition is critical issue viz SA women, where approximately 1/3 of young women are HIV+<br />
  9. 9. Highest share of hungry households and most extreme levels of hunger occur in urban metros. 36% of all seriously hungry households are found in CT, Ekhurhuleni, Johannesburg and OR Tambo. (GHS 2007)<br />Hunger in the metros<br />
  10. 10. Special rural dimensions<br />Among the poorest half of households (i.e. those for whom monthly household income is less than R2000), rural households spend about 15% less on food per capita than urban households (esp less on meat). <br />This might be explained by own food production but there is no reliable evidence available to show this. <br />Rural households pay 10%-20% more for a basket of basic foodstuffs than urban ones (NAMC).<br />
  11. 11. Potential contribution of home production<br />Approximately 2.5 million households (4 million people) produce extra food for own consumption – primarily in the former homelands<br />Although 1/5 of all black households are involved in some home production, a large % are located in former homelands. 1/4 of all black subsistence farmers located in Vhembe, OR Tambo and Amathole municipalities<br />About 1.9m subsistence producers are aged 15 – 29. <br />Contribution of home production to HH food security varies considerably.<br />Not all households that home produce are food secure. In fact, many are not. Depends on location. <br />
  12. 12. Ensuring affordable food at stable prices<br /><ul><li>Most households are purchasers of food. The poorest 40% of households allocate at least 35% of their spending to food, and some estimate this might be as high as 70%. These households need protection from rapid food inflation
  13. 13. Since 2007, food prices started increasing very steeply, explained by various factors:
  14. 14. Competition and pricing along the agro-food value chains (from farm to retail)
  15. 15. Exchange rates fluctuations
  16. 16. Input costs: fertilizer costs, packaging, wage costs
  17. 17. Why is it difficult for the poor to access a nutritious basket?
  18. 18. Healthier foods could cost 9%-12% more than similar less healthy foods
  19. 19. Poor buy in smaller quantities, and therefore higher unit prices
  20. 20. Retail is often local monopoly
  21. 21. Food prices not falling as they should
  22. 22. Why are prices higher in rural areas? This is not known for certain, but we can guess that partly explained by:
  23. 23. structure of distribution and retail
  24. 24. grown in rural areas, processed in urban areas, and transported back
  25. 25. transportation costs generally and poor rural infrastructure</li></li></ul><li>Food price inflation<br />Globally food prices fell in 2008, but not in SA. <br />Although prices stabilised in 2010, they are still at high level<br />
  26. 26. Some questions…<br />Why didn’t consumer prices respond to 2008 declines in commodity prices?<br />Spread between wholesale and retail prices . For eg:<br />NAMC shows that avg real farm value of brown bread declined by 33% between 2008 and 2009. But avg real retail value of brown bread rose by 3.6%<br />the avg real farm value of super maize meal fell by about 22% but the real retail value fell by only 1.2%<br />
  27. 27. Source: NAMC 2010<br />
  28. 28. Process going forward<br />
  29. 29. Household food & nutrition security roadmapObjective<br />Identify path to achieving household nutrition security (see proposed targets)<br />Identify central interventions that would contribute meaningfully to achieving targets<br />Gain high level commitment by decision makers and stakeholders<br />Ensure sustainable and affordable monitoring and evaluation of programmes(eg do companies fortify when regulated?) and outcomes (eg did nutrition levels rise?)<br />
  30. 30. Our proposed targets<br />
  31. 31. Our proposed targets (2)<br />
  32. 32. F&NSR Process<br />Roadmap 1 – <br />Raise awareness and launch campaign<br />Identify immediate interventions and act on them<br />Identify longer term interventions needing more investigation<br />Roadmap 2<br />This phase will deal with the harder-to-implement aspects<br />
  33. 33. What is the role of private stakeholders?How to participate in FS roadmap and community level food provision?<br />Part of the long term solution?<br />Part of mitigation – food is immediate need<br />Going to scale? – lots of small interventions? or interventions that go viral? or large interventions of regional/national significance?<br />
  34. 34. Food & Nutrition Security Roadmap Thematic Groups<br />Social grants, food grants, feeding programmes, food supplements, soup kitchens<br />Food fortification - Improve the quality of food that people buy, often through industry regulation or product development that enhances current foods<br />Food prices – Reduce and stabilise cost of food that people buy, with attention to needs of consumers and producers (market interventions, retail, competition policy)<br />Education - Alter household demand toward more nutritious combinations<br />Promote home & community based food production<br />Mother, infant and child nutrition<br />Each group would look at: gap analysis, international practice, paths to achieving targets, reflection on current policies, M&E<br />
  35. 35. The role of the private sector: food industry<br />Agriculture<br />Support to small farmers – inputs, education, water use, R&D, market access<br />Processing<br />Support to small millers<br />Fortification can reduce cost of achieving nutrition standard. <br />The following foods are fortified by law: Bread White bread; Wheat flour; Maize fortified with vitamin A <br />Institute industry monitoring mechanisms<br />Inputs industries<br /> pricing, seeds, fertiliser, water, transport, technology, information<br />Retail <br />costs of retail esp township & rural<br />Procurement and distribution<br />cooperative buying<br />giving prominence to nutritious food & education as part of sustainability programmes<br />
  36. 36. The role of non-food companies & NPOs<br />50% of all hungry people qualify for grants but don’t get them. Likely that these are mothers with children under age two.<br />Ramping up birth registration and grant application urgent<br />All children under 6 and mothers are meant to receive vit A tablets at cost of 3c each, but reaching only 20%<br />Food banks, “people’s restaurants”<br />Local innovation (eg soy sachets)<br />Child and mother monitoring & support – weight, nutrient levels; improving feeding practices; community & school feeding<br />Communications strategies – eg through cell phone exchange<br />

×