Making CSI Matter - Household Food & Nutrition Security Roadmap - Dr Miriam Altman of HSRC
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Making CSI Matter - Household Food & Nutrition Security Roadmap - Dr Miriam Altman of HSRC



Food Security: Identifying how corporates and non-profit organisations can participate effectively in the food security national road map and community-level food provision

Food Security: Identifying how corporates and non-profit organisations can participate effectively in the food security national road map and community-level food provision



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Making CSI Matter - Household Food & Nutrition Security Roadmap - Dr Miriam Altman of HSRC Making CSI Matter - Household Food & Nutrition Security Roadmap - Dr Miriam Altman of HSRC Presentation Transcript

  • Household Food &Nutrition Security Roadmap
    Trialogue CSI Conference
    May 24 2011
    Dr Miriam Altman
    Distinguished Research Fellow – HSRC
    Commissioner – National Planning Commission
  • Food and nutrition security & government priorities
    Food and nutrition security for all is foundational goal – food for all
    Fundamental building block for human participation
    Unlike many other poverty reduction interventions, food and water are essential to life. It is immediate need, not aspirational.
    Nutrition is key foundation that influences effectiveness of other interventions
    Although food insecurity has fallen dramatically, there is widespread and deep nutrition insecurity.
  • Food security
    National food security – is there enough food available nationally?
    Household food and nutrition security
    Accessible – can be obtained and stored
  • Characteristics of food and nutrition insecurity in SA
  • Household food insecurity, or hunger, has fallen dramatically since 2001. According to the GHS:
    In 2002, 20% of children and 25% adults said that they were hungry ‘sometimes’, ‘often’ or ‘always’.
    By 2007, 12.2% of children and 10.6% of adults said they were hungry
    In 2008, 14.2 % and 13.4 % of children and adults respectively reported hunger. This is before large scale jobs losses!
    Improvement seems to largely be explained by the expansion of social grants
    Not sure why deterioration prior to downturn – might be due to price increases
    HH food insecurity has fallen dramatically
  • HH food insecurity in the downturn
    1 mn jobs lost since 2009, likely to impact on FS
    Revised food security module in StatsSA General Household Survey shows there might have been deterioration, but not directly comparable to previous years.
    In 2009, 19% of households reported skipping meals, and 20% ran out of money to buy food
  • Hunger versus Under-Nutrition
    minimum nutritious food basket would cost (R262 pp pm at 2005 prices)
    50% to 80% of households could not afford an acceptable nutritional balance, based on current prices and levels of fortification; Only 20% of households can afford a minimum nutritionally adequate diet on a regular basis (Jacobs 2009)
    There is considerable emphasis on the experience of hunger. Under-nutrition is the more serious challenge = “hidden hunger”. Distinguish between:
    Hunger = The experience of not being satiated. For eg. Skipping meals or running out of money for food
    Hidden hunger = We need to know about food items consumed. Many poor households mainly consume low nutrient starches so they feel full. But there is a high prevalence of under-nutrition. People do not easily link their under-nutrition with their experience of being tired or ill.
    Deeper analysis shows that improvements are not so dramatic
  • Nutrition levels have not improved that much….
    Although child hunger has fallen dramatically, indicators of under-nutrition have not noticeably improved
    Stunting (inadequate growth in height) affects 1 out of 5 children, and improved marginally between 1999 and 2005. This is sign of chronic malnutrition.
    1 in 10 children was underweight for height in 2005. There are signs of rising “wasting”, which is indicator of transitory food insecurity.
    Average South African consumes 3.6 of 9 food groups – min should be 6
    Although there are fortification programmes, micro-nutrient count not as effective as it needs to be:
    Nationally 45% of children had an inadequate zinc status (NFCS, 2005)
    One quarter of women, and 2/3 children nationally had poor vitamin A status
    About a third of women and children iron deficient
    Under-nutrition is critical issue viz SA women, where approximately 1/3 of young women are HIV+
  • Highest share of hungry households and most extreme levels of hunger occur in urban metros. 36% of all seriously hungry households are found in CT, Ekhurhuleni, Johannesburg and OR Tambo. (GHS 2007)
    Hunger in the metros
  • Special rural dimensions
    Among the poorest half of households (i.e. those for whom monthly household income is less than R2000), rural households spend about 15% less on food per capita than urban households (esp less on meat).
    This might be explained by own food production but there is no reliable evidence available to show this.
    Rural households pay 10%-20% more for a basket of basic foodstuffs than urban ones (NAMC).
  • Potential contribution of home production
    Approximately 2.5 million households (4 million people) produce extra food for own consumption – primarily in the former homelands
    Although 1/5 of all black households are involved in some home production, a large % are located in former homelands. 1/4 of all black subsistence farmers located in Vhembe, OR Tambo and Amathole municipalities
    About 1.9m subsistence producers are aged 15 – 29.
    Contribution of home production to HH food security varies considerably.
    Not all households that home produce are food secure. In fact, many are not. Depends on location.
  • Ensuring affordable food at stable prices
    • Most households are purchasers of food. The poorest 40% of households allocate at least 35% of their spending to food, and some estimate this might be as high as 70%. These households need protection from rapid food inflation
    • Since 2007, food prices started increasing very steeply, explained by various factors:
    • Competition and pricing along the agro-food value chains (from farm to retail)
    • Exchange rates fluctuations
    • Input costs: fertilizer costs, packaging, wage costs
    • Why is it difficult for the poor to access a nutritious basket?
    • Healthier foods could cost 9%-12% more than similar less healthy foods
    • Poor buy in smaller quantities, and therefore higher unit prices
    • Retail is often local monopoly
    • Food prices not falling as they should
    • Why are prices higher in rural areas? This is not known for certain, but we can guess that partly explained by:
    • structure of distribution and retail
    • grown in rural areas, processed in urban areas, and transported back
    • transportation costs generally and poor rural infrastructure
  • Food price inflation
    Globally food prices fell in 2008, but not in SA.
    Although prices stabilised in 2010, they are still at high level
  • Some questions…
    Why didn’t consumer prices respond to 2008 declines in commodity prices?
    Spread between wholesale and retail prices . For eg:
    NAMC shows that avg real farm value of brown bread declined by 33% between 2008 and 2009. But avg real retail value of brown bread rose by 3.6%
    the avg real farm value of super maize meal fell by about 22% but the real retail value fell by only 1.2%
  • Source: NAMC 2010
  • Process going forward
  • Household food & nutrition security roadmapObjective
    Identify path to achieving household nutrition security (see proposed targets)
    Identify central interventions that would contribute meaningfully to achieving targets
    Gain high level commitment by decision makers and stakeholders
    Ensure sustainable and affordable monitoring and evaluation of programmes(eg do companies fortify when regulated?) and outcomes (eg did nutrition levels rise?)
  • Our proposed targets
  • Our proposed targets (2)
  • F&NSR Process
    Roadmap 1 –
    Raise awareness and launch campaign
    Identify immediate interventions and act on them
    Identify longer term interventions needing more investigation
    Roadmap 2
    This phase will deal with the harder-to-implement aspects
  • What is the role of private stakeholders?How to participate in FS roadmap and community level food provision?
    Part of the long term solution?
    Part of mitigation – food is immediate need
    Going to scale? – lots of small interventions? or interventions that go viral? or large interventions of regional/national significance?
  • Food & Nutrition Security Roadmap Thematic Groups
    Social grants, food grants, feeding programmes, food supplements, soup kitchens
    Food fortification - Improve the quality of food that people buy, often through industry regulation or product development that enhances current foods
    Food prices – Reduce and stabilise cost of food that people buy, with attention to needs of consumers and producers (market interventions, retail, competition policy)
    Education - Alter household demand toward more nutritious combinations
    Promote home & community based food production
    Mother, infant and child nutrition
    Each group would look at: gap analysis, international practice, paths to achieving targets, reflection on current policies, M&E
  • The role of the private sector: food industry
    Support to small farmers – inputs, education, water use, R&D, market access
    Support to small millers
    Fortification can reduce cost of achieving nutrition standard.
    The following foods are fortified by law: Bread White bread; Wheat flour; Maize fortified with vitamin A
    Institute industry monitoring mechanisms
    Inputs industries
    pricing, seeds, fertiliser, water, transport, technology, information
    costs of retail esp township & rural
    Procurement and distribution
    cooperative buying
    giving prominence to nutritious food & education as part of sustainability programmes
  • The role of non-food companies & NPOs
    50% of all hungry people qualify for grants but don’t get them. Likely that these are mothers with children under age two.
    Ramping up birth registration and grant application urgent
    All children under 6 and mothers are meant to receive vit A tablets at cost of 3c each, but reaching only 20%
    Food banks, “people’s restaurants”
    Local innovation (eg soy sachets)
    Child and mother monitoring & support – weight, nutrient levels; improving feeding practices; community & school feeding
    Communications strategies – eg through cell phone exchange