indian guidelines on Biosimilar Products - 07.24.12

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indian guidelines on Biosimilar Products - 07.24.12

  1. 1. The New India Guidelines On Similar Biologics Regulatory and Market Authorization Requirements July 25, 2012
  2. 2. • Schiff Hardin LLP is a general practice law firm representing clients throughout the United States and around the world. We have offices located in Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Lake Forest, New York, San Francisco and Washington. • Our attorneys have been recognized by their peers and clients. Chambers USA has ranked 20 of our attorneys and 14 of our practice areas in their prestigious list. Schiff Hardin has strong capabilities in most legal disciplines and total dedication to client service. We have helped shape the law in a number of cases in the U.S. Supreme Court, Federal Circuit Courts of Appeal, and state appellate courts in intellectual property and many other areas. • We solve tough legal questions and find innovative solutions to difficult legal problems across the country and around the world. With offices in seven cities, and attorneys admitted to more than 100 jurisdictions – including 26 states, 72 U.S. courts, and six different countries – Schiff Hardin has the broad reach to meet the needs of domestic and international clients. We augment this reach with our membership in two referral networks of independent, separate law firms located around the country (http://www.uslfg.com/) and around the world (http://www.terralex.org/). • Schiff Hardin offers substantial experience and strength in handling intellectual property matters, among other major areas of the law. More than 50 Schiff Hardin attorneys practice in the field of intellectual property law, in offices across the country. 2
  3. 3. DISCLAIMER The views, positions and opinions expressed in this presentation are those of the author alone and do not necessarily reflect the views of any of the other partners in Schiff Hardin LLP, or the views of any of the firm’s clients. Nothing in this presentation is intended to provide legal advice. No attorney-client relationship is established by virtue of this presentation. 3
  4. 4. Overview On June 20, 2012, at the BIO2012 conference in Boston, India’s Department of Biotechnology (DBT) and its Central Drugs Standard Control Organization (CDSC) announced the release of final guidelines for approval of “similar biologics.” The guidelines became publicly available on the Internet a short time later. DBT Secretary Maharaj Bhan stated, at BIO, that “We don’t want the global and local industries to be in conflict all the time, there needs to be a more harmonious relationship. It [the guidelines] will give a very clear message to everyone...that the Indian regulatory system is capable of taking a scientific view of things and not necessarily worrying about trivial advantage in one direction or the other." http://www.in-pharmatechnologist.com/Regulatory-Safety/India-launches-similar-biologics-guidelinesat-BIO2012 4
  5. 5. Overview II As a general matter, the new India guidelines are, in many respects, more specific than comparable proposed US or existing EU guidance documents. In some respects, they mirror the “stepwise” approach to approval of biosimilars taken by the US and the EU, through a “sequential” approval process. This greater clarity is apparently intended to ensure more rapid approval of safe, effective and affordable biologics for the Indian market. 5
  6. 6. Overview III The new India guidelines describe the regulatory pathway for a similar biologic claiming to be similar to an already authorized reference biologic. They address pre-market regulatory requirements including the “comparability exercise” for quality, preclinical and clinical studies and describe detailed post market regulatory requirements. They also contain requirements relating to manufacturing processes and quality control. 6
  7. 7. Definitions • The guidelines define a “similar biologic” as “A biological product/drug produced by genetic engineering techniques and claimed to be “similar” in terms of safety, efficacy and quality to a reference biologic, which has been granted a marketing authorization in India by DCGI on the basis of a complete dossier, and with a history of safe use in India.” • A “comparability exercise” is “Comparison of a similar biologic with a reference biologic with the goal to establish similarity in safety, efficacy and quality.” • A drug product is “A pharmaceutical product type that contains a drug substance, generally in association with excipients.” • A drug substance is “The active pharmaceutical ingredient and associated molecules that may be subsequently formulated, with excipients, to produce the drug product,” including the desired product, product-related substances, and product, process-related impurities, and other components such as buffers. 7
  8. 8. Stated Basic Principles: Sequential Approach to Approval I • “Similar biologics are developed through sequential process to demonstrate the similarity by extensive characterization studies revealing the molecular and quality attributes with regard to the reference biologic.” • “Although the extent of testing of the similar biologic is likely to be less than that required for the reference biologic, it is essential that the testing of the similar biologic be sufficient to ensure that the product meets acceptable levels of safety, efficacy and quality to ensure public health.” • “Generally, a reduction in data requirements is possible for preclinical and/or clinical components of the development program by demonstration of comparability of product (similarity to authorized reference biologic) and the consistency in production process, which may vary depending on the characteristics of the already authorized reference biologic.” 8
  9. 9. Stated Basic Principles: Sequential Approach to Approval II • “Identification of any significant differences in safety, efficacy and quality studies would [require] more extensive preclinical and clinical evaluation and the product will not qualify as a similar biologic.” • “In case the reference biologic is used for more than one indication, the efficacy and safety of the similar biologic has to be justified and if necessary demonstrated separately for each of the claimed indications. Justification will depend on clinical experience, available literature data and whether or not the same mechanism of action is involved in specific indications.” [This permits limited “extrapolation.”] 9
  10. 10. The Reference Biologic • “The reference biologic [must] be used in all the comparability exercise with respect to quality, preclinical and clinical considerations. The following factors should be considered for selection of the reference biologic: – The reference biologic should be licensed in India and should be innovator product. The reference biologic should be licensed based on a full safety, efficacy and quality data. Therefore another similar biologic cannot be considered as a choice for reference biologic. – In case the reference biologic is not marketed in India, the reference biologic should have been licensed and widely marketed for 4 years post approval in innovator jurisdiction in a country with well established regulatory framework. In case no medicine or only palliative therapy is available or in national healthcare emergency, this period of 4 years may be reduced or waived off.” • 10 An “innovator product” is defined as “A medicine which has been licensed by the national regulatory authorities on the basis of a full registration dossier; i.e., the approved indication(s) for use were granted on the basis of full safety, efficacy and quality data.”
  11. 11. Analytical Methods • • 11 The guidelines set forth specific and highly technical requirements for “routine analytical tests” to be employed in a “comparability exercise,” including analytical methods for determination of structural and physiochemical product properties, biological activity, immunological properties, characterization of impurities, and stability testing. They contain detailed standards relating to manufacturing, including requirements for “molecular biology considerations,” fermentation process development and downstream process development.
  12. 12. Characterization: Quality Considerations • The guidelines require a quality comparison between similar biologic and the chosen reference biologic. • “[T]hree consecutive standardized batches which have been used to demonstrate consistency of the manufacturing process should be used.” • “Head-to-head characterization studies are required to compare the similar biologic and the reference biologic at both levels of drug substance and drug product. … Differences … should be evaluated for their potential impact on safety and efficacy of the similar biologic and additional characterization studies may be necessary.” • “The quality comparison … should employ state-of-the-art analytical techniques, including the analytical methods that are sensitive enough to detect the possibilities of changes to the product. The list of routine analytical tests to be included for quality comparability exercise is given in Annexure-2 (2A-2D).” 12
  13. 13. Pre-Clinical and Clinical Studies I • Basic information about the reference biologic - route of administration, absorption and elimination rate, therapeutic index, dose and dosage, vehicle, mode and routes of administration, dose response, bioequivalence range, tissuespecific localization , if available, toxicity and toxicology data, mode of action, known and proposed clinical use, target population demographics, final formulation, diluents and presentation. • Preclinical studies necessary prior to the initiation of any clinical studies - should be comparative and designed to detect differences between the similar biologic and reference biologic. • Toxicological Studies – “In case of in vivo toxicity studies, at least one repeat dose toxicity study in a relevant species is required to be conducted. … if the relevant animal species is not available and has been appropriately justified, the toxicity studies need to be undertaken in two species i.e. one rodent and other non-rodent species …” 13
  14. 14. Pre-Clinical and Clinical Studies II • Immune Responses in Animals – “Antibody response to the similar biologic should be compared to that generated by the reference biologic in suitable animal model. The test serum samples should be tested for reaction to host cell proteins. or evaluating immune toxicity of the similar biologic under study, the results of local tolerance (part of repeat dose or stand alone test) should be analyzed …” • Comparative PK Studies – “Dosage in the PK study should be within the therapeutic dose range of reference biologic. Appropriate rationale for dose selection should be provided. The route of administration should be the one where the sensitivity to detect differences is the largest. Sample size should have statistical rationale …” • Differences in elimination kinetics … e.g. clearance and elimination half life should be explored. Similarity in terms of absorption / bioavailability should not be the only parameters of interest. 14
  15. 15. Pre-Clinical and Clinical Studies III • Comparative PK Studies (cont’d) – “A parallel arm design is more appropriate for biologics with a long half life or for proteins for which formation of antibodies is likely or if study is being done in patients. In case of short half life, cross over design may be considered with a scientific justification.” • “Multiple-dose, comparative, parallel arm steady state PK studies are required for a similar biologic that is used in a multiple dose regimen, where markedly higher or lower concentrations are expected at steady state than that expected from single dose data PK measurements, and where time-dependence and dose-dependence of PK parameters cannot be ruled out.” • Pharmacodynamic Studies – “Comparative, parallel arm or crossover, PD study in most relevant population (patients or healthy volunteers) is required for detecting differences … If PD marker is available in healthy volunteers, PD in healthy volunteers can be done. … The relationship between dose/exposure, the relevant PD marker(s) and response/efficacy of the reference biologic should be well established and used to justify the design. The acceptance ranges for the demonstration of similarity in PD parameters should be predefined and appropriately justified.” 15
  16. 16. Pre-Clinical and Clinical Studies IV • Safety and Immunogenicity Data - comparative preapproval safety data including the immunogenicity data is required for all similar biologics including those for which confirmatory clinical trials have been waived. • Confirmatory Safety and Efficacy Study – “Comparative clinical trials are critical to demonstrate the similarity in safety and efficacy profiles between the similar biologic and reference biologic with few exceptions … • “The nature, severity and frequency of adverse events should be compared between the similar biologic and reference biologic and should be based on safety data from a sufficient number of patients treated for an acceptable period of time. Efforts should be made to ensure that comparative clinical studies have a sufficient number of patients treated for acceptable period of time in order to allow detection of significant differences in safety …” 16
  17. 17. Pre-Clinical and Clinical Studies V • Confirmatory Safety and Efficacy Study (cont’d) - The confirmatory clinical safety and efficacy study requirement can be waived if all of the following conditions are met, but cannot be waived if there is no reliable and validated PD marker: i. Structural and functional comparability of similar biologic and reference biologic can be characterized to a high degree of confidence by physicochemical and in vitro techniques ii. The similar biologic is comparable to reference biologic in all preclinical evaluations conducted iii. PK/PD study has demonstrated comparability and has preferentially been done in an in-patient setting with safety measurement (including immunogenicity) for adequate period justified by the applicant and efficacy measurements iv. A comprehensive post-marketing risk management plan has been presented that will gather additional safety data with a specific emphasis on gathering immunogenicity data 17
  18. 18. Extrapolation • “Extrapolation of the safety and efficacy data of a particular clinical indication(for which clinical studies has been done) of a similar biologic to other clinical indications may be possible if following conditions are met: – Similarity with respect to quality has been proven to reference biologic – Similarity with respect to preclinical assessment has been proven to reference biologic – Clinical safety and efficacy is proven in one indication – Mechanism of action is same for other clinical indications – Involved receptor(s) are same for other clinical indications” 18
  19. 19. Post-Approval Surveillance I • As a “substitute” for extensive pre-approval safety and efficacy trials (Phase III), the new India guidelines impose significant post-market approval surveillance requirements. • A Risk Management Plan, designed to monitor and detect both known inherent safety concerns and potential unknown safety signals that may arise from the similar biologics, must be submitted along with the Market Authorization Application. • Among other things, the guidelines require that the reference biologic shall be maintained throughout the life cycle of the product, for purposes of further comparison (this seems to be the initial reference product, not later versions that may have “drifted”) • Adverse reactions must be reported to the licensing authority within 15 days of initial receipt of the information by the applicant. 19
  20. 20. Post-Approval Surveillance II • Pharmacovigilance Plan – A comprehensive pharmacovigilance plan must be prepared submitted along with the Market Authorization Application. The plan must be designed to evaluate the clinical safety in all the approved indications in the post-marketing phase. • The pharmacovigilance plan should include the submission of periodic safety update reports (PSURs), every six months for the first two years after approval of the similar biologic and annually for the subsequent two years. • Post Marketing Studies (PMS) - post market studies should be captured in the pharmacovigilance plan and study updates studies should be submitted to CDSCO. • At least one non-comparative post-marketing clinical study focused on safety and immunogenicity should be performed. The study should confirm that the similar biologic “does not have any concerns with regards to the therapeutic consequences of … immunogenicity.” • “If immunogenicity is evaluated in clinical studies, it is not mandatory to carryout additional non-comparative immunogenicity studies in post-marketing studies.” 20
  21. 21. Other Information I • The guidelines list forms that used in connection the approval process. • They also include requirements for data retention. • Similar biologics are also regulated under the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940, the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules, 1945 and Rules for the manufacture of hazardous and genetically engineered organisms or cells, 1989 (Rules, 1989), and several additional guidelines, including: Schedule Y: Requirements and Guidelines for Permission to Import and / or Manufacture of New Drugs for Sale or to Undertake Clinical Trials notified as per G.S.R. 32(E), dt. 20.01.2005 under the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules, 1945 Recombinant DNA Safety Guidelines, 1990 Guidelines for generating preclinical and clinical data for rDNA vaccines, diagnostics and other biologicals, 1999 21
  22. 22. Other Information II • Additional guidelines include: – CDSCO guidance for industry, 2008, on Submission of Clinical Trial Application for Evaluating Safety and Efficacy; Requirements for permission of New Drugs Approval; Post approval changes in biological products: Quality, Safety and Efficacy Documents; and o Preparation of the Quality Information for Drug Submission for New – Drug Approval: Biotechnological/Biological Products – Guidelines and Handbook for Institutional Biosafety Committees (IBSCs), 2011 • For establishment and characterization of the cell banks, the guidelines issued by the International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use, i.e., ICH Q5A, Q5B and Q5D. • The methods used to measure quality attributes for batch release, stability studies and in-process controls should be validated in accordance with ICH Q2, Q5C, Q6B. • Stability studies on drug substance and drug product should be carried out using containers and conditions that are representative of the actual storage containers and conditions, according to, e.g., ICH Q5C and WHO TRS 822. • Assays should be calibrated against an international or national reference standard, where available and appropriate. If no such standards are available, an internal reference standard must be established under ICH guidelines. 22
  23. 23. Other Information III • References Cited in the Guidelines i. EMEA guideline on similar biological medicinal products containing biotechnology derived proteins as active substance: nonclinical and clinical issues. London, 2006 (CHMP/BMWP/42832) ii. EMEA guideline on immunogenicity assessment of biotechnology-derived therapeutic proteins London, 2007 (CHMP/BMWP/14327) iii. ICH guideline on preclinical safety evaluation of biotechnology-derived pharmaceuticals (S6), 1997 iv. Guideline for Safety Study of Biological Products, (KFDA, 2010) v. World Health Organization (WHO) Guidelines on Evaluation of Similar Biotherapeutic Products (SBP), 2009 23
  24. 24. D. Christopher Ohly George Yu Sailesh K. Patel Schiff Hardin LLP 1666 K Street, N.W. Suite 300 Washington, D.C. 20006 Schiff Hardin LLP One Market Spear Tower, Suite 3200 San Francisco, CA 94105 Schiff Hardin LLP 233 South Wacker Drive Suite 6600 Chicago, IL 60606 Phone 202-778-6458 Email DCOhly@SchiffHardin.com Phone 415-901-8749 Email GYu@SchiffHardin.com Phone 312-258-5698 Email SPatel@SchiffHardin.com

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