Architecture of School Safety


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Learn how well thought-out architecture can prepare your schools against intruders and natural disasters. Also learn about FEMA funded safe rooms.

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Architecture of School Safety

  1. 1. The Architecture ofSchool SafetyScott Vrooman, AIAscott@tri-arch.comAllison
  2. 2. Our Background• Scott is a licensed architect inOklahoma, Texas, and Coloradoand has designed dozens of K-12schools• Allison has a background incommunications, public relations,grant assistance, and marketing
  3. 3. Secure EntrancesTornado Safe RoomsWhat’s This Talk About?
  4. 4. • CPTED--Crime Prevention ThroughEnvironmental Design• Physical Design--Passive access control andsurveillance while creating perceptions towould-be offenders• Technological Design--Hardware-intensiveor mechanical means for control orsurveillance• Operational Design--rely on a combination ofhuman resources. Develop procedures fordaily and emergency situations.• Security=Access Control + Surveillance +ResponseSecure Entrances
  5. 5. Security OpportunitiesTo enhance access control by Ph Te OpSecuring the site perimeter  Using barriers to prevent passage of vehicles Minimizing entrances into the building Securing vulnerable openings (e.g. doors, first floor windows)  Installing electronic acess systems (e.g. parking, elevators,mag-locks)Securing critical functions (e.g. IT, mechanical rooms)  To enhance surveillance byPlacing windows and doors to allow for good visibiliy Avoiding spaces the permit concealment Defining public versus private interior zones Avoiding blocking lines of sight with fencing and landscaping Locating public areas (e.g. restrooms) where they can beobservedDesigning lighting to reinforce natural surveillance Installing intrusion devices and video systems 
  6. 6. Number of incidents involving firearm orexplosive possession in one year in U.S.K-12 schools (6% of all schools)7,478
  7. 7. Number of incidents involving a knife orsharp object in one year in U.S. K-12schools(16% of all schools)30,193
  8. 8. • Westside Middle School--Jonesboro,AR• Columbine High School--Columbine,CO• Sandy Hook Elementary--Newtown,CTCase Studies
  9. 9. • 250 students. 6th and 7th grade.• 2 shooters, 11 and 13 years old• Skipped school, one went in to set off fire alarm,waited in a field 100 yards away from a knownfire escape area• 4 students and 1 teacher were killed, 9 studentsand 1 teacher were injured.• Doors locked behind the students and teachersduring fire escape making it impossible for themto re-enter the building• Entire shooting lasted 15 seconds.Westside Middle SchoolMarch 28, 1998
  10. 10. Westside Middle SchoolMarch 28, 1998Shooter LocationVictim Location
  11. 11. • 2000 students. 10th-12th grade.• 2 shooters, both seniors• Original plan was to plant bomb in cafeteria, waitoutside to shoot students as they exited the building• Bomb didn’t go off so they went inside concealing gunsin long trench coats• Walked hallways shooting all they encountered, neverentering or trying to enter locked classrooms• Walked into Library and found 60 people and shot atthem over the next 7 1/2 minutes. When police closedin they committed suicide.• 12 students and 1 teacher were killed• Shooting spree lasted 46 minutes, in part due to theconfusion of law enforcement about where theshooters wereColumbine High SchoolApril 20, 1999
  12. 12. Columbine High SchoolApril 20, 1999
  13. 13. • 450 students. K-4th grade.• 1 shooter, 20 years old• School had recently implemented security protocolsincluding video monitoring, individual admittance ofvisitors after 9:30am, and secure entrances• Shooter arrived at 9:35am and shot the glass on the doorsto gain access• Administrative staff were in a meeting while morningannouncements were starting when they heard the shots.Three walked out to administration area and were killedinstantly.• Shooter walked into two 1st grade classrooms, both ofwhich knew they were in danger prior to him entering yetdid not lock the door. 20 of the fatalities came from these 2rooms.• Shooter bypassed a room that was locked with blackconstruction paper over the window on the door and it isbelieved he thought the classroom was empty• 20 students and 6 faculty & staff were killed• Shooting spree lasted 5 minutes, shooter committedsuicide when he saw police closing inSandy Hook ElementaryDecember 14, 2012
  14. 14. Sandy Hook ElementaryDecember 14, 2012
  15. 15. • No one believed or imagined what was happening atthe time• Operational errors were made in each instance• People ignored warning signs in each case• Westside Elementary--Shooters were seen walkingtoward the school heavily armed without being calledin• Columbine--bomb container in center of cafeteria for15 minutes before shooters re-entered.• Sandy Hook--Confrontation between shooter & staffthe day before (allegedly)• Training and response of law enforcement hasincreased dramatically with timeLessons Learned
  16. 16. • 4 Schools on 3 campuses• 2500 students in Pre-K through 12th grade• No secure entrances. High school and Intermediateschool enter directly into cafeteria• $1 Million to renovate all four schools to ensure secureentrancesSolutionsSkiatook Public Schools
  17. 17. Skiatook Public SchoolsElementary School
  18. 18. Skiatook Public SchoolsIntermediate School
  19. 19. Skiatook Public SchoolsMiddle School
  20. 20. Skiatook Public SchoolsHigh School
  21. 21. Resources• Building Security Through Design, American Instituteof Architects, 2001• FEMA 428, Primer to Design Safe School Projects, 2012• The Appropriate & Effective Us of SecurityTechnologies in U.S. Schools, National Institute ofJustice, 1999
  22. 22. Safe Rooms
  23. 23. • Fortified Walls& Ceiling• 10” thick ormore• Can WithstandEF5 Tornados• Withstandswinds of 250mph• Usually doublesas gymnasium ormultipurposeroomSafe RoomsCast-in-place and Precast Concrete
  24. 24. Safe RoomsConcrete Domes
  25. 25. • Withstands windsabove 200 mph• Typically less expensiveto build• Claim to be moreenergy efficient• Less efficient functionalspace due to curvedwalls• Controversial amongstructural engineersSafe RoomsConcrete Domes
  26. 26. Safe Rooms
  27. 27. Paying for Your Safe RoomTypical Costs
  28. 28. Paying for Your Safe RoomTypical Costs
  29. 29. Paying for Your Safe RoomTypical Costs
  30. 30. Tornado Geography
  31. 31. Tornado Geography
  32. 32. Safe Rooms
  33. 33. • Apply to Oklahoma Department of EmergencyManagement• Submit a notice of intent• Receive letter with e-grant login from statehazard mitigation officer• Submit detailed application through e-grant withhelp of architect and contractor (200+ pages)• Review OEM revisions & questions• OEM submits to FEMA• Review FEMA revisions & questions• Wait for approval• Entire process takes 18-24 monthsPaying for Your Safe RoomFEMA Grant
  34. 34. •Non-profit: Shelter Oklahoma Schools•Capital Bonds•State Government not getting involved inlegislation (Mary Fallin quoted on June 5th)Non-FEMA Solutions
  35. 35. •Bond climate is prime for passingschool security and safety funding.Paying for Your Safe RoomPassing a Bond
  36. 36. • This slideshow and other valuableinformation on K-12 design, safetymeasures and getting bondspassed will be available on:• Slideshare (• Facebook(• Twitter (@TriArchOK)• E-NewsletterTo sign up for our e-newsletter, signup on Facebook or email us:abroyles@tri-arch.comscott@tri-arch.comMore Information
  37. 37. Melissa MooreOklahoma Department of Emergency Managementmelissa.moore@oem.ok.gov405-521-0383Dr. Angie BesendorferAssistant SuperintendentJoplin Schoolsangiebesendorfer@joplinschools.org417-625-5200 ext 2006FEMA P-361 Information