Travis Noakes’ research
PhD in Media Studies candidate at the
Centre for Film and Media Studies,
University of Cape Town.
...
Welcome to my Web 2.0 presentation  !
LyricsfromMCFrontalot’s“IndierThanThou”
http://frontalot.com/index.php/?page=lyrics...
This presentation’s sections
 Research problem
 Rationale
 Research questions
 Learnings from 2010’s pilot study
 You...
The research problem
This project aims to describe aspects of a new
medium’s use and sustained adoption in the Visual
Arts...
Prepared by Travis NoakesJanuary 30, 2015
Fieldwork studying OPSNS as e-portfolios curricular adoption
Combined Analysis
2...
What is a Social Network Site (SNS)?
Social Network Sites are online services that:
(1) allow individuals to construct a p...
Why an Online Portfolio Social Network Site (OPSNS) definition?
 An OPSNS that shows one’s profile and
output as a visual...
A Carbonmade online portfolio’s content
Profile
description
Image
Titled
folders of
digitised
artworks
Name
Carbonmade
Abo...
Many visual creatives use OPSNS
Online Portfolio Social Network Sites (OPSNS) users:
Deviantart 13 000 000+
wix 5 594 823
...
Visual creatives’ motivation to use OPSNS’ software
EXTRINSIC
 Digital showcase
 Benchmark performance
 Community of Pr...
What could OPSNS offer in well-resourced Secondary Schools’ curricula?
1. More learning opportunities
2. Learner personali...
1. More learning opportunities > E-Safety & Netiquette
PERSONAL RESPONSIBILITY
 Digital identity
 Protecting privacy
 D...
1. More learning opportunities > Copyright & Plagiarism
 Know what constitutes plagiarism
 Understand the importance of ...
1. More learning opportunities > Creative CV writing
Profile
description
ImageName
Contact
details
Areas of
expertise
Skil...
2. ICT Literacy > A DOE priority facing BIG barriers
Every learner ICT literate by 2013?
TECHNOLOGICAL RESOURCES*
 Only 4...
2. ICT Literacy > Ticking boxes in this research project’s definition
ICT LITERACY
ICT PROFICIENCY
✓ Access ✓ Manage ✓ Int...
3. Personalization
PERSONALISATION
The learner’s Visual Arts e-portfolio can be used to
showcase the best of curricular an...
Secondary School Educators Curricular Adoption of OPSNS in 2010
School Learners Sponsor
• Noorde Paarl (Paarl) grade 12 WC...
Fieldwork has run ahead of my research proposal’s approval
A YEAR TO DEFINE THE RIGHT QUESTIONS…
 Focus primarily on a ne...
Main Research Question
What are the aspects to consider when
introducing a new medium's software
affordances into Visual A...
Four supporting questions
1. What are the operational software affordances
that learners use while being instructed to cre...
Relating the levels in Software Affordances to those of Activity Theory
TYPES OF
SOFTWARE
AFFORDANCE
Positive or Negative
...
Pilot research findings from the Private School’s grade 10 curricula
SOURCES
 Interviews with learners, educators and cur...
What are the operational software affordances learners’ use? #1
ASPECTS OF SOFTWARE SELECTION AFFECTING USE
AN UNEXPECTED ...
Criteria that led www.carbonmade.com being chosen for grade 10s
✔ Free (for students’
storage needs)
✔ Easy-to-publish
✔ A...
What are the operational software affordances learners’ use? #2
ASPECTS OF CURRICULAR RESOURCING AFFECTING USE
EASY TO UND...
What are the operational software affordances learners’ use? #3
ASPECTS OF LEARNERS’ USE OF OPERATIONAL AFFORDANCES
INITIA...
What are the operational software affordances learners’ use? #4
ASPECTS OF PEDAGOGY AFFECTING USE
IDEAL HUMAN RESOURCING
I...
What are the operational software affordances learners’ use? #5
ASPECTS OF PEDAGOGY THAT COULD AFFECT FUTURE USE
CHANGES I...
What are the operational software affordances learners’ use? #6
Preliminary pilot research findings from “Choose an Online...
ASPECTS OF PEDAGOGY THAT COULD AFFECT FUTURE USE, CONT.
TROUBLESHOOTNG FAILURE
One student was unable to login after regis...
Does use meet the outcomes and goals set in educator’s curricula? #1
Preliminary pilot research findings from “Choose an O...
Does use meet the outcomes and goals set in educator’s curricula? #2
Preliminary pilot research findings from “Choose an O...
Prepared by Travis NoakesJanuary 30, 2015
Third generation activity theory perspectives to consider
Pedagogy
Technology
Su...
Use Activity Theory to understand conflict and tension in change
School
PerspectiveEducator
January 30, 2015 Prepared by T...
Researcher
Educator
Learners
Decision Makers (School, DOE)
Support Staff
Home (Parents)
Boarding House
Online Audi...
Rules Community of Practice
INTENDED (IDEAL) OUTCOMES
ORGANISATIONAL SUSTAINABILITY
Sustained curricular adoption of OPSNS...
NEW ONLINE PORTFOLIO CURRICULA
Computers
Scanners and Digital Cameras
Online access
Online Portfolio Social Network Si...
Prepared by Travis NoakesJanuary 30, 2015
Issues from third generation Activity Theory
SCHOOL MANAGEMENT AND PEDAGOGICAL P...
Prepared by Travis NoakesJanuary 30, 2015
TECHNOLOGY AND PEDAGOGY PERSPECTIVES
 If the costs of providing OPSNS technolog...
Prepared by Travis NoakesJanuary 30, 2015
DOE AND PEDAGOGY
 If the WCED wants to publish curricula, but educators and/or ...
The key factors for sustained adoption of OPSNS for e-portfolio use #1
KEY CRITERIA FOR INITIAL ADOPTION
FACTORS
Change ai...
The key factors for sustained adoption of OPSNS for e-portfolio use #2
KEY CRITERIA FOR SUSTAINED ADOPTION
 Out-of-school...
An educator’s opinion of Web2.0 software’s value in Visual Arts education?
Preliminary pilot research findings from “Choos...
Colour palette creation with colourlovers.com
Sharing web bookmarks and comments via diigo.com
Post-and-response of small designs on www.dribbble.com
Entering t-shirt design competitions at springleap.com
OTHER USES
SUPPORT A SCHOOL’S STUDENTS WHILE THEY’RE ON EXCHANGE
Carbonmade was used by the educator to give feedback to a...
THANKS to this research’s supporters
National Research Foundation.
University of Cape Town,
Department of Film and Media S...
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Visual Arts e-portfolio research at Secondary School 2010

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  • It’s very intimidating presenting before a speaker whose going to tell us how to use PowerPoint to educate an audience. So, I’m going to pre-empt s criticism by saying that these slides are primarily NOT for use in class: its primary audience is ONLINE (at Slideshare). As you’ll see from my Slideshare stats, I can reach a many viewers online… even if they seem to flock to my first, worst-designed presentation, 1240 views is not to be sniffed at! And I want to thanks MikhaelPaskevius for helping build these stats by helping me to publish my presentations to UCT’s Open Content portal.I do text heavy slides, so that its viewers can easily understand what I’m presenting with, WITHOUT ME. So, please focus more on the slide’s content than on what I say.
  • Although both schools are much better resourced than the average; their learner make-up and ethos differ, which may affect adoption.
  • Here’s the best definition of a Social Network Site. Please keep in mind that two of its points focus on connections… (Yes, that Boyd with a lowercase b. To get that, one needs a prolific output in youth media research… before you are Hip 2 B lowercase!)
  • It’s important to distinguish Online Portfolio-focused sites from other Social Network Site varieties. Remembering the 2 points on connections from the previous slide;OPSNS are primarily developed to support thepublication of online portfolios,so connections CAN BE less important than in other SNS. The connections aspect is often secondary in the design of OPSNS, as you see in this example of Carbonmade; where there is no relational information about Joel Cooper’s “friends” asthere would be in Facebook….
  • Talking of which, the OPSNS this project focuses on have smaller user-bases than giant SNS (like Facebook); catering as they do to a niche group of professional and amateur visual creatives.That said, the fact they’ve developed into sustainable businesses catering to niche-bases suggests that many creatives using OPSNS derive some kinds of value from investing their time (and even money) into developing onlineportfolios.
  • This slide gives a simple view of some external and internal objectives for creating an online portfolio: the objectives in blacker text are arguably most conveniently served by an online portfolio (versus analogue alternatives; like a traditional portfolio, art association membership, et al.). Combined with the affordances of “weak collaboration” these may explain OPSNS popularity amongst visual creatives.
  • Given that online portfolios offer value, the question arises as to whether OPSNS-use might benefit learners and educators? Pilot research at a private school in 2010 suggests that the top three benefits are supported. The lower ones are speculative, but I hope they are confirmed and |I can discuss them in the years to come  !
  • There are useful learning opportunities offered in respect of E-Safety and Netiquette. Creating a digital identity and protecting one’s privacy, in particular, have been addressed in this year’s curriculum, “Create an online portfolio” for grade 10s at a private school. However, there is scope to address other issues.
  • Another learning opportunity exists with respect to copyright and plagiarism. This year, the private school educator addressed the top two and there’s scope to discuss“What is appropriate to download and re-mix?” and “How can I protect my work’s copyright?” in future curricula.
  • All learners had the opportunity to reflect and write their “creative CV”. Most found their way onto the online portfolios…
  • Someone should teach the DOE to “underpromise and overdeliver”. In their “White Paper on e-Education, 2004, p.17” they aim for every learner to be ICT literate by 2013.There are significant barriers to delivering this promise in the Visual Arts, as highlighted in these resourcing categories. Not least is the definition of what ICT literacy could mean by subject area and benchmarks for educators to test it.
  • Following this definition, the online portfolio curriculum promotes ICT Literacy by helping learners to develop their technical, cognitive and ICT proficiency.The latter is promoted through showing learners how to access OPSNS’ services and create an online portfolio through managing their artworks and integrating these with their portfolio.
  • High School Educators in the Western Cape Province have begun adopting OPSNS into their curriculums this year.For background: while most of the grade 12s are being taught in Arts and Culture Focus Schools, the others are at schools where Visual Arts will not be continued next year due to concerns about the subject’s quality-of-instruction and pass rate.
  • This research focuses on the key aspects of a new medium's software affordances
  • “… affordance offers a distinctive perspective on the use of ICT in education, because of its focus on possibilities for action” (Hammond, 2009).Learner’s use of OPSNS’ softwareaffordances’ will be studied at operational, tactical and strategic levels to understand: 1. what they use;2. whether they meet the outcomes desired
  • Given the limited time, I will focus on the high-level findings relevant to other educators from interviews, a progress sheet and research journal notes.
  • The timing of specific social media functionalities launch into the syllabus is important.Just as the WCED offers schools software selection support, this may need to be expanded to cover freemium software in the Visual Arts.
  • This slide shows important criteria that individual educators must consider when adopting OPSNS. A curricular authority could help by using these for reviewing and shortlisting recommended sites.
  • Since the online portfolio curricula shows potential, a resourcing request has been made for more equipment. It will be difficult for schools without more than 1 camera and 1 scanner to adopt these curricula. This could prove very difficult for the public school I aim to research.Thatsaid it is also important to understand the learners’ access to resources: it does not automatically follow that if there is limited resourcing at school, the same applies to home.
  • At the start of the project, learner compliance was disheartening. It will be interesting to benchmark this “e-portfolio” compliance versus similar environmentsThe educator’s vision and persistence paid off and eventually most learners had created online portfolios that were a fair reflection of the traditional portfolio.
  • There are three slides on “Aspects of pedagogy that could affect future use”, this shows that much has been learnt and that the initial focus has been to get the initial adoption working in class.These learnings will be documented as guidelines and supplied to the WCED for sharing on its curricular website.
  • To understand sustained adoption, this project will primarily use Activity Theory. In its current “third stage”, Activity Theory says “expansive learning” (like the learning opportunities I described earlier) occurs as a result of the interaction of diverse groups which allow people to understand what happens in the “other world”. These perspectives have different foci, which lead to conflict, tension and change for the better, at best!
  • A key Activity Theory insight is that there is no common object between organisationsinvolved in reforms and this leads to tensions and conflicts. For a sustained adoption to take place, these must not be too great to prevent buy-in from the educator, his department, school management,IT (support), the WCED and other role-players. So this project describe these different objectives and their potential to create tension. This may be used by the educator to address the most important issues.
  • An example of this would be using Activity Theory perspectives focused on pedagogy, school and technology support in school. This perspective is the one for pedagogy and it is useful for highlighting several concerns in the relationships between subject, tool, object, rules, community of practice and division of labour: Visual Arts Educators “must” draw on third-parties to launch and, potentially, sustain OPSNS curricula. DOE policy does not define ICT proficiency clearly. Nor does it include it in an ICT framework. Visual Arts Educators may lack the time to secure buy-in from their department. Educators have varied objectives for adopting e-portfolios. This framework would need to be modified for a new school. In the absence of other examples, what is the value of adopting a new medium into curricula? Keen learners could derive the most value out-of-class, though “out-of-class “ activities have not defined in the curriculum statement.
  • The school organization perspective focuses on physical, financial and human resources. Schools management’s goals are to: - Maximize value from an ICT investment.- Prove the value of parents’ educational investment.- Be a sustainable organisation.Visual Arts Department’s new curricula must assist in showing the value of the school’s ICT investment.
  • The technological perspective focuses on staff, influence, hardware and software. A school’s IT support aims for:- stability and scalability, standards and protocols, realizing value from the ICT investment.As a non-core IT activity, Visual Arts Department’s new curricula must not burden the IT Department with many demands on its often stretched resources.
  • Activity Theory has been used for showing why educational change is so difficult. A long list of issues that relate to OPSNS adoption in school illustrates the challenge facing sustained adoption. And this is just from three perspectives!
  • And if these aren’t useful in the long-term, at least this project has helped deliver on the social obligation that better-resourced private schools have to make the expensive mistakes!
  • Transcript of "Visual Arts e-portfolio research at Secondary School 2010"

    1. 1. Travis Noakes’ research PhD in Media Studies candidate at the Centre for Film and Media Studies, University of Cape Town. Online Portfolio Social Network Sites’ curricular adoption by Secondary Schools’ Visual Arts Educators for E-portfolio creation Find more of my presentations on www.slideshare.net/TravisNoakes Prepared by Travis Noakes
    2. 2. Welcome to my Web 2.0 presentation  ! LyricsfromMCFrontalot’s“IndierThanThou” http://frontalot.com/index.php/?page=lyrics&lyricid=17 PresentationstatsfromTravisNoakes’Slidesharepresentations. ! ! !
    3. 3. This presentation’s sections  Research problem  Rationale  Research questions  Learnings from 2010’s pilot study  Your questions January 30, 2015 Prepared by Travis Noakes
    4. 4. The research problem This project aims to describe aspects of a new medium’s use and sustained adoption in the Visual Arts curricula at two Cape Town Secondary Schools. There is a gap in the literature on Online Portfolio Social Network Sites’ (OPSNS) inclusion, as Web2.0- based media is a recent phenomenon. By investigating this gap, we can better understand aspects of social media’s use, outcomes and sustainability for e-portfolio creation. Educators and other key decision makers can use this knowledge to support appropriate diffusion and sustained adoption; through maximising positive outcomes and minimising hazards. January 30, 2015 Prepared by Travis Noakes
    5. 5. Prepared by Travis NoakesJanuary 30, 2015 Fieldwork studying OPSNS as e-portfolios curricular adoption Combined Analysis 2010 2011 2012 Create Your Portfolio Choose Portfolio Site Public school educator Private school educator Choose Portfolio Site Create Your Portfolio WCED VAD’s curricular advisers’ feedback Visual Arts educator workshops
    6. 6. What is a Social Network Site (SNS)? Social Network Sites are online services that: (1) allow individuals to construct a public or semi-public profile within a bounded system, (2) articulate a list of other users with whom they share a connection, and (3) view and traverse their list of connections and those made by others within the system. (boyd and Elison, 2007). January 30, 2015 Prepared by Travis Noakes
    7. 7. Why an Online Portfolio Social Network Site (OPSNS) definition?  An OPSNS that shows one’s profile and output as a visual creative.  One’s connection with others is searchable (i.e. similar expertise).  It is not essential for the creative to construct a public profile or interact personally in this environment.January 30, 2015 Prepared by Travis Noakes
    8. 8. A Carbonmade online portfolio’s content Profile description Image Titled folders of digitised artworks Name Carbonmade About Name Contact details Areas of expertise SkillsArtist. Date. Folder name Artwork Title 1 Home page 3 Portfolio Imagery 2 Artist’s profile Work Carbonmade Artist. Date. Availability
    9. 9. Many visual creatives use OPSNS Online Portfolio Social Network Sites (OPSNS) users: Deviantart 13 000 000+ wix 5 594 823 Carbonmade 290 078 Coroflot 150 000 CGSociety 135 000 Stats taken from these websites on the 11th of November, 2010 January 30, 2015 Prepared by Travis Noakes
    10. 10. Visual creatives’ motivation to use OPSNS’ software EXTRINSIC  Digital showcase  Benchmark performance  Community of Practice  Recognition  Convenient audience interaction INTRINSIC  Self-defined digital footprint  Personal creative history  Benchmark one’s progress  Improved self-awareness  Appreciate the depth of competition
    11. 11. What could OPSNS offer in well-resourced Secondary Schools’ curricula? 1. More learning opportunities 2. Learner personalization 3. Support ICT Literacy  Electronic learning portfolio benefits*  Raise a school’s Visual Art’s profile*  Help remote schools the most*  Better moderation and feedback for tertiary access* * To be verified…
    12. 12. 1. More learning opportunities > E-Safety & Netiquette PERSONAL RESPONSIBILITY  Digital identity  Protecting privacy  Digital citizenship  Secure passwords  Safe shopping  Secure ownership DANGERS  Cyberbullying  Grooming  Harmful behaviour  Identity theft
    13. 13. 1. More learning opportunities > Copyright & Plagiarism  Know what constitutes plagiarism  Understand the importance of respecting copyright  Know how to download files and appropriate content without legal risk  Learn how to apply copyright January 30, 2015 Prepared by Travis Noakes
    14. 14. 1. More learning opportunities > Creative CV writing Profile description ImageName Contact details Areas of expertise Skills Artist’s profile Work Availability January 30, 2015 Prepared by Travis Noakes
    15. 15. 2. ICT Literacy > A DOE priority facing BIG barriers Every learner ICT literate by 2013? TECHNOLOGICAL RESOURCES*  Only 40% of SA schools will have computer labs by 2013  Only certain subjects’ educators may access these resources  Access is very limited; contributing to rudimentary ICT literacy PERSONAL AGENCY RESOURCES ✘ No clear, comprehensive definition of ICT Literacy ✘ Pre-Web2.0 (1980’s idea) conception of it and no benchmarks  Organizing a home computer and bandwidth is costly to educators  Participatory gap: No or low levels of social media use by most educators (vs. learners) CONTEXTUAL RESOURCES  No formal support networks for Web2.0 literacy at a macro- (DOE) or micro-level (in school) for the Visual Arts CONTENT RESOURCES  There is no local, online website content that helps Visual Arts educators to promote ICT literacy. * Resource categories match those listed by Czerniewicz and Brown (2004) for framing access to ICT in South Africa’s Higher Education institutions. Topimagesourcedfrom http://static.businessinsider.com/image/4c989b567f8b9a5830ca0200/dunce-cap.jpg January 30, 2015 Prepared by Travis Noakes
    16. 16. 2. ICT Literacy > Ticking boxes in this research project’s definition ICT LITERACY ICT PROFICIENCY ✓ Access ✓ Manage ✓ Integrate Evaluate ✓ Create COGNITIVE PROFICIENCY ✓ TECHNICAL PROFICIENCY Digital Transformation A Framework for ICT Literacy A report of the International ICT Literacy Panel © 2007 ETS. January 30, 2015 Prepared by Travis Noakes
    17. 17. 3. Personalization PERSONALISATION The learner’s Visual Arts e-portfolio can be used to showcase the best of curricular and extra-mural art and design. Combined with their creative CVs, this could give their educators a better insight into what their learners’ creative interests and aspirations are. This may lead to curricular adaptation to incorporate specific learner interests and better prepare learners in matric for their preferred post- school reality.
    18. 18. Secondary School Educators Curricular Adoption of OPSNS in 2010 School Learners Sponsor • Noorde Paarl (Paarl) grade 12 WCED • Saxony (Atlantis) grade 12 WCED • Eerste Rivier High School (Eerste Rivier) grade 12 WCED • Belhar Secondary (Belhar) grade 12 WCED • George High School (George) grade 12 WCED • Chris Hani School (Khayelitsha) grade 12 WCED • Cedar (Mitchell's Plain) grade 12 WCED • Schoonspruit Secondary (Malmesbury) grade 12 WCED • Vida High (Mitchells Plain) grade 12 WCED • Wynberg Secondary (Wynberg) grade 12 WCED • Private School Field Research Site grade 10 Researcher January 30, 2015 Prepared by Travis Noakes
    19. 19. Fieldwork has run ahead of my research proposal’s approval A YEAR TO DEFINE THE RIGHT QUESTIONS…  Focus primarily on a new medium and educators;  Establish the link between online portfolios and e-portfolios;  Define “software affordances” clearly;  Use Activity Theory to link “software affordances” to the broader context;  Focus on the key factors influencing sustained adoption versus those leading to adoption;  Learn from the classroom experience of educators.
    20. 20. Main Research Question What are the aspects to consider when introducing a new medium's software affordances into Visual Arts curricula in South African Secondary Schools? January 30, 2015 Prepared by Travis Noakes Key aspects: Pedagogy (change, educator’s curricular objectives, closing the participatory gap, ITC Literacy) Resourcing (technological, educator’s personal agency, contextual and online content support) Software-use (software affordances: perceived and real benefits & hazards, learner aims: compliance & subversion)
    21. 21. Four supporting questions 1. What are the operational software affordances that learners use while being instructed to create and maintain e-portfolios? Software Affordances, Activity Theory {Tools} 2. To what extent does learners’ use meet the outcomes and goals set in each educator’s curricula? Software Affordances, Activity Theory {Outcomes} 3. What are the key factors to consider for sustained OPSNS as e-portfolio use in the Visual Arts in South African Secondary Schools? Diffusion of Innovation Theory, Activity Theory 4. What are the results of mentoring educators in OPSNS on their perception and use of Web2.0 software in Visual Arts education? Activity Theory {Tools, Outcomes} Every curriculum’s lesson (in class) For at least two years at Secondary Schools (in- and out-of-class) For each curriculum’s duration (in- and out-of- class) and uploads in other classes January 30, 2015 Prepared by Travis Noakes DURATION (& LOCATION)SUB-QUESTIONS
    22. 22. Relating the levels in Software Affordances to those of Activity Theory TYPES OF SOFTWARE AFFORDANCE Positive or Negative Strategic Tactical Operational accumulate combine result in ACTIVITY THEORY Goals Activities Actions Operations Outcomes Learners’ use Educators’ curricular aims KEY CONTRIBUTING FACTORS TO SUSTAINED CURRICULAR ADOPTION Mostly positive Achieve curricular aims Reliable & efficient January 30, 2015 Prepared by Travis Noakes RESULTS + + = Learners’ use Understanding the new media’s use in curricula 1. What are the operational software affordances that learners use while being instructed to create and maintain e-portfolios? 2. To what extent does this use meet the outcomes and goals set In each educator’s curricula?
    23. 23. Pilot research findings from the Private School’s grade 10 curricula SOURCES  Interviews with learners, educators and curricular advisors  Tracking sheet for Learners’ Online Portfolio progress  Notes in research journals EXCLUDES  Learners feedback to two questionnaires  Videos  Comprehensive Online Portfolio image capture Prepared by Travis Noakes
    24. 24. What are the operational software affordances learners’ use? #1 ASPECTS OF SOFTWARE SELECTION AFFECTING USE AN UNEXPECTED SOFTWARE SELECTION CRITERIA The level of web2.0 affordances in the software matches the educator’s perception of learners’ levels of Emotional Intelligence (EQ). In this case, although Carbonmade offers minimal SNS functionality (“no friend-ing”, “comments” or “rating”), this was viewed favorably by the educator; it minimizes the potential for abuse by any low-EQ grade 10 learners AND other audiences. SOCIAL SOFTWARE AFFORDANCES MUST BE PHASED IN FOR “CLASS MATURITY” From grade 11, learners will be encouraged to use social bookmarking and may choose online portfolios with more functionality. Carbonmade will remain their official school portfolio, though. CURRICULAR GUIDELINES FOR SOFTWARE ADOPTION FROM DOE/WCED There are many criteria that could be used for evaluating which online portfolio software is suitable for curricular adoption in the Visual Arts. This process may best be facilitated by the DOE: the WCED has done similar work for evaluating standalone software and defining which are appropriate for schools to budget for. Ideally, the DOE’s Visual Arts and Design Department should routinely specify which Web 2.0 software it recommends to save educators from having to do this research for themselves. Preliminary pilot research findings from “Choose an Online Portfolio” by Grade 10, private school learners January 30, 2015 Prepared by Travis Noakes
    25. 25. Criteria that led www.carbonmade.com being chosen for grade 10s ✔ Free (for students’ storage needs) ✔ Easy-to-publish ✔ Appropriate-brand ✔ Family-friendly ✔ Popular ✔ Variety of interests ✔ Sustainable ✔ Legal (learners’ copyright protected) ✔ Brand association with creative professionals ✔ Limited social media interaction
    26. 26. What are the operational software affordances learners’ use? #2 ASPECTS OF CURRICULAR RESOURCING AFFECTING USE EASY TO UNDERESTIMATE RESOURCES FOR DIGITISATION IN CLASS There is no benchmark for appropriate resourcing, but one scanner and one camera is inadequate even for a double-period. In class, a row of scanners and several cameras is preferable. IMPORTANT TO UNDERSTAND THE LEARNERS’ HOME RESOURCES A curriculum’s design should encourage learners who have resources at home to use them. This should free up in-class resources for less-privileged learners. USEFUL TO USE OTHER DEPARTMENTS’ RESOURCES Educators may need to secure access to all available school resources before launching similar curricula; for example a scanner in the computer lab may have been useful to alleviate bottle-necks in class. Preliminary pilot research findings from “Choose an Online Portfolio” by Grade 10, private school learners Prepared by Travis Noakes
    27. 27. What are the operational software affordances learners’ use? #3 ASPECTS OF LEARNERS’ USE OF OPERATIONAL AFFORDANCES INITIAL UPTAKE WAS LOW "Create an online portfolio" launched in April and by May, out of 18 learners, only three online portfolios covered all the tasks expected. Based on their poor performance, 10 learners should have been sent to detention and four received no marks for the project. This sets a low benchmark to improve on in 2011. WITH PERSISTANCE, COMPLIANCE IMPROVED The fact that the online portfolio was used for all new projects and for scanning after tests, may have convinced learners that their e-portfolio was not an optional add-on, but an important adjunct to their classwork. By the last Visual Arts class this year, the number of learners who had not produced online portfolios shifted from 4 to zero! 11 learners (or over 60%) had created online portfolios and uploaded the work of 3 (or more) class projects. Preliminary pilot research findings from “Choose an Online Portfolio” by Grade 10, private school learners January 30, 2015 Prepared by Travis Noakes
    28. 28. What are the operational software affordances learners’ use? #4 ASPECTS OF PEDAGOGY AFFECTING USE IDEAL HUMAN RESOURCING It was fortunate that a student teacher was available to give support. Teaching with technology is ideally done with at least two educators; given the importance of helping learners to keep up with the lesson through troubleshooting and monitoring their focus. Lesson design must be thought through very thoroughly before this curriculum is launched in a public school with far more learners. CONTENT RESOURCES Educators need readily accessible guidance on how to change their teaching style when incorporating technology into curricula. For example, how best to support peer-to-peer learner experience through student placement and instruction materials. The DOE should consider facilitating access to this knowledge. PROFESSIONAL DIGITAL NETWORKS Currently there is minimal interaction between Visual Arts educators outside of moderation. They may benefit from the affordances of “weak collaboration” in creating digital professional communities (for example, with social bookmarking and document sharing) to share curricula and best practice. The WCED’s Visual Arts & Design Department could trial this. Preliminary pilot research findings from “Choose an Online Portfolio” by Grade 10, private school learners January 30, 2015 Prepared by Travis Noakes
    29. 29. What are the operational software affordances learners’ use? #5 ASPECTS OF PEDAGOGY THAT COULD AFFECT FUTURE USE CHANGES IN TEACHING In 2011, two weeks will be also used for grade 10 learners. 2010’s experiences should lead to more efficient teaching. With more time available, the educator can give more thorough feedback. He will set time aside for careful evaluation; in particular, 1-on-1 feedback seems to work best. IMMEDIATE CONSEQUENCES FOR NON-PERFORMANCE Stricter marking, online exhibitions and class meetings to review progress will be used to improve compliance. HANDLING “INAPPROPRIATE” SOFTWARE AFFORDANCES Carbonmade’s affordances were designed for creative professionals; the e-safety needs of educators are NOT catered for. For example, 9 learners provided their contact details even after being repeatedly told not to AND being penalised with losing marks! Preliminary pilot research findings from “Choose an Online Portfolio” by Grade 10, private school learners
    30. 30. What are the operational software affordances learners’ use? #6 Preliminary pilot research findings from “Choose an Online Portfolio” by Grade 10, private school learners ASPECTS OF PEDAGOGY THAT COULD AFFECT FUTURE USE, CONT. CLEAR DEFINITION OF E-PORTFOLIO BENEFITS To improve uptake, it may be useful to define a significant benefit for learners upfront: the researcher (and Secondary School educators) can learn from how CPUT Architecture students’ use of Carbonmade, Yola, blogging and a Facebook Group, which has had important benefits for learners and faculty alike. EXPECTATIONS It may also be worthwhile to clarify to learners exactly what is expected and how their online portfolios should develop from grade 10 to 12. This will be made easier once learner examples become available from each year! OUT-OF-SCHOOL INTERESTS Educators develop a more holistic view of their learners, through providing them with a platform to publish “extra- mural” art. This affords educators an opportunity to incorporate extra-curricular learner-interests (such as stencil use) when designing new curricula.
    31. 31. ASPECTS OF PEDAGOGY THAT COULD AFFECT FUTURE USE, CONT. TROUBLESHOOTNG FAILURE One student was unable to login after registering an account and could only upload work on the 16th of November. It is important for the curriculum to include contingency planning for major failures and be designed to minimize problems and pitfalls. ADDRESSING THE SCOPE FOR SUBVERSION OF CURRICULAR AIMS DISTRACTION In class, learners took the opportunity to use their laptops to play computer games, listen to music, watch videos, etc. The educator must explore new pedagogical methods to minimize this, such as; arrangement of seating and peer-to-peer work. E-SAFETY A new strategy will be tried next year; students will be given an email and physical address (P.O. Box) to use. Correspondence via these centralised addresses will be through the educator. They will be also told which web address format to use (i.e. do not include your school’s name!) COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENT There were two examples of learners potentially infringing copyright. This must be discussed between the educator and learner. These will also be added to the e-safety examples for what not to do for next year’s grade 10 learners… What are the operational software affordances learners’ use? #7
    32. 32. Does use meet the outcomes and goals set in educator’s curricula? #1 Preliminary pilot research findings from “Choose an Online Portfolio” by Grade 10, private school learners VALUE FOR PEDAGOGY PREPARATION FOR THE END-OF-YEAR EXAM Convenient access to each learners’ work was the most useful feature to the private school’s Visual Arts educator. This helped the educator gain a better understanding of the progress each learner is making to the end-of-year exhibition. BACKUP FOR MODERATORS’ REFERENCE Although online portfolios cannot be used in the year’s final assessment, they provide a backup for reference should student work be stolen, lost or damaged. This occurred with one pupil whose laptop (and artwork) was stolen in April. PLAGIARISM In cases where learners take advantage of different schools’ exhibition dates to “exchange” work, having a digital record is useful to identify the original author of the work. Given that digital media is often associated with plagiarism, this benefit is a suprising finding!
    33. 33. Does use meet the outcomes and goals set in educator’s curricula? #2 Preliminary pilot research findings from “Choose an Online Portfolio” by Grade 10, private school learners ASPECTS OF PEDAGOGY THAT COULD IMPROVE GOAL ATTAINMENT REFINE THE CURRICULUM’S DESIGN THROUGH GIVING GRADE 9’s TASKS Covering all the aspects of online portfolio creation (including registration, creative cv writing, artwork digitization, image editing, and portfolio creation) in two weeks was challenging. This year’s grade 9 learners have been encouraged to begin scanning their work, so they will start with material to upload from the first class of next year. INCORPORATE STUDENT EXAMPLES By encouraging learners to digitize their projects, tests and exam work, learners are shown that the medium can be integral to their Visual Arts practice. Another benefit of having learner work digitized is that the educator also has a resource of learner examples that can be readily incorporated into educational material. CERTAIN CURRICULA LEND THEMSELVES TO BEING DIGITAL Colour palette experimentation is easier on a computer than mixing paints. A new “Exploration of Colour” curriculum was largely done digitally and was easier to add to Carbonmade as no digitisation was necessary.
    34. 34. Prepared by Travis NoakesJanuary 30, 2015 Third generation activity theory perspectives to consider Pedagogy Technology Support Private School Organisation School Perspective Technological Perspective Pedagogical Perspective Pedagogical Perspective expansive learning Public School Organisation OPSNS service DOE WCED Parents’ Homes Educators’ Homes Online Audiences Compare 2 at a time
    35. 35. Use Activity Theory to understand conflict and tension in change School PerspectiveEducator January 30, 2015 Prepared by Travis Noakes 3. What are the key factors to consider for sustained OPSNS as e-portfolio use in the Visual Arts in South African Secondary Schools? 4. What are the results of mentoring educators in OPSNS on their perception and use of Web2.0 software in Visual Arts education? Derive the benefits of e-portfolio adoption Justify IT expenses to concerned parents Justify IT expenses to concerned parents Technological Perspective Keep costs low OPSNS business Help show the value of the school’s ICT investment In 1 laptop per child Create an online Visual Arts history using the school’s learners Become a pedagogical authority on using new media for Visual Arts education Multiple objectives Deliver the syllabus in line with the National Curricular Statement (NCS)
    36. 36. Researcher Educator Learners Decision Makers (School, DOE) Support Staff Home (Parents) Boarding House Online Audiences An Activity Theory pedagogical perspective for sustained adoption Rules Community of Practice INTENDED (IDEAL) OUTCOMES SUSTAINED PEDAGOGY Sustained curricular adoption of OPSNS for e-portfolio creation. 3. What are the key factors to consider for sustained curricular adoption? 4. How does mentoring affect educators’ use of web2.0 affordances in curricula? NEW ONLINE PORTFOLIO CURRICULA Concepts of the subject area ✔ Hardcopy artworks ✔ Laptop and desktop computers ✔ Scanners and digital cameras ✔ Internet access ✔ Online Portfolio Social Network Sites (OPSNS) Digital learning portfolios (e-portfolios) Marking criteria (i.e. test checklists) Tools Satisfy educator’s personal beliefs Fall within school’s budget and resourcing National Curriculum Statement alignment School’s professional values Subject’s culture of practice Accords with school policy (i.e. e-safety) Satisfies other DOE policies Discipline norms  Role of Teacher  Role of Learners  Role of Technology Users  Role of IT Support  Role of Software Users  in class Subject Pedagogical Perspective  New Medium  Novel Curricula ✔  Secondary Schools’ educators and learners (15 to 18 years) Object Outcome TRANSFORM Division of Labour ACTION What: Curricular adoption of a new medium 1.How is the new medium used by learners? 2.Does this meet the educators’ goals? Outside? Time for buy-in? ICT proficiency? Third-party resource? Dominant pedagogic approach. Addressing the needs and preferences of educators and learners. Benefits? Varied drivers… Not ideal OPSNS users Service down: plan B?
    37. 37. Rules Community of Practice INTENDED (IDEAL) OUTCOMES ORGANISATIONAL SUSTAINABILITY Sustained curricular adoption of OPSNS for e-portfolio creation. Tools Subject Object Outcome TRANSFORM Division of Labour What: ICT investment delivers better outcomes for learners and their parents An Activity theory school perspective for sustained curricular adoption NEW ONLINE PORTFOLIO CURRICULA Curricular support Resource allocation Follow government policy Meet legal & social obligations Adhere to strategic plan Control costs Apply VA department’s policy Approval criteria for new curricula Executive School Management Educators and Support Staff Prepared by Travis Noakes School Perspective  Educator  New Curricula  Secondary School’s Management and Executive  Role of School Executive  Role of School Management  Role of Educator Benchmarks? Examples? ROI? Sufficient? Support staff resourcing? Track record? Maintenance costs? ACTION
    38. 38. NEW ONLINE PORTFOLIO CURRICULA Computers Scanners and Digital Cameras Online access Online Portfolio Social Network Sites (OPSNS) Digital learning portfolios (e-portfolios) Affordable Service Level Agreement Access Rules Terms of Use School Policy E-Safety Privacy Policy Copyright Visual Arts Department IT Department External Support Researcher School Executive Online Audiences  Role of Educator  Role of IT Support  Role of Technology Users  Role of Software Users  in class An Activity Theory technological perspective for sustained adoption Rules Community of Practice INTENDED (IDEAL) OUTCOMES TECHNOLOGICAL SUSTAINABILITY Sustained curricular adoption of OPSNS for e-portfolio creation. Tools Subject Object Outcome TRANSFORM Division of Labour What: Reliable provision of ICT within budget. Prepared by Travis Noakes Technological Perspective  New Medium  Novel Curricula  Educator’s IT support Support levels ? Planning? Learner support at home? Software guidance? Additional support? Web2.0 service sustainability? Legal skills? ACTION
    39. 39. Prepared by Travis NoakesJanuary 30, 2015 Issues from third generation Activity Theory SCHOOL MANAGEMENT AND PEDAGOGICAL PERSPECTIVES  Without a strong pedagogical rationale from the educator, school management may stop adoption of new curricula.  School management may need to apply resourcing to more important items in its strategy. This may delay or prevent the rollout of OPSNS in curricula.  If the costs of resourcing new curricula become high, school management may act to stop these curricula.  In the absence of a clear value proposition, high maintenance costs may lead to new curricula being rejected by school management.  Best teaching with ITC may require two educators, not one. School management may not support added costs.  Educators may need support in learning about new copyright conventions, e-safety, etc. before they roll-out Web2.0 related curricula. School management may not support this if it is costly.
    40. 40. Prepared by Travis NoakesJanuary 30, 2015 TECHNOLOGY AND PEDAGOGY PERSPECTIVES  If the costs of providing OPSNS technology support and broadband access are high, the IT Department may restrict or block OPSNS use.  Many public schools will not have an IT Department. Their educators may find providing IT support in new curricula too much of a burden.  The multiple legal requirements of supporting the curricula may be too onerous for poorly-resourced schools.  OPSNS may own the copyright of work uploaded to them, which could conflict with the learner’s and educator’s interests.  Web2.0 OPSNS are a free(-mium), third-party service, which changes regularly. Updating curricula to keep up with changes (i.e. new GUI and terms of use) may pose a problem for the educators.  OPSNS are designed for creative professionals, not learners. Educators will find it hard to prevent learners from using software affordances that compromise e-safety (such as contact details). It could be worthwhile to encourage the development of an OPSNS service designed for learners. Issues from third generation Activity Theory, cont.
    41. 41. Prepared by Travis NoakesJanuary 30, 2015 DOE AND PEDAGOGY  If the WCED wants to publish curricula, but educators and/or their schools believe that these belong to them, then tension between the ownership of curricula and publishing them online will occur.  Without the support of a broader Visual Arts educators’ Community of Practice, the school’s educator may not see real professional benefit in using Web2.0 technologies. OTHER  Learners from well-resourced homes may choose to use OPSNS there. This may pose a challenge to the fairness of educator’s marking criteria, when learners without after-hours access do not have sufficient time to use digitisation and OPSNS equipment in in class. Issues from third generation Activity Theory, cont.
    42. 42. The key factors for sustained adoption of OPSNS for e-portfolio use #1 KEY CRITERIA FOR INITIAL ADOPTION FACTORS Change aide influence (WCED curricular adviser or researcher) Educator buy-in Sufficient technological resourcing (or ability to upscale) No major new costs to the school NEW UNDERSTANDING OPSNS curricula are unlikely to “bubble-up”! If school, the WCED and/or DOE want to promote ICT Literacy they need to support interested educators with appropriate resources. Preliminary pilot research findings from “Choose an Online Portfolio” by Grade 10, private school learners Prepared by Travis NoakesJanuary 30, 2015
    43. 43. The key factors for sustained adoption of OPSNS for e-portfolio use #2 KEY CRITERIA FOR SUSTAINED ADOPTION  Out-of-school resources  Budget to increase resources  Interested learners  Educator assistance with web2.0 media  Visual Arts department policy  Support from curricular advisers NEW UNDERSTANDING 1. Visual Art’s department policy must be updated quickly to assure sustained adoption. 2. Learners with out-of-school support and resourcing are likely to produce more substantive online portfolios. Preliminary pilot research findings from “Choose an Online Portfolio” by Grade 10, private school learners Prepared by Travis NoakesJanuary 30, 2015
    44. 44. An educator’s opinion of Web2.0 software’s value in Visual Arts education? Preliminary pilot research findings from “Choose an Online Portfolio” by Grade 10, private school learners 2010 OUTCOMES SEVERAL WEB2.0 SOFTWARE SERVICES COULD OFFER VALUE In just over a year, an educator has moved from not using web2.0 media to using varied services in class. In addition to Carbonmade, colourlovers.com (a colour palette generation SNS service) was used in a new “Exploration of Colour” curriculum. Diigo.com is a social bookmarking service that will be used to give learners’s feedback and allow them to comment on each others’ work within a secure environment in grade 11. Dribbble.com allows visual creatives to respond to each others’ works. This could be used as a “soft launch” for grade 11’s to receive audience feedback. IT WILL BE DIFFICULT TO MOVE TO WEB2.0 FROM DESKTOP SOFTWARE Corel Draw is used in educating learners, because its reliable and the educator is familiar with it. There may be cheaper web2.0 alternatives, but these will not be adopted into curricula unless the educator has time and support to learn new services. ONLINE SCHOOL ART COMPETITIONS The educator will be entering online digitised learner work into Saatchi & Saatchi’s international school art competition this year.
    45. 45. Colour palette creation with colourlovers.com
    46. 46. Sharing web bookmarks and comments via diigo.com
    47. 47. Post-and-response of small designs on www.dribbble.com
    48. 48. Entering t-shirt design competitions at springleap.com
    49. 49. OTHER USES SUPPORT A SCHOOL’S STUDENTS WHILE THEY’RE ON EXCHANGE Carbonmade was used by the educator to give feedback to a grade 12 learner on exchange in preparation for his matric exhibition. ONLINE VISUAL EVIDENCE FOR LEARNING SUCCESSES Opportunity to augment the text descriptions of Visual Arts on the school’s website by providing links to the best portfolios - In preparation, the Visual Arts department is working to update its webpages. ALUMNAE EXHIBITIONS Creates an easily accessible record of past students’ work when used with social bookmarking lists - This supports online exhibitions of current and former students’ work in the computer lab. DEMOCRATICES EDUCATION Learners’ can exercise their voice and the educator may choose to address valid concerns. Preliminary pilot research findings from “Choose an Online Portfolio” by Grade 10, private school learners Other ways Web2.0 software offers value to Visual Arts educators
    50. 50. THANKS to this research’s supporters National Research Foundation. University of Cape Town, Department of Film and Media Studies. Dr Marion Walton Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Department of Informatics and Design. Prof Johannes Cronje & Educational Technology MA & PhD Colleagues January 30, 2015 Prepared by Travis Noakes Video screengrabs from John Salt of
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