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Using Activity theory to study e-portfolio adoption
 

Using Activity theory to study e-portfolio adoption

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Using Activity theory to study the factors influencing the sustained adoption of e-portfolio curricula by secondary school Visual arts educators in South Africa.

Using Activity theory to study the factors influencing the sustained adoption of e-portfolio curricula by secondary school Visual arts educators in South Africa.

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  • Thanks to Cheryl and colleagues for organising the event and making my research proposal available. For those I haven’t met, I’m a third year PhD in Media Studies candidate. The focus of this talk is on how Activity theory could be used in labeling research data with the factors that are likely to influence (sustained) curricular adoption. Linking diverse data into a coherent thesis is a big challenge and I look forward to feedback on my proposed solution... even if it is to try something completely different :) !
  • The project explores key considerations for sustained e-portfolio curricular adoption by secondary school Visual Arts educators.
  • In class, I explore what students do with online portfolios and how they meet or subvert their educators’ curricular goals. I have combined my research proposal’s questions 1 and 2, to avoid duplication.
  • Understanding classroom use and challenges, will be supplemented by understanding school organisational factors.
  • It is also important to understand the impact of students’ out-of-class resourcing and support, particularly when e-portfolio curricula are adopted by well-resourced versus under-resourced students in different schools. This project will be done at a well-resourced school with kids from mostly affluent homes AND at a less well-resourced school with kids from non-affluent/under-privelidged backgrounds. This use of Activity Theory to answer this question will be similar to the others, so it will not be covered in this presentation.
  • I chose to use Activity theory after trying to write a research proposal with other approaches…
  • As you’ll see, Activity Theory provides frameworks enable media, student and educator activities in the classroom to be related to a broader social context.
  • In 2010, student activities in class were successfully captured using research tools 1 to 4. Although “school” and “out of class” activities have been captured using interviews, these must be augmented with a more comprehensive out-of-class questionnaire and interviews with all students.
  • In 2011, fieldwork continues at the private school and begins at the public one: Peer and featured portfolio review forms have been introduced to help students better understand the e-portfolio as a “ cultural form ” . There’s a more comprehensive out-of-class questionnaire Student marks may be used to check against student dis-interest Activity theory frameworks will be used to create a thorough “educator questionnaire”.
  • With many research tools, this research project must find a common thread for writing its thesis. This slide shows the Activity Theory frameworks to be used in defining high-level relationships, that the thesis describes in greater detail. As you can see, each includes the “object” of activity and the relationships in it that are relevant to its question.
  • A common thread in my research is sustainability factors; whether they be in-class, at-school or out-of-class. There is potential to develop a coding for defining inter- and intra-framework relationships that influence adoption. This Activity theory framework illustration highlights how problems between inter-framework relationships could be listed.
  • In answering question 1, these intra-framework problem areas could be analyzed using this sequence.
  • An activity in its broad sense can be analysed at different levels. This slide shows how I intend to link the Activity theory hierarchy with software affordances. The challenges experienced with software use (and other tools) in class can be coded according to activity framework relationships, too.
  • The following slides highlight how “Before” and “After” Activity Theory frameworks will be used in this research.
  • I am returning to the illustration of inter-framework relationships to answer question 2, which I’ve elaborated to show Educator and Community inter-framework relationships.
  • The educator (or subject)’s perception of the challenges undermining curricular compliance could be listed within their Activity framework like this.
  • Challenges undermining curricular compliance for, and from, the community could be listed within their Activity framework like this.
  • A key Activity Theory insight is that there is no common object between organisations involved in reforms and this leads to tensions and conflicts. For a sustained adoption to take place, these must not be too great to prevent buy-in from the subjects involved. This illustration shows how the objectives of subjects in different perspectives can create conflict for e-portfolio adoption.
  • Activity theory Inter-framework perspectives focused on pedagogy, school and technology support in school. This perspective is the one for pedagogy and it is useful for highlighting several concerns in the relationships between the constructs of: subject, tool, object, rules, community of practice and division of labour: - Visual Arts Educators “must” draw on third-parties to launch and, potentially, sustain e-portfolio curricula. DOE policy does not define ICT proficiency clearly. Nor does it include it in an ICT framework. Visual Arts Educators may lack the time to secure buy-in from their department. Educators have varied objectives for adopting e-portfolios. This framework would need to be modified for a new school. In the absence of other examples, what is the value of adopting a new medium into curricula? Keen learners could derive the most value out-of-class, though “out-of-class “ activities have not defined in the curriculum statement.
  • The school organization perspective focuses on physical, financial and human resources. Schools management’s goals are to: - Maximize value from an ICT investment. - Prove the value of parents’ educational investment. - Be a sustainable organisation. Visual Arts Department’s new curricula must assist in showing the value of the private school’s ICT investment.
  • The technological perspective focuses on staff, influence, hardware and software. A school’s IT support aims for: - stability and scalability, standards and protocols, realizing value from the ICT investment. As a non-core IT activity, Visual Arts Department’s new curricula must not burden the IT Department with many demands on its often stretched resources.
  • Activity Theory has been used for showing why educational change is so difficult. A long list of issues that relate to e-portfolio adoption in school illustrates the challenge facing sustained adoption. And this is just from three perspectives!

Using Activity theory to study e-portfolio adoption Using Activity theory to study e-portfolio adoption Presentation Transcript

  • USING ACTIVITY THEORY to study e-portfolio adoption at school Prepared by Travis Noakes February 26, 2011
    • The research questions
    • Why does this project use Activity theory?
    • The research tools
    • Activity theory framework relationships Research Questions 1 & 2
    • Feedback
    Find more of my presentations on www.slideshare.net/TravisNoakes
        • Travis Noakes ’ research
        • PhD in Media Studies candidate at the
        • Centre for Film and Media Studies,
        • University of Cape Town.
  • RESEARCH QUESTION on e-portfolio curricular adoption Prepared by Travis Noakes February 26, 2011 What are the considerations for introducing e-portfolios and social network sites into Visual Arts curricula in two South African secondary schools?
  • RESEARCH QUESTION on classroom activities Prepared by Travis Noakes February 26, 2011 Question 1: How do students ’ activities in class meet and subvert the outcomes and goals set in the educator's curricula? 
  • RESEARCH QUESTION on school factors Prepared by Travis Noakes February 26, 2011 Question 2: For educators and students, what obstacles and tensions do they seem to think are likely to prevent their sustained use of e-portfolios?
  • RESEARCH QUESTION on out-of-school factors Prepared by Travis Noakes February 26, 2011 Question 3: How is student e-portfolio use influenced by the availability of out-of-class ICT resources, support and online participation in social network sites? Image from http :// muyskens.com /photo2.html Image from http :// socialter.fr / files 2010 /07/3042261105_42c4f039ff.jpg
  • WHY ACTIVITY THEORY? The long and winding road….
    • ✖ Usability testing
    • ✖ Diffusion of Innovations Theory
    • ✖ Use-In-Practice Methodology
    • ✖ Social Network Theory
    • ✔ Activity theory
    Prepared by Travis Noakes February 26, 2011
  • WHY ACTIVITY THEORY? Prepared by Travis Noakes February 26, 2011
    • Activity Theory-based research projects this decade that focused on ICT’s use in pedagogy include:
    • Cher Ping Lim’s theoretical framework for the study of ICT in schools (2002);
    • Susie Groves and Joyce Dale’s research into young children’s use of calculators (2005);
    • Russell and Schneiderheinze’s research into understanding teachers’ educational innovations (2005);
    • Joanne Hardman’s research into teacher’s perceptions of computer usage at a primary school level in South Africa (2005) and pedagogy (2008);
    • Ian Robertson’s research into sustainable e-learning and professional development (2008).
    • Research tool USED DIGITISED LABELLED ANALYSED
    • RESEARCH TOOLS IN CLASS
    • Video each class Y Y N N
    • Content analysis spreadsheets Y Y Y Y
    • E-portfolio screengrabs Y Y N N
    • E-portfolio questionnaire Y Y N N
    • RESEARCH TOOLS OUT OF CLASS
    • Educator interviews Y Y N Y
    • Curricular advisers interviews Y Y N Y
    • Out-of-class questionnaire Y N N N TO BE REDESIGNED
    • Student interviews Y Y N N INCOMPLETE
    • OTHER
    • Research journal Y N N Y
    • Workshops Y Y N Y
    2010 research tools Prepared by Travis Noakes February 26, 2011
  • 2011 research tools
    • IN CLASS
    • Video each class
    • Content analysis spreadsheets
    • Peer and featured portfolio review forms
    • E-portfolio screengrabs
    • E-portfolio questionnaire
    • OUT OF CLASS
    • Activity frameworks
    • Activity framework subject interviews
    • Educator interviews
    • Curricular adviser interviews
    • Educator questionnaire
    • Out-of-class questionnaire (version 2)
    • Student interviews
    • Student marks
    • OTHER
    • Research journal
    Prepared by Travis Noakes February 26, 2011
  • Activity theory frameworks’ relationships provide a common thread
    • Question 1: Student use of e-portfolios in class and curricular compliance
    • Link Activity theory hierarchy with software affordances: Object - Subject - Tool - Outcome
    • Activity theory frameworks for “ before ” and “ after ” e-portfolio adoption: Object - Subject - Tool Outcome – Community – Rules - Division of Labour ( “ before ” and “ after ” )
    • Question 2: Obstacles and tensions undermining sustained use
    • Activity theory frameworks for pedagogy (educator), school management (principal), technology (IT head), curriculum (DOE adviser) and family system (learners and parents/guardians). Object - Outcome - Community - Rules - Division of Labour
    • Question 3: Impact of key out-of-class resources
    • Activity theory frameworks for students ’ use of e-portfolios in-class versus out-of-class for public and private schools Object - Tools - Community - Rules - Division of Labour - Outcome
    Prepared by Travis Noakes February 26, 2011 Problem areas that undermine sustained adoption can be drawn from Activity theory framework relationships between: Subject , Tool, Object, Outcome Community , Rules, Division of Labour Understanding considerations for sustained adoption:
  • QUESTION 1 Defining inter-framework factors for coding student use Prepared by Travis Noakes February 26, 2011 Tools Subject Object Outcome TRANSFORM ACTION 1 S-O O-S 2 S-T T-S 3 T-O O-T 4 SO-Out Out-SO Activity Theory (phase 1) 1 > 4 Interpsychological Rules Community of Practice Division of Labour Activity Theory (phase 2) 5 > 14 Intrapsychological 5 S-R R-S 6 R-O O-R 7 R-C C-R 11 D-C C-D 8 C-S S-C 10 C-O O-C 12 D-S S-D 13 D-O O-D 9 C-T T-C 14 CO-Out Out-CO Proposed coding; Intra-framework: i.e. framework “A” to “B” or inter-framework relationships.
  • QUESTION 1 Intra-framework challenges for the student subject Prepared by Travis Noakes February 26, 2011 1 Subject to Outcomes | Outcomes to Subject Subject ’ s activity leads to negative outcomes (i.e. student e-portfolio creation compromises privacy and safety) Outcomes undermine the subject (i.e. e-portfolio use leads to lower Visual Arts grade) 2 Subject to Object | Object to Subject Subject experiences difficulties within the object (i.e. student does not follow the e-portfolio curriculum) Object creates problems for the subject (i.e. e-portfolio curriculum takes up too many of the student ’ s Arts classes) 3 Subject to Tools | Tools to Subject Subject experience problems with tools (i.e. student cannot use e-portfolio due to ICT failure) Tool-usage poses a problem to the subject (i.e. inappropriate tool-use contributes to student distraction) 4 Subject to Community | Community to Subject Subject experiences challenges within the community (i.e. school management does not provide curricular resourcing) The community obstructs the subject (i.e. community campaigns against e-portfolio use) 5 Subject to Rules | Rules to Subject Subject has difficulty with rules (i.e. educator cannot address all e-portfolio rules in short curriculum) Rules create problems for the subject (i.e. educator is sued for enabling student copyright infringement) 6 Subject to Division of Labour | Division of Labour to Subject Subject has difficulty with the division of labour (i.e. educator needs in-class support whilst teaching ICT) The division of labour poses problems for the subject (i.e. educator ’ s inexperience with using peer-to-peer education)
  • QUESTION 1 Hierachial structure of student e-portfolio use in class Prepared by Travis Noakes February 26, 2011 Linking Activity Theory hierachy to levels of software affordance use TYPES OF SOFTWARE AFFORDANCE accumulate combine result in ACTIVITY THEORY RESULTS Positive or Negative Strategic Tactical Operational Goals Activities Actions Operations Outcomes Learners’ use Educators’ curricular aims CHALLENGES TO SUSTAINED CURRICULAR ADOPTION Negative Subverted curricular aims Unreliable & inefficient + + = Learners’ use
  • QUESTION 1 Class: before and after e-portfolio adoption February 26, 2011 Prepared by Travis Noakes Rules Community of Practice NEW OUTCOMES IDEAL OUTCOME BENEFITS OF CURRICULAR ADOPTION LEAD TO SUSTAINED E-PORTFOLIO CURRIULAR USE BY SECONDARY SCHOOL EDUCATORS Tools Subject Visual Arts educator Students from grade 10 and 11 Support teacher Curricular adviser IT decision-maker Integration adviser Object Outcome TRANSFORM Division of Labour ACTION New Object: Secondary school visual arts’ educators’ curricular adoption of e-portfolios “ Before” and “After” Activity Theory frameworks used for research Existing, relevant tools New tools Rules before Additional rules Members before New members Roles before Roles to consider after
  • QUESTION 1 A new “object” with new objectives The curricular adoption by secondary school Visual Arts educators of electronic learning portfolios (e-portfolios) and their use by grade 10 and 11 students. Prepared by Travis Noakes February 26, 2011
    • The “ tool ” and “ task ” objectives in new classes include:
    • Grade 10 students, and older can create a Visual Arts e-portfolio.
    • Grade 10, and older, students can use social bookmarking.
    • Grade 11 students can select an appropriate e-portfolio service.
    • Sustained use of a digital medium into matric.
    • Grade 12 students have an e-portfolio specifically prepared to accommodate out-of-school opportunities.
    • Experience of digital and online media production.
    • Interaction with online audiences.
    • The “ meta-functional ” results may include:
    • Learn aspects of “digital media literacy” that creative pros use.
    • Realise the pedagogical benefits of e-portfolio use (new learning opportunities, archive of learning, relevance, self-reflection, critical thinking, motivation, planning, creativity and personalization).
    • An holistic view of learners’ outcomes that are easily retrieved for better exhibition preparation.
    • Showcase learners’ (and educators’) achievements online.
    • Learners can easily be integrated the school’s Visual Arts’ history.
    • Help justify a school’s ICT investment.
    New object New outcomes after e-portfolio curricular adoption
  • QUESTION 1 “Tool” changes in secondary school Visual Arts class All schools: Curricula and revised syllabi E-portfolio adoption guidelines for educators E-portfolio assessment and marking criteria (i.e. content analysis spreadsheets, peer review forms) Well-resourced schools: Laptop and desktop computers Scanners and digital cameras Internet access Web2.0 online portfolio site access for e-portfolio creation Under-resourced schools: Mobile phone cameras Khanya labs with internet access and/or local art center access Extra-curricular access: Home or boarding school Internet café Existing, relevant tools New tool additions after adoption Prepared by Travis Noakes February 26, 2011 All schools: Temporary studio Hardcopy artworks Well-resourced schools: Dedicated art studio (End of year, 3-D exhibition)
  • QUESTION 1 “Community” changes Prepared by Travis Noakes February 26, 2011 At school: Visual Arts educator His or her students Their peers Other Visual Arts staff Parents and guardians School management Provincial Department of Education’s curricular advisers Realspace exhibition audiences Community before New community members after adoption
    • In class:
    • Support teacher
    • IT support
    • Outside class:
    • Integration assistant (i.e. experienced creative professional or
    • DOE curricular adviser)
    • Online portfolio audiences
    • Desired (community of practice)
    • Undesirable (grooming)
  • QUESTION 1 “Division of Labour” changes Prepared by Travis Noakes February 26, 2011 Teaching: Fine Arts educator Students: Learner Roles in class before Additional roles after adoption Teaching: Visual Arts/Design educator Organizing second teacher for ICT support Organizing IT support Students: Computer and e-portfolio user roles (creator, viewer, critic) Interaction with online portfolio communities of practice (COP) Social bookmarking user and related COP Peer-to-peer instruction and feedback Showcase extra-mural art and other personal interests
  • QUESTION 1 “Rules” changes February 26, 2011 Rules before Rules to consider after Outside class: Satisfy educator’s personal beliefs. Fall within school’s budget and resourcing. Curricular alignment with the National Curriculum Statement. School’s professional values. Educator’s culture of practice. Accords with school policies. Satisfies other DOE policies. Discipline norms. Fine Art literacies. Outside class: Provincial and National DOE Visual Arts Department Strategy. Division of responsibilities in the DOE (who promotes ICT proficiency, ICTL?) Defining new media literacies relevant to SA school contexts (core) Curriculum planner resourcing and policy Adherence to an ICT proficiency definition and criteria for benchmarking. Addressing DOE subject-area literacies (i.e. Visual Communication Design). Educators able to teach with technology. Visual Arts (versus Fine Arts) literacies. Youth media production patterns. Demonstrable benefits from ICT investment Educator performance (private versus public) and commitments. In the syllabus and curricula: ICT resource allocation in class and integration of external resources. Second teacher for technology support. Time allocation in the syllabus (5% of Visual Arts outcome). E-portfolio curricula and Visual Arts syllabi integration. E-portfolio service selection. E-portfolio assessment and marking criteria. Self-presentation as a creative professional. Quality digitization. Legal safety (respecting copyright and trademarks). E-safety (privacy protection). Terms of use for e-portfolios, networks and computers. Educator’s tracking of compliance and appropriate feedback levels.  Using social bookmarking for e-portfolio assessment and feedback. Expectations on suitable content (extra-mural work, school exhibitions). Appropriate student focus in class. Online roles (creator, viewer, critic). Online community standards. Using the resourcing and support available for (in)formal learning at home.
  • QUESTION 2 Inter-framework factors for coding obstacles to use Prepared by Travis Noakes February 26, 2011 Tools Subject Object Outcome TRANSFORM ACTION 1 S-O O-S 2 S-T T-S 3 T-O O-T 4 SO-Out Out-SO Activity Theory (phase 1) 1 > 4 Interpsychological Rules Community of Practice Division of Labour Activity Theory (phase 2) 5 > 14 Intrapsychological 5 S-R R-S 6 R-O O-R 7 R-C C-R 11 D-C C-D 8 C-S S-C 10 C-O O-C 12 D-S S-D 13 D-O O-D 9 C-T T-C 14 CO-Out Out-CO Proposed coding; Intra-framework: i.e. framework “A” to “B” or inter-framework relationships.
  • QUESTION 2 Educators’ perceptions of challenges undermining curricular compliance Prepared by Travis Noakes February 26, 2011 1 Subject to Outcomes | Outcomes to Subject Subject ’ s activity leads to negative outcomes (i.e. educator ’ s e-portfolio creation compromises student safety) Outcomes undermine the subject (i.e. e-portfolio use leads to lower student grades and risk of job-loss) 2 Subject to Object | Object to Subject Subject experiences difficulties within the object (i.e. educator ’ s ICT pedagogy contributes to low e-portfolio compliance) Object creates problems for the subject (i.e. e-portfolio curriculum takes up a lot of the educator ’ s home time) 3 Subject to Tools | Tools to Subject Subject experience problems with tools (i.e. educator has insufficient ICT resources to run curriculum in class) Tool-usage poses a problem to the subject (i.e. tool failures disrupts educators ’ class) 4 Subject to Community | Community to Subject Subject experiences challenges within the community (i.e. educator does not receive sufficient curricular resourcing) The community obstructs the subject (i.e. community campaigns against e-portfolio use) 5 Subject to Rules | Rules to Subject Subject has difficulty with rules (i.e. educator cannot address all e-portfolio rules in short curriculum) Rules create problems for the subject (i.e. educator is sued for enabling student copyright infringement) 6 Subject to Division of Labour | Division of Labour to Subject Subject has difficulty with the division of labour (i.e. educator does not have in-class support to teach ICT optimally) The division of labour poses problems for the subject (i.e. students ’ peer-to-peer education undermines educator ’ s role in class)
  • QUESTION 2 Community inter-framework challenges to adoption Prepared by Travis Noakes February 26, 2011 7 Community to Outcomes | Outcomes to Community Community ’ s activity leads to negative outcomes (i.e. e-portfolio adoption contributes to lower grades) Outcomes undermine the community (i.e. e-portfolio costs and hazards outweigh benefits to community) 8 Community to Object | Object to Community Community experiences difficulties within the object (i.e. cost of e-portfolio use raises conflict levels between staff ) Object creates problems for the community (i.e. student e-portfolio misuse leads to legal and PR problems) 9 Community to Tools | Tools to Community Community experience problems with tools (i.e. not sufficient bandwidth to support user-friendly e-portfolio access) Tool-usage poses a problem to the community (i.e. out-of-class tool access unfairly advantages well-resourced students) 10 Community to Subject | Subject to Community Community experiences challenges with the subject (i.e. the community education The subject obstructs the community (i.e. the educator ’ s ICT pedagogy does not address community concerns) 11 Community to Rules | Rules to Community Community has difficulty with rules (i.e. community is unable to apply important rules) Rules create problems for the community (i.e. following 20 new rule sets causes tensions) 12 Community to Division of Labour | Division of Labour to Community Community has difficulty with the division of labour (i.e. community cannot provide two educators for optimal ICT teaching) The division of labour poses problems for the community (i.e. parents are not happy with students showcasing graffiti)
  • QUESTION 2 Understanding intra-framework conflict and tension School Mx Perspective Pedagogical Perspective February 26, 2011 Prepared by Travis Noakes Pedagogical benefits of e-portfolio adoption Justify educational costs to parents or guardians Technological Perspective Keep costs low Keep costs low Keep costs of e-portfolio adoption low Be a sustainable business through profit Be a sustainable business through profit Online portfolio Web2.0 business Help show the value of the school’s ICT investment In 1 laptop per child Create an online Visual Arts history using the school’s learners Become a pedagogical authority on using new media for Visual Arts education Multiple objectives Deliver the syllabus in line with the National Curricular Statement (NCS) Justify employment through good enrolment and good results Subjects to interview: Educator Curricular manager IT Department head Curricular adviser Software developer Develop a reputation for pedagogical leadership in ICT
  • QUESTION 2 Pedagogical perspective for sustained adoption
    • Researcher
    • Educator
    • Learners
    • Decision Makers (School, DOE)
    • Support Staff
    • Home (Parents)
    • Boarding House
    • Online Audiences
    Rules Community of Practice INTENDED (IDEAL) OUTCOMES SUSTAINED PEDAGOGY Sustained curricular adoption of OPSNS for e-portfolio creation. 3. What are the key factors to consider for sustained curricular adoption? 4. How does mentoring affect educators’ use of web2.0 affordances in curricula?
    • NEW ONLINE PORTFOLIO CURRICULA
    • Concepts of the subject area ✔
    • Hardcopy artworks ✔
    • Laptop and desktop computers ✔
    • Scanners and digital cameras ✔
    • Internet access ✔
    • Online Portfolio Social Network Sites (OPSNS)
    • Digital learning portfolios (e-portfolios)
    • Marking criteria (i.e. test checklists)
    Tools
    • Satisfy educator’s personal beliefs
    • Fall within school’s budget and resourcing
    • National Curriculum Statement alignment
    • School’s professional values
    • Subject’s culture of practice
    • Accords with school policy (i.e. e-safety)
    • Satisfies other DOE policies
    • Discipline norms
    • Role of Teacher
    • Role of Learners
    • Role of Technology Users
    • Role of IT Support
    • Role of Software Users
    • in class
    Subject
    • Pedagogical Perspective
    • New Medium
    • Novel Curricula ✔
    • Secondary Schools’ educators and learners (15 to 18 years)
    Object Outcome TRANSFORM Division of Labour ACTION
    • What:
    • Curricular
    • adoption of a
    • new medium
    • How is the new medium used by learners?
    • Does this meet the educators’ goals?
    Outside? Time for buy-in? ICT proficiency? Third-party resource? Dominant pedagogic approach. Addressing the needs and preferences of educators and learners. Benefits? Varied drivers… Not ideal OPSNS users Service down: plan B?
  • Rules Community of Practice INTENDED (IDEAL) OUTCOMES ORGANISATIONAL SUSTAINABILITY Sustained curricular adoption of OPSNS for e-portfolio creation. Tools Subject Object Outcome TRANSFORM Division of Labour
    • What:
    • ICT investment delivers better outcomes for learners and their parents
    QUESTION 2 School perspective for sustained adoption
    • NEW ONLINE PORTFOLIO CURRICULA
    • Curricular support
    • Resource allocation
    • Follow government policy
    • Meet legal & social obligations
    • Adhere to strategic plan
    • Control costs
    • Apply VA department’s policy
    • Approval criteria for new
    • curricula
    • Executive
    • School Management
    • Educators and Support Staff
    Prepared by Travis Noakes
    • School Perspective
    • Educator
    • New Curricula
    • Secondary School’s Management and Executive
    • Role of School Executive
    • Role of School Management
    • Role of Educator
    Benchmarks? Examples? ROI? Sufficient? Support staff resourcing? Track record? Maintenance costs? ACTION
    • NEW ONLINE PORTFOLIO CURRICULA
    • Computers
    • Scanners and Digital Cameras
    • Online access
    • Online Portfolio Social Network Sites (OPSNS)
    • Digital learning portfolios (e-portfolios)
    • Affordable
    • Service Level Agreement
    • Access Rules
    • Terms of Use
    • School Policy
    • E-Safety
    • Privacy Policy
    • Copyright
    • Visual Arts Department
    • IT Department
    • External Support
    • Researcher
    • School Executive
    • Online Audiences
    • Role of Educator
    • Role of IT Support
    • Role of Technology Users
    • Role of Software Users
    • in class
    QUESTION 2 Technological perspective for sustained adoption Prepared by Travis Noakes
    • Technological Perspective
    • New Medium
    • Novel Curricula
    • Educator’s IT support
    Support levels ? Planning? Learner support at home? Software guidance? Additional support? Web2.0 service sustainability? Legal skills? ACTION Rules Community of Practice INTENDED (IDEAL) OUTCOMES TECHNOLOGICAL SUSTAINABILITY Sustained curricular adoption of OPSNS for e-portfolio creation. Tools Subject Object Outcome TRANSFORM Division of Labour What: Reliable provision of ICT within budget.
  • Prepared by Travis Noakes February 26, 2011 QUESTION 2 Issues for sustained curricular adoption
    • SCHOOL MANAGEMENT AND PEDAGOGICAL PERSPECTIVES
    • Without a strong pedagogical rationale from the educator, school management may stop adoption of new curricula.
    • School management may need to apply resourcing to more important items in its strategy. This may delay or prevent the rollout of e-portfolio curricula.
    • If the costs of resourcing new curricula become high, school management may act to stop these curricula.
    • In the absence of a clear value proposition , high maintenance costs may lead to new curricula being rejected by school management.
    • Optimal ICT teaching may require two educators, not one. School management may not support added costs.
    • Educators may need support in learning about new copyright conventions, e-safety, etc. before they roll-out Web2.0 related curricula. School management may not support this if it is costly.
  • Prepared by Travis Noakes February 26, 2011
    • TECHNOLOGY AND PEDAGOGY PERSPECTIVES
    • If the costs of providing e-portfolio support and broadband access are high, the IT Department may restrict or block e-portfolio use.
    • Many public schools will not have an IT Department. Their educators may find providing IT support in new curricula too much of a burden.
    • The multiple legal requirements of supporting the curricula may be too onerous for poorly-resourced schools.
    • E-portfolio may own the copyright of work uploaded to them, which could conflict with the learner’s and educator’s interests.
    • Web2.0 e-portfolios are a free(-mium), third-party service, which changes regularly. Updating curricula to keep up with changes (i.e. new GUI and terms of use) may pose a problem for the educators.
    • E-portfolios are designed for creative professionals, not learners. Educators will find it hard to prevent learners from using software affordances that compromise e-safety (such as contact details). It could be worthwhile to encourage the development of an OPSNS service designed for learners.
    QUESTION 2 Issues for sustained curricular adoption, cont.
  • Prepared by Travis Noakes February 26, 2011
    • DOE AND PEDAGOGY
    • If the WCED wants to publish curricula , but educators and/or their schools believe that these belong to them, then tension between the ownership of curricula and publishing them online will occur.
    • Without the support of a broader Visual Arts educators’ Community of Practice, the school’s educator may not see real professional benefit in using Web2.0 technologies.
    • OTHER
    • Students from well-resourced homes may choose to use OPSNS there. This may pose a challenge to the fairness of educator’s marking criteria, when learners without after-hours access do not have sufficient time to use digitisation and OPSNS equipment in in class.
    QUESTION 2 Issues for sustained curricular adoption, cont.
  • Trav’s takeaway question on coding… Prepared by Travis Noakes February 26, 2011 Can I use Activity Theory frameworks for dual coding that: 1. Defines the relationship level: inter- or intra-framework; 2. Defines the relationship: construct to construct.
  • THANKS to this project’s supporters National Research Foundation Research funding www.nrf.ac.za University of Cape Town, Department of Film and Media Studies. Dr Marion Walton www.marionwalton.com Digimobs research group colleagues http :// digimobsa.wordpress.com Centre for Educational Technology www.cet.uct.ac.za Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Department of Informatics and Design. Prof Johannes Cronje http:// johannescronje.blogspot.com & Educational Technology MA & PhD colleagues February 26, 2011 Prepared by Travis Noakes