9 children (40 grand-children and 37 great-grandchildren)
Albert died in 1861 at the young age of 42.
For the rest of her reign she wore black.
Britain became the most powerful country in the world, with the largest empire that had ever existed, ruling a quarter of the world's population.
The number of people living in Britain more than doubled, causing a huge demand for food, clothes and housing.
Factories and machines were built to meet this demand and new towns grew up, changing the landscape and the ways people lived and worked.
Railways, originally built to transport goods, meant people could travel easily around the country for the first time.
Life in Victorian Times
The quality of life depended on whether you were rich or poor.
Big, comfortable houses.
Children were taught to "know their place".
"Spare the rod and spoil the child"
Brought up by their nanny
Children rarely saw their parents. A 1-hour visit in the nursery each night
The 1834 Poor Law Amendment Act -> workhouse.
Strict with lots of rules.
Husbands were separated from their wives, children taken from their parents.
Death in the city
1851 -> half the population lived in towns
The towns -> work + higher wages than the countryside.
The countryside -> healthier.
A baby born in a large town with a population of more than 100,000 in the 1820s might expect to live to 35 - in the 1830s, -> 29.
1851, a boy born in inner Liverpool -> 26 years, countryside -> 57.
Cholera and typhoid -> polluted water,
Typhus -> lice,
‘ Summer diarrhoea' -> swarms of flies feeding on horse manure and human waste.
Children were employed for 3 simple reasons :
There were plenty of them in orphanages and they could be replaced easily if accidents occurred
Cheaper than adults
Small enough to crawl under machinery to tie up broken threads
1841 Mines Act - No child under the age of 10 to work underground.
1868 Agricultural Gangs Act - No child under the age of 8 to be employed in a gang of farm workers.
1874 Factory Act - No child under the age of 10 is to be employed in a factory.
1875 Climbing Boys Act - Illegal to send boys up chimneys.
Children as young as 5 worked;
When a woman entered a room, it was considered rude for a man to offer his seat to her because the cushion might still be warm.
People thought food digested better in the dark, so a dining room located in the basement was considered the best spot in which to eat.
A glance into a bedroom was considered improper if viewed by a visitor, so bedrooms were located on the second floor.
For a lady to show her ankles was considered very risqué!
People were shy about having water closets, so they disguised fixtures as dressers and cabinets. Tubs were enclosed in wooden boxes that resembled large chests. People went to great lengths to hide toilets from view. In some homes, they were behind a curtain or screen, or even in a room of their own.