SUSTAINABLE TOURISM…1. Is integrated with and respectful of the culture, homeland, heritage, and people of a place;2. Provides a unique and authentic experience for the visitor;3. Generates localized economic development benefits;4. Has a balanced or beneficial impact on the environment;
SUSTAINABLE TOURISM…5. Generates revenue that is invested in conserving and enhancing the unique features of the community;6. Provides an educational experience for the visitor that leaves them enriched and inspired to create positive change at home;7. Encourages diverse parties to work together to create new opportunities and to address common challenges; and8. Serves target markets that are profitable, with promising long term viability.
SUSTAINABLE TOURISM…Refers to a level of tourism activity that can be maintained over the long term because it results in a net benefit for the socio-cultural, economic, and natural environments of the area in which it takes place. (ICOMOS 2002)
TRIPLE BOTTOM LINEAn expanded baseline for measuring performance, addingsocio-cultural and environmental dimensions to thetraditional economic benchmark; a positive triple bottomline in tourism means a net:•Improvement in conservation of the natural environment;•Social benefit for local communities;•Profit for business owners and shareholders; and•Gain for national and regional economies.
TRIPLE BOTTOM LINE PEOPLE PLANET PROFIT
GEOTOURISMGeotourism is defined as tourism that sustains or enhances the geographical character of a place—its environment, culture, aesthetics, heritage, and the well-being of its residents.Source: National Geographic Center for Sustainable Destinations
Why should we care?
DESTINATION TOURISM STYLES DIFFER IN RELATION TO PLACETouring R&R Entertainment
touring‐style tourism relies on human and physical character of placeACTIVITIES• sightseeing• history• nature• scenery• hiking / Nordic skiing• local shopping• typical cuisine• photography• culture & festivals
Photo by Sue Parsons, Flickr
Photo by Peter Marbach
touring‐style tourism relies on human and physical character of placeACTIVITIES CHARACTERISTICS• sightseeing • Diffuse impact • history• nature • Human powered• scenery • Supports small businesses• hiking / Nordic skiing • Requires protecting nature • local shopping and heritage• typical local cuisine• photography • Needs architecture, • culture & festivals landscapes, culture unique to the locale.
R & R tourism depends only on physical character of placeACTIVITIES• coastal resorts• golf• downhill skiing• water sports• vacation homes
R & R tourism depends only on physical character of placeACTIVITIES CHARACTERISTICS• coastal resorts • risk of sprawl• golf • environmental impacts• downhill skiing • opportunity for architecture, • water sports landscaping, cuisine, day tours, • vacation homes that suit the locale
entertainment‐style tourism manufactured attractions do not depend on character of placeACTIVITIES• theme parks• outlet malls• amusement parks • convention centers• sports arenas • casinos
entertainment‐style tourism manufactured attractions do not depend on character of placeACTIVITIES CHARACTERISTICS• theme parks • changes nature of locale• outlet malls • high impact• amusement parks • mass tourism• convention centers • high traffic• sports arenas • high employment generator• casinos
DESTINATION STYLE DRIFT . . . if development unchecked, unguided Touring R&R Entertain- mentUnspoiled SPOILED ?destination
Visit Beautiful Oregon!
Plog’s psychographic continuum After Stanley C. Plog, PhD “MATURE” DESTINATIONVENTURERS Centric- Centric- PAROCHIALS Venturers Parochials (DEPENDABLES) Near- Near- Parochials Venturers ParochialsVenturers
BACK TO THE PRINCIPLES…
1. Sustainable tourism is integrated with and respectful of the culture, homeland, heritage, and people of a place;
TIMBERLINE LODGEON MT. HOOD
KAH-NEE-TAWARM SPRINGS RESERVATION
KUNA YALA PANAMA
2. Sustainable tourism provides a unique and authentic experience for the visitor;
PORTLAND BRIDGE PEDAL
DAS PARK HOTEL Ottensheim, Austria
3. Sustainable tourism generates localized economic development benefits;
4. Sustainable tourism has a balanced or beneficial impact on the environment;
Why do this? • 80% of American travelers consider themselves as environmentally conscious • 51% claim despite the economic downturn they still want to patron good (sustainable) businesses(Source: Travel Industry Association and Ypartnership, 2009)
Eight out of 10 (78%) U.S. adults consider themselves "environmentally conscious"• 85% turn out the lights when they leave a room;• 67% practice energy efficiency by regulating air conditioning and heating when not at home;• 53% keep showers short.(Source: Travel Industry Association and Ypartnership, 2007)
Thirty-two percent of those surveyed said they will be more environmentally conscious in their travel decisions this year, as compared with 26 percent last year. (Source: TripAdvisor 2009)
APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY Oregon Parks & Rec Dept. Composting Toilets Smith Rocks, Oregon • virtually odorless • solar power used to drive ventilating fan • less frequent removal of remaining solids • compost used for fertilizerThe system was designed and fabricated by Biological Mediation Systems, Inc., of Colorado.
GREEN DESIGNMONTEREY BAY SHORES RESORT
MONTEREY BAY SHORES RESORTRooftop solar panels & living walls
5. Sustainable tourism generates revenue that is invested in conserving and enhancing the unique features of the community;
Example: Lindblad Expeditions International Ecotourism CompanyLindblad seeks to travel in anenvironmentally responsible way,leaving the places they visit as theyfound them. They raise money from their guests to support local conservation efforts in the regions where their vessels operate.Photo of research station by Holly Gordon and photo of the M/S Polaris by L, Arnold Frederick off of the LindbladExpeditions website at www.Expeditions.com.
LAPA RIOS Costa Rica Guided tours with local guides help support the ongoing maintenance and land preservation.A portion of profits to supportlocal schools.Photos from the Lapa Rios website at http://laparios.com/laparios.htm.
DOLLARS A DAYfor Conservation ProgramAlaska During 2001, 35 AWRTA business participants of the program raised over $25,000 for conservation organizations.For more information visit the Alaska Wilderness Recreation and Tourism Association website athttp://www.awrta.org/dollarsaday.html. Photo of Juneau, Alaska by Craig Dahl, 2002.
UNICEF’S TAP PROJECT
HEATHMAN HOTEL & FRIENDS OFFOREST PARK
Why do this?Globally, “voluntourism” is one of the fastest growing segments of the travel market
6. Sustainable tourism provides an educational experience for the visitor that leaves them enriched and inspired to create positive change at home;
KOTOWA COFFEE TOURS Boquete, Panama
7. Sustainable tourism encourages diverse parties to work together to create new opportunities and to address common challenges; and
South African National Parks Hoerikwaggo Trail - short video -
METHOW VALLEY Multi-Use Trails • 125 miles of multi-use trails (winter & summer activities) • Many public access points, connecting two towns • Links Nordic trail system, Pacific Crest trail, hikers and mountain bikers • Formed a private non-profit to coordinate marketing, events, maintenanceTaken from the Methow Valley Sport Trails Association website at http://www.mvsta.com. http://www.mvsta.com.
8. Sustainable tourism serves target markets that are profitable, with promising long term viability.
From eco‐ to geo‐Manage tourism so that it pays to Sightseeing/ protect the place, GEOTOURISMnot destroy it. Adventuring Cultural tourism Culinary tourism Ecotourism (nature) Civic Heritage tourism tourism Agri‐ Indigenous tourism tourism All place‐based types of tourism = the ENTIRE destination