Session 33 Riekele de Boer


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  • Opgericht in 1798 Circa 9.000 medewerkers 240 standplaatsen in het land 10 regionale en 5 landelijke diensten, 35 districten, 2 projectdirecties Jaarlijks budget: 4 tot 5 miljard euro In Dutch road planning the Ministry of Transport is involved in various roles including: policy development; decision-making, competent authority; project developer, proponent; research for impact statements, preparation of EIS / development of methods and techniques; construction of infrastructure; exploitation of infrastructure, operation & management.
  • lengte nationale rijkswegennetwerk: 3260 km lengte nationale rijkswaterwegennetwerk: 1686 km oppervlakte landelijke watersysteem: 65.250 km2 lengte geluidwerende voorzieningen: 710 km Overige gegevens, misschien interessant om te noemen: 16 tunnels 8 aquaducten 7 ecoducten 2589 viaducten 62 beweegbare bruggen 671 vaste bruggen 14344 bewegwijzeringborden 7137 km geleiderail
  • Densely populated 41.500 km 2 16.5 million citizens Much traffic 3.200 km highways 6 million cars 150.000 trucks Strict laws and regulations for the environment Air quality regulations  reducing problems at road projects unaffordable
  • What is the problem with air quality in NL?: This! Background concentration NO2 as well as PM10 are high Because of densely populated, industrialized country. This causes health problems premature deaths Problems with complying to EU regulations => Spatial development projects halted (housing, working, transport infra)
  • National Cooperation Programme on Air Quality (NSL) Derogation by EU Inter-governmental approach Area-oriented programme approach Effects (all) projects compensated by local and generic measures (road pricing!!) 5 years time frame Requirement to implement measures NSL has been sent to EU, Parliament, Public review (no appeal possible) Specific model: sanitation tool and monitoring (1x / yr revision) March 2009 start? NL in 2015 everywhere compliance to standards NOx PM10 (  background concentrations) No testing of compliance to standard at project level Project => programme approach (link between spatial and environmental decision-making)
  • Without too much detail in it is nice to go to the last 2 years to look back On the basis of figures: Two years is a testing ground. 2 years to do displays tests, which means: 2 towns (Ermelo and Putten) and 1 recreation 0 complaints from citizens of these communities for this test? Meter chopped takkenweg? 23 entries for the contest? 8 winners? 1 Minister? 9 screens tested in the laboratory of which 6 players? 1 large graffiti image on one of the screens? 1 stone through the glass screen? measuring 5 rounds of 3 months? 918 meter length best screens? ? trucks with concrete for the foundation? 54 posts? 595 panels of 4 to 1 meter + 17 T-tops in and out had to be hung? 4 dim slots? 13 measurement setup? 55 Measuring instruments for particulate matter, NOx and ozone measuring 700 filters? Meteo 7 meters? 9 fences?. angry farmers ?-?????? ? km of cables? 11,000 watts of power? 4 CCTV-s-many men with dogs?. coffee bags? 13 meetings of the scientific backing? 2 different cameras to the long-run vehicles to count? Meet 11,000 hours of which 1750 hours good measurement? 1 new cycle? ? 30,000 liters span NO? 5 drenched laptops? 8000 MB Een betere vertaling voorstellen
  • Technisch inhoudelijke punten
  • Technisch inhoudelijke punten
  • Inhoud: werking maatregelen
  • Procedurepunten ‘ IPL paradox’: limited effectiveness (content-wise) but successful (process-wise)
  • Session 33 Riekele de Boer

    1. 1. Transportforum 2010 <ul><li>IPL Air Quality Innovation Programme </li></ul><ul><li>Air Quality alongside motorways </li></ul>Riekele de Boer Centre for Transport and Navigation
    2. 2. Rijkswaterstaat <ul><li>Rijkswaterstaat is the executive agency of the Dutch </li></ul><ul><li>Ministry of Transport, Public Works & Water Management </li></ul><ul><li>Mission statement of Rijkswaterstaat: </li></ul><ul><li>Keeping Dutch feet dry </li></ul><ul><li>Sufficient and clean water supply </li></ul><ul><li>Smooth and safe traffic on roads and waterways </li></ul><ul><li>Reliable and usable information. </li></ul>
    3. 3. National Road Network <ul><li>3.260 km motorways (64 national roads) </li></ul><ul><li>710 km noise barriers </li></ul><ul><li>2.533 viaducts, 715 bridges </li></ul><ul><li>16 tunnels </li></ul><ul><li>8 aqueducts </li></ul><ul><li>7 ecoducts </li></ul><ul><li>14.244 signposts </li></ul><ul><li>7.137 km barriers </li></ul>
    4. 4. Air Quality in the Netherlands The problem
    5. 5. Air Quality in the Netherlands <ul><li>Exceedances: </li></ul><ul><li>NO 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>along motorways </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in major cities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PM 10 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in major cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in centre and south </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Air Quality in the Netherlands <ul><li>National Air Quality Cooperation Programme (NSL) </li></ul><ul><li>European, national AND local measures needed </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperation Ministry VROM with other ministries, provinces and municipalities </li></ul><ul><li>Aims: </li></ul><ul><li>Public health </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial projects </li></ul><ul><li>Comply with European standards (‘derogation’) </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation Programme Air Quality (IPL) </li></ul>
    7. 7. IPL Air Quality Innovation Programme <ul><li>2005 – 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>20 Million € </li></ul><ul><li>9 large scale field trials </li></ul><ul><li>3500 meetings </li></ul><ul><li>60.000 hours members IPL team </li></ul><ul><li>12 final reports with English summary </li></ul>IPL
    8. 8. IPL Air Quality Innovation Programme <ul><li>Aim: </li></ul><ul><li>identify, develop and test local measures </li></ul><ul><li>that can contribute to improve </li></ul><ul><li>air quality along motorways </li></ul>
    9. 9. IPL Air Quality Innovation Programme <ul><li>Partnerships </li></ul><ul><li>Government : Ministry of Transport, Ministry of Environment, local authorities </li></ul><ul><li>Private sector: consultants, contractors </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge institutes : national and international scientific community </li></ul>
    10. 11. IPL Six directions of potentially promising measures <ul><li>Canopies and air treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic traffic management </li></ul><ul><li>Roadside vegetation </li></ul><ul><li>Road cleaning </li></ul><ul><li>Catalytic Coating </li></ul><ul><li>Noise barriers </li></ul>
    11. 12. IPL Direction 1: Canopies and air treatment <ul><li>Improving air-quality near highway’s in densely populated areas </li></ul><ul><li>light-weight canopies </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structurally sound </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safe and sustainable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High costs </li></ul>
    12. 13. IPL Direction 1: Canopies and air treatment <ul><li>Air pollution near tunnels a potential bottleneck </li></ul><ul><li>Passive and active dispersion techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Passive techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smart canopies: emissions are diluted or diverted by enhanced natural ventilation, multiple ventilation slits or a stack </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Active techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical ventilation and in-stack air-treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High costs and large ecological footprint </li></ul></ul>
    13. 14. IPL Direction 1: Canopies and air treatment <ul><li>Electrostatic Concept: active air technique </li></ul><ul><li>Particulates > 10 nm are positively charged </li></ul><ul><li>Deposit on a grounded gauze </li></ul><ul><li>Test were conducted in the Thomassen Tunnel on the A15 </li></ul><ul><li>Max 15% reduction in vehicle related particulates </li></ul><ul><li>After optimization a higher reduction efficiency is expected </li></ul>
    14. 15. IPL Direction 2: Dynamic traffic management <ul><li>DTM: measure to improve traffic flow and reduces congestion and improves air quality as a favourable side effect </li></ul><ul><li>DTM in the Netherlands </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamax: Optimizing traffic flow by Dynamic maximum speed </li></ul><ul><li>Rerouting the heaviest polluters like lorry traffic </li></ul><ul><li>Forecasting conditions favouring bad air quality </li></ul>
    15. 16. IPL Direction 2: Dynamic traffic management <ul><li>Dynamax test at the A1 (Bussum-Muiderberg) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aim is to reduce annual average NO2 concentration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous monitoring of the traffic intensity by means of induction coils in the tarmac </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptation of the speed-limit to stay below the congestion threshold intensity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traffic information by means of VMS (Variable Message Sign) </li></ul></ul>
    16. 17. IPL Direction 2: Dynamic traffic management <ul><li>Empirical test at the A58 (Goirle-Tilburg) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aim is to reduce the number of day’s the daily PM10 limit is exceeded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>KNMI warns when weather conditions favouring high particulate concentrations are forecasted. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RWS reduces the speed-limit from 120 km/h to 80 km/h </li></ul></ul>
    17. 18. IPL Direction 3: Roadside vegetation <ul><li>The effect of vegetation on air quality is not completely clear. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vegetation is clamed to reduce pollution levels due to filtering action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vegetation affects wind speed causing pollution concentrations to increase </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To gain understanding in the effect of vegetation on air quality two flied trail were conducted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At the A50 near Vaassen a measurement campaign was carried out on existing roadside vegetation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At the A50 near Valburg a measurement campaign was carried out on specially planted vegetation </li></ul></ul>
    18. 19. IPL Direction 3: Roadside vegetation <ul><li>Flied trails </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PM 10 and NO 2 meteorological parameters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simultaneous measurements on patches with and without vegetations to asses the vegetation effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type of vegetation, coniferous or deciduous </li></ul></ul>
    19. 20. IPL Direction 3: Roadside vegetation <ul><li>Results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct along side the motorway pollution levels increase slightly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On moderate distances (50-100 m) a positive effect is found </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vegetation is an un-effective measure in order to meet the threshold levels according to the regulations </li></ul></ul>
    20. 21. IPL Direction 4: Road cleaning <ul><li>Road cleaning: a measure to prevent the resuspension and enhance deposition of dust by wetting the road surface </li></ul><ul><li>International trails suggest that road cleaning has beneficial effect on PM 10 levels. </li></ul><ul><li>In the IPL program several trails and modifications of road cleaning are investigated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In Nijmegen the effect of wetting is studied in relation to porous asphalt concrete (PAC) en dens asphalt concrete (DAC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On the A50 south of Apeldoorn 3 methods cleaning motorways are tested. 2 dry methods and 1 spaying wet road salt (CACl 2 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An extensive trail on the A73 near Malden applying wet CaCl 2 . </li></ul></ul>
    21. 22. IPL Direction 4: Road cleaning <ul><li>Wet cleaning of PAC in Nijmegen showed non significant positive effect compared to DAC (the observation period was short and the effect was small compared to the measurement errors) </li></ul>
    22. 23. IPL Direction 4: Road cleaning <ul><li>CaCl 2 spraying: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CaCl 2 is used to extend the duration of the wetting effect because it attracts and binds moisture. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test on the A73 show that the wetting effect remains more than 48 hours. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CACl 2 spaying reduces the total PM 10 concentration by over 10% and the PM 10 road contribution by 20% to 30% </li></ul></ul>
    23. 24. IPL Direction 5: Catalytic coating <ul><li>Laboratory test have show that TiO 2 and clean stone convert NO and NO 2 in aqueous nitrate. </li></ul><ul><li>During IPL program field test are conducted to find out if noise barriers coated with TiO 2 or made from clean stone show a higher NO 2 reduction potential </li></ul><ul><li>Field tests were conducted along the A1 at Teschuur and along the A28 in de “Proeftuin” at Putten </li></ul>
    24. 25. IPL Direction 5: Catalytic coating <ul><li>Field test A1 at Teschuur </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 panels with different TiO 2 coating were tested </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No significant decrease of the NO 2 concentrations were measured. </li></ul></ul>
    25. 26. IPL Direction 5: Catalytic coating <ul><li>Field test A28 at Putten </li></ul><ul><ul><li>During a period of 3 months a noise barrier coated with TiO 2 and a porous noise barrier were tested </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No significant decrease of the NO 2 levels were measured </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Explanation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Short contact time between exhaust gasses and barrier </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meteorological conditions, wind speed & direction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low temperature, low radiation level, high humidity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No evidence is found that coated noise barriers show an improved performance towards the deduction of NO 2 </li></ul></ul>
    26. 27. IPL Direction 6: Noise barriers <ul><li>Along the A28 at Putten a Barrier test-site “De Proeftuin” was erected in 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>A 4 m noise barrier as reference and 8 other noise barriers were tested in periods of 3 months </li></ul><ul><li>Amongst these were innovative designs and coated barriers. </li></ul>
    27. 28. IPL Direction 6: Noise barriers Arrangement of the test-site “De Proeftuin”
    28. 29. IPL Direction 6: Noise barriers Impression of the measurement equipment
    29. 30. IPL Direction 6: Noise barriers <ul><li>Result </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 m reference barrier </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advanced barriers to improve contact time or turbulent mixing like the T-top, do not perform better than the reference barrier. </li></ul></ul>7 14 NO 2 34 PM 10 13 20 NO x Average impact 28.5m [%] Average impact 10m [%]
    30. 31. IPL Direction 6: Noise barriers Schematic situation Wind direction
    31. 32. IPL Facts and figures test site noise barriers 2 local authority 1 amenity area 0 complaints of citizens 1200 meters road made of chopped branches 23 entries for the competition 8 winners of the competition 1 Minister 9 barriers tested of which 6 from contractors 1 stone through the glass screen 5 measurement rounds of 3 months each 918 meter of tested noise barrier 13 measurement set up 55 measuring instruments 5 drenched laptops 10 km cable 11000 watt Many men with dog 11.000 measuring hours of which 1.750 useful measurements 4 damped ditches 700 filters
    32. 33. Final Remarks <ul><li>IPL has yielded a vast amount of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Many results are ready for use 12 final reports with English summary </li></ul><ul><li>Some topics need further research </li></ul><ul><li>IPL has ended  work on air quality along motorways continues </li></ul>
    33. 34. Final Remarks 1: Content <ul><li>Big research effort on air quality and roads </li></ul><ul><li>Large scale test sites </li></ul><ul><li>High quality measurements and data-analysis </li></ul><ul><li>PM 10 difficult to measure </li></ul><ul><li>Measurement vs. Modelling </li></ul><ul><li>Lab-experiments vs. practical experiments </li></ul>
    34. 35. Final Remarks 1: Content <ul><li>Relevance of measures studied: </li></ul>+ Barriers - Catalytic coatings + Road surface +/- Vegetation +/- DTM + Canopies and air treatment
    35. 36. Final Remarks 2: procedures <ul><li>IPL: extra measures with limited effect (‘end of pipe’) </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, focus on source measures and cooperation between governments </li></ul><ul><li>‘ IPL paradox’ </li></ul>
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