Session 33 Kaarle Kupiainen

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  • Population: Helsinki 568.000, Espoo 238.000, Tampere 208.000, Vantaa 193.000, Turku 175.000, Kerava 33.000, Riihimäki 28.000
  • Session 33 Kaarle Kupiainen

    1. 1. Studies about the effect of street cleaning equipment on PM 10 Kaarle Kupiainen, Nordic Envicon Oy Liisa Pirjola, Metropolia University of Applied Sciences Jari Viinanen, City of Helsinki Transportforum 2010, Linköping, 13.1.2010 Transportforum 2010
    2. 2. Outline of the presentation <ul><li>Starting points </li></ul><ul><li>A mobile street surface PM 10 emission measurement system in the SNIFFER vehicle </li></ul><ul><li>Street cleaning equipment tests in the KAPU-project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>KAPU-project 2006-2009 </li></ul>Transportforum 2010
    3. 3. Starting points when considering PM 10 and cleaning equipment <ul><li>Efficiency of removing suspendable PM 10 from street surface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Current equipment is not efficient in removing PM 10 on short term (but not all need to be!) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dust reducing (PM 10 ) equipment coming in the future? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Street surface emissions vary very much in Nordic conditions (spring peak) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Emissions from the equipment during operation should also be considered </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outcoming cleaning air (especially with equipment that operates dry or ”semi-dry”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There are different filtering technologies and current equipment is not efficient in reducing PM 10 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How about equipment that use much water? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exhaust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Euro-standards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alternative fuels (e.g. CNG or biogas) </li></ul></ul></ul>Transportforum 2010
    4. 4. Street cleaning equipment – studies do not report technical details -> often hard to evaluate the results; often different methods are used in combination Transportforum 2010
    5. 5. Cleaning equipment tests in the KAPU-project (2006-2009) – the reseach questions <ul><li>Does state-of-the-art filtering reduce PM 10 emissions in the outcoming air from a mechanical brush sweeping system (Dulevo)? </li></ul><ul><li>How does the cleanings affect street surface PM 10 emissions? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modern state-of-the-art street scrubber </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical brush sweeping system (Dulevo) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vacuum sweeper </li></ul></ul>Transportforum 2010
    6. 6. Street surface PM 10 emission measurement method Transportforum 2010
    7. 7. Transportforum 2010
    8. 8. Minimizing environmental impact of the equipment during operation - Effect of state-of-the-art filtering (Gore-filter) on PM 10 -emissions of the Dulevo 5000 * Transportforum 2010 <ul><li>Research aims in the KAPU-project: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To measure the effect of advanced filtering technology (Gore-filter) on PM 10 -emissions in the outcoming air </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measure the effect of cleaning on street surface PM 10 -emissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In 2009 also traditional vacuum cleaner Dulevo 7000 was tested </li></ul></ul></ul>* Mechanical brush with slight vacuuming, used frequently in Finland in removing coarse material, e.g. traction sand, from street environments
    9. 9. Equipment Transportforum 2010 Dulevo 5000, City (regular filter) Dulevo 5000, Evolution (Gore filter) Dulevo 7000 traditional vacuum cleaner
    10. 10. Study location: Viikintie, Helsinki Traffic lights Roundabouts Turning point Turning point Measurement speeds Outcoming air 7-8 km/h Road surface 40 km/h 1bc 1d 2 3 4 Transportforum 2010
    11. 11. Transportforum 2010 Study location in Spring 2009
    12. 12. Results – Dulevo 5000 outcoming air PM 10 concentrations <ul><li>2008 (summer time street surface emission levels): </li></ul><ul><li>Gore-filter reduced the outcoming particle concentrations by 56% in average </li></ul><ul><li>DNV sertification measurements in Italy reduction 48% </li></ul><ul><li>2009 (spring dust period): </li></ul><ul><li>Gore-filter reduced particle concentration by about 95% </li></ul><ul><li>Gore-filter resulted in reduced PM 10 concentrations in the outcoming air from the device </li></ul><ul><ul><li>extra cost 2500€ compared with regular fit filter (total cost of the equipment 160 000€) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less cleaning of the filter required (lower maintenance costs) </li></ul></ul>August 2008 April 2009 Transportforum 2010
    13. 13. Efficiency in mitigating street surface PM 10 emissions - what does the earlier reasearch say? <ul><li>Current cleaning methods effective in removing visible dust and debris and traction sand </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency decreases towards smaller dust grain sizes </li></ul><ul><li>International literature indicates positive efficiencies on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>suspendable solids (<100 µm from street surface): 10 to 50% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>street side TSP (RGVS+washing, Chang et al., 2005 ) : 0 to 30% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Efficiencies to remove PM 10 less promising: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>street side PM 10 (vacuuming, Fitz 1998): no effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>emission potential (vacuuming, Kuhns et al., 2003): no effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>street side PM 10 (washing, Lohmeyer et al. 2004): no effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>street side PM 10 (washing, Johansson et al. 2005): no effect </li></ul></ul><ul><li>However, cleaning measures remove material that is potentially fragmented to PM 10 (Kuhns et al., 2003) </li></ul>Transportforum 2010
    14. 14. Street surface PM 10 emissions in Viikintie in 2009 (Dulevo 5000 and Dulevo 7000) <ul><li>Dulevo 5000 mechanical brush with slight vacuuming </li></ul><ul><li>Dulevo 7000 traditional vacuum sweeper </li></ul><ul><li>The equipment did not reduce street surface PM 10 emissions </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional brush and vacuum sweeper equipment seem not to be efficient in acute mitigation of PM 10 emissions from street surfaces (However, no results from very high dust loads!) </li></ul><ul><li>Beneficial in long term, removes and mobilixes dust forming material from the street environment </li></ul>Transportforum 2010
    15. 15. Transportforum 2010 Street scrubber equipment
    16. 16. Modern state-of-the-art street scrubber – Street surface PM 10 emissions before and after cleaning in Tikkurila, Vantaa, spring 2008&2009 <ul><li>Cleanings were done in Vantaa, Tikkurila KAPU-route in March April 2008 and in April 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>The route was devided into parts that were cleaned either with </li></ul><ul><ul><li>street scrubber (red line) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vacuuming (dashed line) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How did the cleaning affect street surface PM 10 emissions? </li></ul>Transportforum 2010
    17. 17. 2008 results – measured SNIFFER street surface PM 10 emissions Transportforum 2010
    18. 18. 2008 results – street surface PM 10 emission reductions <ul><li>Reductions up to 50% were observed </li></ul><ul><li>Note that the street surface PM 10 emission level was very high! </li></ul>Transportforum 2010
    19. 19. 2009 results – measured SNIFFER street surface PM 10 emissions <ul><li>Street surface PM 10 emission level approximately half of the 2008 level </li></ul><ul><li>Not as clear emission reductions as in 2008 </li></ul>Transportforum 2010
    20. 20. 2009 results – street surface PM 10 emission reductions <ul><li>Minor reductions were observed on some of the streets but emissions increased on some streets </li></ul><ul><li>Note that the street surface PM 10 emission level was significantly lower than in 2008! </li></ul>Transportforum 2010
    21. 21. Conclusions – street scrubber <ul><li>With high road surface emission levels (e.g. Sniffer signal >3500 µg/m 3 ) scrubber showed systematic reductions </li></ul><ul><li>With lower emission levels (1000-2000 µg/m 3 , close to summertime levels) the results are not as clear </li></ul><ul><li>The street scrubber’s reduction effect is a result of a combined high pressure washing (water penetrates the microstructure of the pavement, removing dust and debris) and subsequent suction of the formed sludge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different approach than with traditional vacuuming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Best results need proper operation and maintenance of the equipment (this applies to all celaning equipment) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Street scrubber does not solve the spring time road dust problem but may accelerate the reducing PM 10 emission trend observed during spring </li></ul>Transportforum 2010
    22. 22. Conclusions from equipment <ul><li>Vacuuming and mechanical brushing are not efficient methods in reducing street surface PM 10 emissions in the short term </li></ul><ul><li>Street scrubber resulted in reductions in street surface PM 10 emissions especially in high street dust loads (beginning of spring) </li></ul><ul><li>With lower street dust loads (summertime levels) the street scrubber did not show systematic reductions </li></ul><ul><li>To minimize the environmental impacts of the e.g. mechanical brush sweeping equipment during operation, good and cost efficient solutions exist to reduce the outcoming PM 10 emissions from the cleaning equipment (outcoming cleaning air) </li></ul>Transportforum 2010
    23. 23. KAPU-project 2006-2009 <ul><li>Participants and funders: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research organizations: Nordic Envicon Oy and Metropolia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7 cities in South/South-Western Finland (Helsinki, Espoo, Vantaa, Tampere, Turku, Kerava, Riihimäki) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variation in: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>size (population 28 000-568 000, altogether 1 443 000) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>winter maintenance practices (all sanding – sand and salt) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other: Ministry of Environment, Helsinki Metropolitan Area Council (YTV), Local and Regional Government Finland, Berner Oy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New, more efficient equipment for spring cleaning (BAT)? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Street scrubbers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Best practices of winter maintenance and dust suppressing? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mitigation of dust from construction sites </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Both public works and environmental departments had to be involved </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Detailed bookkeeping of street specific winter maintenance measures by the cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specified route that is driven by Sniffer-vehicle </li></ul></ul>Transportforum 2010
    24. 24. Thank you! <ul><li>Kaarle Kupiainen, Ph.D. </li></ul><ul><li>Nordic Envicon Oy </li></ul><ul><li>Koetilantie 3 </li></ul><ul><li>00790 Helsinki, Finland </li></ul><ul><li>Tel. +358 50 538 2174 </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>Transportforum 2010

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