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Session 27 Björn Birgisson
Session 27 Björn Birgisson
Session 27 Björn Birgisson
Session 27 Björn Birgisson
Session 27 Björn Birgisson
Session 27 Björn Birgisson
Session 27 Björn Birgisson
Session 27 Björn Birgisson
Session 27 Björn Birgisson
Session 27 Björn Birgisson
Session 27 Björn Birgisson
Session 27 Björn Birgisson
Session 27 Björn Birgisson
Session 27 Björn Birgisson
Session 27 Björn Birgisson
Session 27 Björn Birgisson
Session 27 Björn Birgisson
Session 27 Björn Birgisson
Session 27 Björn Birgisson
Session 27 Björn Birgisson
Session 27 Björn Birgisson
Session 27 Björn Birgisson
Session 27 Björn Birgisson
Session 27 Björn Birgisson
Session 27 Björn Birgisson
Session 27 Björn Birgisson
Session 27 Björn Birgisson
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Session 27 Björn Birgisson

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  • 1. Presentation at Transportforum 2009 Energieffektiv väg- och banhållning Low Energy Techniques in Pavement Engineering and Management Prof. Björn Birgisson Division of Highway and Railway Engineering The Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) & Prof. Dariusz SybilskiIBDiM (Road & Bridge Research Institute), Warsaw, Poland
  • 2. What will I talk about?• Sustainability and environmental protection in Highway Engineering• Variety of Warm Asphalt Mixtures •2
  • 3. • Sustainability and environmental protection in Highway Engineering• Variety of Warm Asphalt Mixtures •3
  • 4. Sustainable and Environmental Friendly Roads – Material Solutions• Contribution of the Asphalt Industry• Use of materials – Re-use – recycling – Use of secondary materials• Minimising waste – No waste• Environment – Reduction emissions & odour• Living environment – Noise reduction• Energy consumption – Energy & CO2 reduction• Energy harvesting pavements (longer pavement life, less heat island effect in cities) •- 4 -
  • 5. Sustainable and Environmental Friendly Roads – Design and Management Solutions• Development of new high-performance, long-lasting pavement material solutions and designs for: – Whole life pavement analysis and design that integrate: • Mechanistic design principles • LCC • vehicle-road interaction for reduced fuel consumption (5-10 percent for trucks, up to 40 percent for passenger cars!) • QA/QC for improved reliability, longer life – Pavement management systems that focus on reducing energy usage
  • 6. Smog Eating Pavements: Photocatalytic Pavements Also Reduce Heat Island Effect! • Asphalt & Cement with Titaniumdioxide (TiO2):1. NOx-pollutants attach to TiO2-Nanoparticles2. UV (Sun) activates TiO2 producing Ca(NO3)2 that taken away by rain • Example Asphalt with Coating: Via Morandi, Milano, 2002 Nitrog. oxides NOx-Red: 14...50% (5...90kLux) Car UV NO NO2 NONO clean 2 dirty clean Oxidation Oxidation Ca Ca TiO22 Ca(NO33)2 Ca(NO )2 TiO Ca(NO33)2 Ca(NO )2 washed away washed away Italcementi, Technical Report, May 2005) St Ulrich SouthTirol (IT) Impreg top 20mm Ichikawa Photoroad normal Prof. Bocci, Univ. delle Marche, Ancona http://www.fujitaroad.co.jp/tec/hosou/environment/foto-news.htm
  • 7. Modification of Asphalt to Lower Construction Temperatures• Additives to control viscosity during mixing and paving – Does not increase viscosity during paving or recycling of the pavement – Will automatically form asphalt film thicknesses needed for good cracking, rutting and durability performance at a specified construction temperature• Gradation and mix sequencing to control mixing and construction temperatures• Foamed asphalt technology• Wax bitumen• Smart polymer networks that set at a given • = Aggregates threshold cooling temperature
  • 8. Long Life, Low Energy, Low C02 Emission Portland Cement Paste and Concrete• Developed pozzolanic “nano-clay” systems that are more cost effective than silica fume systems• Allows significant replacement of cement in concrete (up to 40 percent) – Cement manufacturing is energy intensive and produces up to 8 percent of all C02 emission in e.g. the U.S.A.• Developed ductile concrete with very low shrinkage properties Nanomodified Cement Paste Nanomodified Concrete Tensile Stress-Strain Response Compressive Stress-Strain Response U n m o d ifie d C o n c re te 3500 3000 2500 M o d ific a tio n I 2000 1500 M o d ific a tio n II 1000 500 0 0.000 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.010 0.012 0.014 0.016 S tra i n
  • 9. Greatly Improved Durability for Longer Life• Superior interface transition zone properties• Low permeability High durability Normal Concrete Nanomodified Concrete
  • 10. • Need for environment protection• Variety of Warm Asphalt Mixtures •10
  • 11. General techniques •11
  • 12. Additives and techniques• Bitumen foaming techniques• Paraffinic and wax additives• Emulsion based techniques• Low-viscosity vegetable based binders• Chemical additives •12
  • 13. Beginnings of Warm Asphalt Mixtures• Shell + Kollo Veidekke, Norway: WAM- Foam, 1997• Next – SASOL, Germany: Sasobit – EUROVIA, Europe: Zeolite, 2001 •13
  • 14. Examples of Foaming techniques• Initiation of bitumen foaming process – WAM-Foam® 130°C – Aspha-min® (Zeolite) 130°C – LEAB® (the Netherlands) – LT-Asfalt® 90°C (The Netherlands) – LEA® - Low Energy Asphalt 90°C (France) •- 14 -
  • 15. •15
  • 16. •16
  • 17. BituFoam® Nynas •Water foam volume •increase by 22%•Bitumen at • 180°C•BituFoam® •17
  • 18. Sasobit® - What is it?• A high molecular mass synthetic aliphatic hydrocarbon• Fischer-Tropsch synthesis from coal or natural gas• High melting - congealing point min. 99°C, melting range 70-115°C• Hard• Low viscosity •18
  • 19. •Hilde Soenen, Nynas •19
  • 20. •20
  • 21. •21
  • 22. Emissions measurements• Reduction of the emissions into the atmosphere – NO2 - 18% – SO2 - 18% – CO2 - 23% – VOC - 19%• Reduction of energy use – Diesel - 23% (1 l/t) •22
  • 23. Advantages WAM (1)• Lower mixing temperature• Lower energy consumption (lower fuel consumption 1÷2 liters/tonne)• Reduction of energy costs of 10-30%• Reduction of green house gasses• Minimize fumes, emissions, and odours• Reduction of workers exposure to fumes at the plant and paving site• Lower laying temperature •23
  • 24. Advantages WAM (2)• Reduction of hinder to neighbours near work sites• Cooler working conditions• Less hardening of the binder• Potential for longer haul distances and still have workability• Positive effect on compaction / higher compaction degree •24
  • 25. Advantages WAM (3)• Pave in cool weather and still obtain density / extension of paving season• Permit higher RAP content without excessive emissions or poor workability• Lower compaction temperature or an extended time for compaction• Lowering dust rejection• Facilitate deep patches• Earlier opening of road for traffic •25
  • 26. Questions?• Aging• Durability• Water in pavement in foaming techniques• Water in aggregate in all WAM techniques – emulsification of bitumen •26
  • 27. Thank you for your attention •27

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