Session 13 Carolina Camén


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Session 13 Carolina Camén

  1. 1. Transportforum 13-14 januari 2010 Service quality on three management levels - a study of service quality in public tendering contracts Presentation at VTI 13-14 January 2010 Carolina Camén Introduction • Today many organisations and local authorities contract out different public services, but aim to control these activities by contractual means. • Contracts are used to ensure that the contractor deliver the service as intended. • The public transport industry faces a challenge in providing an attractive public service using limited financial resources. • To meet these challenges service quality has become important. Introduction continue.. • Provide a service of high quality can be difficult. • In some cases, the service needs to be specified in advance, as does the service quality. • This is the case in the public transport industry where the service is contracted out to external operators in competition with others. • Contracts do not just involve the obligations and duties of the parties, they also stipulate the service to be provided to the end user.Carolina Camén
  2. 2. Transportforum 13-14 januari 2010 Aim • The aim is to contribute towards understanding how service quality factors are stipulated in advance in contracts in order to achieve a service of high quality to its user when the service is contracted out to an external partner. Theories used • Formal contracts serve a number of purposes (Mouzas and Ford, 2007; Roxenhall and Ghauri, 2004; Malhotra and Murnighan, 2002; Roxenhall, 1999; Hart and Holmström, 1987; Macneil, 1978; 1981; Williamson, 1975; Macaulay, 1963) • Theories about service quality (, Grönroos, 1984; Parasuraman, et al., 1988; Zeithaml et al., 1990; Cronin and Taylor, 1992; Fisk et al., 1993; Brown et al. 1994; Rust et al., 2002; Schneider and White, 2004; Johnston and Clark, 2005; Furrer and Sollbergs, 2007 Rust et al., 2002; • Theories about quality connected to public transport (Milan, 1996; Prioni and Hensher, 2000; Ben-Akiva, and Morikawa, 2002; Hensher and Prioni, 2002; Hensher, 2003; Hensher et al., 2003; Davidsson, and Knowles 2006 Paulley, N et al., 2006) Research design • Qualitative approach • An exploratory design were chosen, aimed at developing a better understanding of the service quality design of contracts. • The paper is based on case studies and centres on a comparison of the quality descriptions in contracts.Carolina Camén
  3. 3. Transportforum 13-14 januari 2010 Research context – the public transportation business • First, contracts are widely used and a part of day-to- day operations, and not a context wherein contracts that are signed are never used. • Second, we needed a context wherein contracts are used to monitor operations. • Third, practical considerations required the context to allow data collection using contracts and acquaintance with the content of contracts without revealing business secrets and limiting the research object. Method and sample • The research sample comprised 21 contracts between contractors and operators • (a) contracts between PTA (contractors) and their operators (fulfillers); • (b) written internal materials such as articles of partnership, traffic planning reports, and other internal materials, e.g. educational materials, presentations, minutes etc; • (c) external materials, e.g. annual reports, traffic planning reports Analysis • The analysis had three stages. • Identifications of how service quality identified descriptions of service quality in the contracts. • Identifying categories concerning how service quality was described in the contracts. • Coding data according to identified categories (factors and levels).Carolina Camén
  4. 4. Transportforum 13-14 januari 2010 Findings • Service quality in the contracts can be related to three management levels, operational, strategic and rhetorical level • Operational - A resource-based level focusing on the prerequisites for the outcome of the offering • Strategic - A monitoring level focusing on monitoring the operator. • Rhetorical - A visionary level focusing on the mission and visions Operational - A resource-based level focusing on the prerequisites for the outcome of the offering • The bus should be driven safely. The buses must be performed in a secure way. Services must be perceived as reliable and safe by travellers. • Low floor buses, numbers of seats, and space aboard vehicles and numbers pc small river places, onboard climate (heat), cleanliness inside and outside • Punctuality, total bus kilometres, frequency, service intervals, schedule delays, and the waiting environment are important factors. • A customer will not be satisfied straight off… it is important that drivers have a strong sense of service in their dealings with their customers. • It is the operators that have the responsibility for service levels and these being adjusted according to demand. • Vehicles must always be and feel clean and tidy throughout the journey and on all occasions... In the form of litter, lack of cleaning and vandalism shall be remedied as soon as possible. • Co2, emissions, Environmentally-labelled products should be used wherever possible, e.g. when washing. Strategic - A monitoring level focusing on monitoring the operator • Quality work should be structured on the basis of some form of model. • Fulfillers undertake, in providing services, to act in accordance with public transport authorities’ long-term objectives and goals in order to get more people to use public transport. • Quality is not an independent activity or thought. It should be integrated into all processes and should not be considered external to these. • An environmental management system such as ISO 14001 should be used. The operator needs to follow normal laws and regulations concerning environmental factors.Carolina Camén
  5. 5. Transportforum 13-14 januari 2010 Rhetorical - A visionary level focusing on the mission and visions • It is good to have public transport. • High-quality public transport can lead to more satisfied customers. • It is important to stimulate public transport • The same applies, in order to increase the level of access for the disabled and the elderly. • Public transportation forms part of the ‘zero vision’ endeavour when it comes to road traffic safety. • Having satisfactory public transport at the lowest possible cost. • It is important to have high-quality public transport. Contributions • The identified management levels and defined levels. • The factors that can be found in the contracts are rather similar to previous research • That service quality is a complex matters • The relation between the levels • To use contracts as a unit of analysis Contributions • Contrasts to previous research due to the fact that not customer related quality factors has been incorporated in the contratcs.Carolina Camén
  6. 6. Transportforum 13-14 januari 2010 Thank you! Carolina Camén, Ph D Candidate Phone: +46-54-7001559 E-mail: Carolina.Camen@kau.seCarolina Camén