20100407 kostelec green_infrastructure_web
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  • Station 31 Example, City of CharlotteStudy area is 2.5 mile radius from station (RDI and ID)Link-Node Ratio results from study by City of CharlotteImpacted parcels are those with RDI change greater than 0.20

20100407 kostelec green_infrastructure_web 20100407 kostelec green_infrastructure_web Presentation Transcript

  • Integrating Green Infrastructure into Regional Planning
    2010 APA Conference
    New Orleans, LA
    April 12, 2010
  • Speakers
    State of the Practice & Green Infrastructure Concepts
    Don Kostelec, AICP;
    Transpo Group, Asheville, NC
    Linking Lands & Communities in the Land-of-Sky Region
    Linda Giltz, AICP;
    Land-of-Sky Regional Council, Asheville
    Jacksonville Collector and Green Streets Plan
    Don Kostelec substituting for Chris Lukasina
  • Objectives
    Appreciate how a regional GI network/plan can be used and integrated with other regional and local plans and practices.
    Know state-of-the-practice techniques
    Understand the value in assessing and identifying green infrastructure at a regional, landscape scale.
    Gain insight on what to consider if you want to undertake similar projects.
  • Being Green is Contextual
    Not all things are as they appear
    Some bad may come as a result of a lot of good
    Elected officials don’t like these types of tradeoffs & uncertainties
    Planners need to understand the good/bad and the tradeoffs to be effective
  • Defining Green Infrastructure - Natural Environment
    Green Infrastructure is a region’s Natural Life Support System – an interconnected network of land and water that contributes to the health, economic well being & quality of life for communities & people.
  • Defining Green Infrastructure - Natural Environment
    A GI Network may include:
    Natural areas
    Public and private conservation lands
    Farmlands and lands managed for forestry
    Outdoor recreation areas and trails
    Cultural resources and sites
    GI networks exist at various scales (parcel, community, regional)
  • Defining Green Infrastructure - Built Environment
    Green infrastructure is a way for municipalities, developers, engineers and planner to provide for urban infrastructure that supports and improves the region’s natural resources, including:
    Land, Water, Forests, Air, Etc.
  • Defining Green Infrastructure - Built Environment
    A GI Network may include:
    Reduced impervious structures
    Stream buffer requirements
    Stormwater management practices that treat water at its source
    Street design that promotes efficient transportation (e.g. connectivity policies)
    Provides for safe travel by pedestrians, bicyclists and transit users.
    Again, GI networks exist at various scales (parcel, community, regional)
  • Green Infrastructure Policies
    There is a direct correlation between land use patterns, the way a site is developed and environmental degradation. Well-planned growth using good site design and development practices can restore and prevent environmental degradation and enhance community character.
    RI Department of Environmental Management
  • Characteristics of Policy/Regulations
    Regulations are often developed with no research base.
    Regulations are often developed as an emotional response to some phenomena.
    Regulations are often imposed by layers of cumbersome structure.
    Regulations have many benefits including protecting the health, safety and general welfare of the public.
  • Characteristics of Policy/Regulations
    Regulations serve as a “bar” or standard for the regulator.
    Regulations often impose maximums.
    Regulations often impose minimums (e.g. EPA, federal).
    Regulations that are vague sometimes allow environmental initiatives
  • Impervious Surfaces
  • Impervious Surfaces
  • Typical Language in an Ordinance
    “All built-upon areas shall be designed and located to minimize stormwater runoff impacts to the receiving waters and minimize concentrated stormwater flow.”
    Ideal?
    Too vague?
    Too restrictive?
    Don’t know?
  • Impacts of Stormwater
    Urban stormwater contributes to:
    13% of impaired rivers and streams;
    21% of impaired lakes;
    46% of impaired estuaries;
    55% of impaired ocean shorelines
    Stormwater BMP Maintenance & Inspection
  • Impacts of Stormwater
    Addressed through:
    Controlling stormwater runoff
    Low impact development techniques
    Green architectural techniques
    Green parking lots
  • Street Connectivity as a Green Infrastructure practice
    Cities are looking at a host of transportation, land use, energy, environmental and sustainability policy issues and considering new measurement techniques:
    • Complete Streets Policy
    • Concurrency Program Refinements
    • VMT and GHG per Capita Reduction
  • Background Policy Issues
    • Multi-Modal Level-of-Service (LOS)
    • Street Connectivity Policies
    • Connectivity between new/existing developed lands
    • Non-motorized public accessways and limiting cul-de-sacs
    • Grid-based standards for streets (500 feet ) and Non-motorized (330 feet) – emphasis on smaller block lengths
    • Developing connectivity metrics
  • Systems Connectivity is Important
    Measuring and quantifying system connectivity is essential to evaluating non-motorized plans and central to addressing part of the climate change dilemma.
    Improved street and non-motorized connectivity increases accessibility and route options and reduces VMT and GHG. Traffic congestion, accidents and pollution emissions are reduced while mobility for non-drivers is increased. Emergency response improves because emergency vehicles have more direct access with less the risk that an area will become inaccessible if a particular part of the street network is blocked.
  • Systems Connectivity is Important
    Recent academic studies identified four land use and transportation factors associated with walking and cycling, and the resulting reduction in VMT:
    Density: residential units within a specified area
    Destinations: grocery stores, restaurant, retail, schools
    Distance: to key destinations
    Route: smaller blocks, better sidewalks
     
    The optimization of routes in relations to these factors can help reduce VMT by as much as 35%, with similar reductions in vehicle energy consumption and emissions.
  • Achieving VMT Capita Reduction
    Research conducted in Seattle area by C. Lee and Anne Moudon (University of Washington), 2006: Quantifying Land Use and Urban Form Correlates of Walking
    - 2 %
    - 4 %
    - 5%
    Measures of connectivity helps indicate transportation-efficient land uses that yield lower VMT and GHG per capita
  • What is Route Directness Index?
    A
    B
    straight-line distance “A”
    actual route distance “B”
    RDI = A / B
  • Before
    After
    Impacted Parcels
    Route Directness Index
    Using ViaCityTM
    0.58
    0.62
    1,115
    Intersection
    Density
    55.9
    56.0
    N/A
    Link-Node Ratio
    1.09
    1.10
    N/A
  • Example RDI - Existing Conditions
    Shared-Use Path Connections
  • Using RDI to Test New Project / Plan
    Shared-Use Path Connections
  • RDI is Sensitive to Critical Street Design
    Sensitive to Block Length
    Shared-Use Path Connections
    Sensitive to Cul-de-Sac Length
    305 ft
    330ft
  • Integrating Green Infrastructure into Regional Planning
    2010 APA Conference
    New Orleans, LA
    April 12, 2010