US History survey 8th lectureAmerican Revolutionary War
13 colonies revolted • can you locate colonies on map of N. America? • can you locate colonies on map of current US?
2nd Continental Congress, 1775 - 1776• created Continental Army & elected Washington commander-in-chief, 6/1775.• sporadic fighting, 1775 – 1776.
drama escalates• Olive Branch Petition to George III, 7/1775, to prevent further hostilities.• George III rejected Olive Branch & declared colonists were “in open & avowed rebellion,” 8/1775.• France & Spain shipped supplies to rebels.• 2nd Cont. Congress declared ports open to all except British, 1776.
Thomas Paine “Common Sense”• anonymous pamphlet by Englishman, 1776.• argued in language of common people, not erudite language of elite leaders.• aristocracy & monarchy inappropriate for America.• appealed to millennial, Protestant spirit: “We have it in our power to begin the world over again.”• sold 500,000 copies in 1st year.
Declaration of Independence, 1776
Declaration of IndependenceWe hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men arecreated equal, that they are endowed by their Creatorwith certain unalienable Rights, that among these areLife, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. That tosecure these rights, Governments are instituted amongMen, deriving their just powers from the consent of thegoverned. That whenever any Form of Governmentbecomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of thePeople to alter or to abolish it, and to institute newGovernment, laying its foundation on such principles andorganizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seemmost likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.
signing Declaration• Declaration was all about King George, when Parliament had been enemy.• myth that all signed July 4, 1776.
“Spirit of ‘76” • famous image of Revolution, in pubic building, Marblehead, Massachusetts. • notice characteristics of 3 musicians. • who is not present in the painting? • painted for Centennial, 1876.
“redcoats” in orderly columns
North American actors in Rev.• famous white men: Franklin, Washington, Adams, Jefferson: leaders, politicians, negotiators, writers, diplomats. Wealthy or at least upwardly mobile.• soldiers – white men, boys, some women, common people.• Indians – playing British and Americans against each other.• enslaved people – hoping for freedom.• women – running homes, farms, businesses in absence of men. Following troops to assist them.
Benjamin Franklin (1706 – 1790)• printer, journalist, inventor, scientist.• author, Poor Richard’s Almanack.• Philadelphia, Pennsylv.• postmaster general.• diplomat -- envoy to British & French.• signed Declar. & Const.
George Washington (1732 – 1799) • wealthy planter & slave owner from Virginia. • elected Commander in Chief of Continental Army. • fought in French & Indian War. • land speculator. • lived at Mount Vernon.
John Adams (1735 – 1826) • lawyer & farmer, Massachusetts. • first involved in opposing Stamp Act. • Continental Congress. • helped draft Declaration • diplomat to France.
Thomas Jefferson (1743 – 1826) • wealthy planter & slave owner from Virginia. • designed his home, Monticello. • main author, Declara- tion of Independence. • author, Virginia Statue for Religious Freedom. • diplomat to France.
who?• 200,000 troops out of 350,000 eligible men.• Continental Army & local militia companies.• highest casualty rate of any Am. War, except Civil War.• called themselves Patriots.• Loyalists/Tories – loyal to Great Britain. Some fought for king. Most left after Revolution & settled eastern Canada. Southern planters more likely to be Loyalists.
warfare• no major center of importance.• both sides solicited Indians.• Indians mostly sided with British, because they understood Patriots would extend farther west into Indian lands.• Patriots & Indians fighting for same goals – political independence – cultural integrity – protection of lands & homes.
African Americans• fought on both sides, but not for independence, nor against Parliament, nor to support King George.• fighting for their own interests: freedom.• promised freedom by Virginia royal governor.• irony of revolutionary rhetoric of colonies “enslaved” by Britain.
African Americans• enslaved people in South deserted plantations in huge numbers.• some free people of color in the north fought as Patriots.• all had to weigh possibilities re British, Loyalists, & Patriots• all treated less well than white soldiers.
wartime conditions• sporadic fighting• harsh winters• good conditions for officers, not for soldiers.• lack of food, clothing, shelter, ammunition.• promises of pay – no $$.
adversaries• British had support of king, Parliament, and mercenaries from Hesse (Germany). Adequate $$.• Patriots got support from France & Spain, enemies of England. – troops & navy from France. – trade & supplies with both countries.