US History survey March 6, 2012War of 1812, Indians, politics
US declared war on British, 1812• 1. rights of neutrals to trade during Napoleonic Wars.• 2. British impressment of American sailors.• 3. conquer Canada; extend US throughout the continent. (Loyalists had fled to Canada.)• 4. end British support for Indians; solve settler/Indian conflicts.
impressment –trans-Atlantic trade
justification for War of 1812 • “Uncle Sam” comes from War of 1812. • A meatpacker stamped barrels with “US” & soldiers called it Uncle Sam.
War of 1812
burning of White House & Capitol
results of War of 1812• Treaty of Ghent, 1814 – no land changed hands; war ended, but most issues unresolved• British finally accepted US independence.• Canada remained part of British Empire; mixed constitution of king & Parliament.• immigrants to Canada from Ireland, England, Wales, Scotland.• British naval disarmament on Great Lakes & St. Lawrence R. & borders resolved in next decade.• Indians
Battle of New Orleans, 1815 • ended British plan to take Gulf Coast & New Orleans & encircle US from south, west, & north. • connected to US invasion of Florida;• took place after Treaty forcing out southern of Ghent signed. Indian; & forcing Spain• made Andrew Jackson a to relinquish Florida to hero. US.
Indians• Indian Intercourse Act, 1790 – US couldn’t seize Indian land; treaty required. Principle that Indians were foreign nations.• settlers consistently encroached on Indian land. Cycle of invasion, resistance, defeat.• Jefferson believed Indians should become yeoman farmers.• tribes split between accommodationists & traditionalists.
Tecumseh & Tenskwatawa • goal: create alliance of all Indians to stop westward expansion. • Shawnee brothers. • Tenskwatawa (the Prophet) – Indian revitalization through rejecting American contact & influence. • Harrison – Battle of Tippecanoe, 1811. • end of Indian resistance in Old Northwest.
Tecumseh• "No tribe has the right to sell, even to each other, much less to strangers.... Sell a country! Why not sell the air, the great sea, as well as the earth? Didnt the Great Spirit make them all for the use of his children?”• “The white people are like poisonous serpents: when chilled, they are feeble & harmless; but invigorate them with warmth, and they sting their benefactors to death.”• killed in battle, 1813.
Creek & other Indian wars in SE• Jackson defeated Creeks, 1813. Forced them to cede millions of acres.• 1816 – 1818, Jackson’s troops forced Choctaws, Chickasees, Cherokees to yield land.
1819 treaty with Spain
Adams-Onis Treaty, 1819• US gets Floridas.• US gives up claims to Texas.• treaty line extended to Pacific Ocean.• after Indian dispossession, rapid growth of lands by settlers with slaves.• 3 new slave states enter US – Mississippi, 1817 – Alabama, 1819 – Missouri, 1821
from Britain & Spain, final pieces of eastern North America
Andrew Jackson • from Tennessee. • politician, army general, Indian fighter, rich slave owner. • invaded Florida. • stay tuned for more developments….
“the American System”• Madison & Monroe embraced Federalist program for economic development (Alexander Hamilton) – national bank – tax on imports – national system of roads & canals.• these developments essential for expansion of industry & commerce.
politics – development of parties• Jefferson’s “agrarian republic” – a nation of farmers necessary for a republic.• Virginia dynasty (don’t forget Washington!) were famers: owners of plantations & slaves.• Adams (2nd president) represented merchant/ commercial interests of New England.• first American party system – Federalists & Jeffersonian Republicans.• “Era of Good Feelings” – 1817 – 1825 (Monroe) – government of national unity, representing all sections & interests.
Monroe Doctrine• Monroe asked Congress to recognize new (formerly Spanish) republics.• warned Europe not to colonize any more in W hemisphere; would be a threat to US.• US wouldn’t interfere w/ existing colonies.
reading for March 13• Industrialization: Lowell (Massachusetts) National Historic Park• http://www.nps.gov/lowe/index.htm• read the stories of at least 2 women and 1 man in the History & Culture section of the website.