US history survey 6th class review of midterm colonies in 1750
announcements• paper # 2 postponed until next Tuesday, December 6.
midterm exam• Answer the questions that were asked, not the questions you wished were asked.• Follow directions!• Be specific.• Different teachers stress different ideas. If you took this class before, do not assume you have nothing more to learn. Come to class.
suggestions for studentsLearn your teachers’ names and use them. You can call me Lois Dr. Helmbold or Ms. Helmbold Dr. Lois not Mrs. Helmbold (my mother).Learn the names of your classes.Ask questions!Plan ahead!
British colonies in 1750• W boundary was Appalachian mountains.• Georgia established 1732, by royal charter, settled by British debtors, “worthy poor,” Savannah.• Massachusetts & Virginia largest populations.
commonalities & differences• British population & English language dominated, although not always the largest group in a colony.• ruled by England.• Kings George II & III.
economic life• agriculture was main livelihood.
trade, seafaring, fishing• Main cities were ocean-going ports.• Many employed in related businesses, at sea & on land.
urban life – commerce & trade• Main cities: Boston, Newport, New York, Philadelphia, Charleston.
government• Colonies were ruled by British, with appointed governors (from England or who already lived in the colony), responsible to Britain.
colonial assemblies• colonial legislatures were elected by white male property-owners.
commonalities & differences – populations, 1750• Population roughly 1,170,000 (not counting Native people).• English majority among European population.• Also Scots, Irish, Scots-Irish, Welsh, Dutch.• Pennsylvania attracted many Germans (and Deutsch-speaking Swiss), 18th c., including minority Protestant groups: Amish, Mennonites.• Small numbers of Sephardic Jews fleeing Spanish inquisition (Spain & New Spain), Swedes, French.
Indians• Native people lived among Europeans & separate from them, both peacefully and in conflict.• New England: Christianize, “praying towns.”• Middle colonies: Quakers did not try to convert Delawares/Lenapis & lived as neighbors.• Everywhere: European desire for land led to fraud & warfare.
Penn’s treaty with Lenape (Delaware) Indians, 1682• Indian names appear everywhere in US – towns, rivers, mountains, states, etc.
Africans & African-Americans• many recently enslaved & transported;• others transported from West Indies/Caribbean;• Some had lived several generations N America.• 236,000, 20% of total population.• concentrated in Maryland, Virginia (over 100,000) N Carolina, S Carolina (majority population).• largest enslaved population in N in New York (11,000).
religionPrimarily Protestant Christians.important variations – Puritans, Anglicans (Church of England), Presbyterians, Lutherans, Quakers, German PietistsPuritans had believed inpre-destination: God hadchosen who would be saved.
18th c. religion• Changing ideas: God gave people ability to chose salvation by developing faith & doing good works.• God as loving, not punishing, father.• New theology especially appealed to the most comfortable – commercial farmers, merchants, rising middle class.
Great Awakening, 1730 - 1755• Jonathan Edwards, W Massachusetts, revival of more emotional religion.• Led to massive revival of religion in all colonies.• Revivals especially appealed to small farmers & less prosperous.• 1st colonial-wide event.• Public debate & questioning of religious beliefs.
“Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God,” Jonathan Edwards, 1741• The weight of sin.• The wrath of God.• The moment when God will execute justice.• Vivid imagery of hell.• "Therefore let everyone that is out of Christ, now awake and fly from the wrath to come."