What’s happening in Europe? 1492 – 1501 – Spanish Inquisition requires conversion or departure of Jews & Muslims. Sephardic Jews depart & many settle in Izmir. 1517 – Martin Luther writes 95 Theses & nails to church door in Wittenberg. He breaks with Rome & begins the Protestant Reformation. 1558 – 1603 -- Elizabeth I rules England. 1588 – England defeats the Spanish Armada.
Christopher Columbus “All the inhabitants could be made slaves.”
Within one generation of CC… exchanges of people crops animals germs profoundly changed the Atlantic world. Voyages were financed by funds confiscated from Spanish Jews, forced out by Inquisition.
Spanish & Portuguese exploration
Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) also known as Papal Demarcation Line of 1494 divided the “New World” between Spain & Portugal results today Brazilian speak Portuguese countries where Spain maintained control speak Spanish
Bartolome de las Casas Destruction of the Indies (1552) denounced conquerors. goal was to Christianize – “not to rob, to scandalize, to capture or destroy them, or to lay waste their lands.” reported huge population losses. One century after 1519, Mexico had decline from 25 million to 1 million.
decline of Indian population until 1900 Warfare Famine Lower birth rate Epidemic diseases 90% decline. Major difference with European colonialism in Africa & Asia – not a radical reduction of native population.
Northern America French – commerce rather than conquest. Furs traded for textiles, glass, copper, ironware. St. Lawrence River & Great Lakes
French colonialism By 1600, 1,000 ships annually trading for furs.
English colonialism 1562 – John Hawkins transported African slaves to Caribbean, violating Spanish law. Walter Raleigh – “he that commands the sea commands the trade.” Francis Drake – raids against Spanish New World ports & fleets. Slavery & plunder began English involvement. Spain & England main rivals in Catholic/Protestant confrontation.
Francis Drake (English) 1577 – 1580 – 2nd circumnavigation of globe
Pt. Reyes, north of San Francisco, explored by Drake