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Us history 27th March, 2012
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Us history 27th March, 2012



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  • In American Progress, a color print from about 1873, an allegorical female figure of America leads pioneers and railroads westward, in accordance with the concept of Manifest Destiny. The print was made after an 1872 painting by John Gast.
  • – 1716 founded. – 1722.
  • replica of the First Capitol of The Republic of Texas in West Columbia.
  • – built 1776 - 1797, San Xavier del Bac, Tucson.


  • 1. US history survey March 27, 2012expansion of US, Manifest Destiny
  • 2. announcements• Paper # 1 is due.• Late papers will be penalized by lowered grades.• European Association for American Studies conference at Ege U this weekend.
  • 3. Constant desire for land• Forced removal of Indians to take over their land.• Extension of slavery farther west.• War with Mexico.• Negotiation with Britain.• “Manifest Destiny.”• By 1853, continental US had reached its present boundaries.
  • 4. Indian removal, 1830s• Indian Removal Act, 1830 – funds to relocate Indians from SE. Contradicted earlier law.• Cherokees won 2 Supreme Court cases – “domestic dependent nation.”• “Five Civilized Tribes” forced off lands in SE to Indian Territory (Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska).• Cherokees, who had adopted white ways, forced west in winter, 1838 – 1839. 7,000-man army escort. ¼ of 16,000 died.
  • 5. Trail of Tears
  • 6. Mexican independence, 1821• Mexico ended policies of New Spain: slavery & racially discriminatory laws.• Wanted to develop northern provinces.• Invited Anglos to settle in Tejas, via empresarios, Moses & Stephen Austin, 1821.• Rapid settlement by southern whites with slaves, extension of cotton economy. It was legal settlement, unlike most westward expansion.• Settlers required to become citizens of Mexico & Catholics.
  • 7. Americans in Texas• Lived mostly in E, cotton plantations, slaves.• Little contact with Tejanos or Indians.• Defined selves as Americans & Protestants.• Mexican government abolished slavery, restricted American immigration, levied taxes, 1828.• War, 1835. Battles of Alamo (San Antonio) & San Jacinto.• Mexico recognized independent Republic of Texas, 1836.
  • 8. San Antonio
  • 9. Republic of Texas, 1836 - 1845 • Texas applied for admission to US as state, 1837. • Rejected by Congress – another slave state. • Joined 1845, making 15 slave states, 13 free.• Replica of first capitol of • Conflict with Mexicanos Republic of Texas. & Indians.
  • 10. • Americans claim Texas was part of Louisiana Purchase.• Texans claim S & W borders farther than Mexico agrees.
  • 11. Mexican-American War, 1846 - 1848
  • 12. President Polk, expansionist• Unnecessary war?• Polk sends army to Texas, & naval squadron to California, secretly.• Attempts to buy S. Texas, New Mexico, & California from Mexico.• US wins war with capture of Mexico City. • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, 1848.
  • 13. Gadsden Purchase, 1853• $10 million to facilitate a southern railroad.
  • 14. • New Mexico.• Tucson, Arizona.
  • 15. Results of Mexican American War• Residents able to choose Mexican or US citizenship.• Residents guaranteed rights as citizens – not honored by states or US, re slavery, land- owning, language, property.• Mexico loses half its land.• US grows enormously.
  • 16. Gold discovered in California, 1848
  • 17. rapid growth of California • Men converge on California from around world; 80% from US. • Separate Californio/ Mexican culture along coast, & miners inland. • San Francisco major city. • California becomes a state in 1850.
  • 18. • California gold country.
  • 19. California coastal ranch
  • 20. Oregon Territory/Pacific NW• Claimed by Spain, Russia, Britain, US.• Treaty of Ghent, 1814 (War of 1812)• Adams-Onis Treaty, 1819 – Spanish claim to 42nd parallel.• Hudson’s Bay Company (British) – fur trading on Snake & Columbia Rivers.• Negotiated with British for 49th parallel as boundary, 1846.
  • 21. Overland Trail to Oregon • “Oregon fever.” • Beginning 1840, settlers arrive from mid-west. • 7-months journey overland. • Ruts from wagon wheels can still be seen today. • 300,000 to Oregon & California by 1860.
  • 22. Oregon Territory • Oregon, Washington, Idaho, parts of Montana & Wyoming.• Settlers in what becomes state of Oregon settle in Willamette Valley.
  • 23. In 3 years US territory grows by 70%• Politics changes.• Whigs opposed Polk’s expansionism on anti- slavery grounds.• Wilmot Proviso, 1846 – ban slavery in all territories acquired from Mexico – not passed.• N & S wings of parties cannot agree.• New parties: Liberty Party, Free Soil Party – no extension of slavery.• Sectional conflict increasing over slavery extension.
  • 24. announcements• Paper # 1 is due.• Late papers will be penalized by lowered grades.• European Association for American Studies conference at Ege U this weekend.
  • 25. reading for next week• Sojourner Truth, 33 – 44.• Grimke sisters, 64 – 75• In American Women Activists’ Writings, ed. Kathryn Cullen DuPont.