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  • 1. 195GAMES AND EXERCISESA MANUAL FOR FACILITATORSAND TRAINERSINVOLVED IN PARTICIPATORYGROUP EVENTSVISUALIZATION IN PARTICIPATORY PROGRAMMESVIPP
  • 2. 196GAMES AND EXERCISESVISUALIZATION INPARTICIPATORY PROGRAMMESVIPPChief EditorsNeill MCKeeMaruja SolasHermann TillmannContributorsAnish BaruaKrishna Bel BaseDev Bir BasnyetJohn ChimumbwaShabbir Ahmed ChowdhuryRoma HeinSr. Senkenesh G. ManamaOkumba MirukaRodney PhillipsNuzhat ShahzadiBarbara WhitneyEsther Wyss
  • 3. 197A joint publication of the Communication Section, UNICEF Eastern and Southern AfricaRegional Office, Nairobi, and the Organizational Learning and Development Section, Divisionof Human Resources, UNICEF New York.Communication SectionUNICEF-ESAROP.O. Box 44145, Nairobi, KenyaFax: 254-2-622008Tel: 254-2-622663Organizational Learning and Development SectionDivision of Human ResourcesUNICEF HouseThree United Nations PlazaNew York, New York 10017, USAFax:(212)303-7984Tel: (212) 303-7916Send new ideas, experiences, new games andexercises or variations to the above addresses.Compiled byUNICEF-ESARODesktop Publishing/editing and designPrint productionRadhika MadanTypesetting compilationPhyllis ResslerIllustrationsRegina C. Faul-DoyleUNICEF, 1998
  • 4. 198ContentsPage sOURCEPrologue 1VISUALIZATION IN PARTICIPATORY PROGRAMMES 3ROLE OF GAMES AND EXERCISES 7USING AND CHOOSING GAMES AND EXERCISES 13SECTION i - iCEBREAKERS AND GETTING TO KNOW EACH OTHER 15dOUBLE LETTER ..........................................................................................................17 .......................... 26ALPHABET PUZZLE .....................................................................................................17 .......................... 38MISTAKEN IDENTITIES .............................................................................................18 ........................... 21WRITTEN NAMES.......................................................................................................18 ............................. 1i AM ...............................................................................................................................19 ............................ 9tHE WALKING BILLBOARD ......................................................................................19 ........................... 21iNTRODUCTION WITHOUT WORDS ....................................................................20 .......................... 21aNIMALS, pLANTS AND FURNITURE ....................................................................20 .......................... 11sKILLS i HAVE AND SKILLS i NEED ........................................................................21 ........................... 11aCTIVITIES i eNJOY ..................................................................................................21 ........................... 11HOW WELL DO i KNOW MYSELF? ..........................................................................22 .......................... 11DETECTIVE ...................................................................................................................23............................ 4iVE GOT SOME SECRETS ...........................................................................................23........................... 21tHE RIVER OF LIFE .....................................................................................................24 ............................7PORTRAIT OF MY JOB................................................................................................24 .......................... 21wHAT DO WE EXPECT?.............................................................................................25............................ 2DIFFERENT FOLKS, DIFFERENT HOPES...................................................................25........................... 11SELF IMAGE ..................................................................................................................26 ......................... 45GET THE PICTURE? .....................................................................................................26 .......................... 15CELEBRITIES ..................................................................................................................27........................... 21tRUTH gAME..............................................................................................................28 ........................... 4mIME AN INTEREST ..................................................................................................29 ........................... 4IF YOU WERE AN ANIMAL ......................................................................................29 ............................7MOOD CARDS .............................................................................................................30 ......................... 10MOOD CARDS .............................................................................................................30 ......................... 10fIND YOUR PEERS ......................................................................................................30 ............................ 1tREE OF LIFE ................................................................................................................31 ........................... 41sHARING A CHILDHOOD MEMORY .....................................................................31 .......................... 10lOOKING AND FINDING .........................................................................................32.......................... 29IDENTIFY YOUR PARTNER .......................................................................................32............................. 1FIND OUT .....................................................................................................................33 .......................... 43REVELEAIND SYMBOLS ..............................................................................................33 .......................... 44DOUBLE WHEEL ..........................................................................................................34............................. 1SECRET ADMIRER .......................................................................................................34........................ 1/51sECTION ii-wARM-uPS AND ENERGIZERS 37CHARADES ...................................................................................................................39.......................... 10AN INTRODUCTION DANCE ..................................................................................39............................. 1CARS ...............................................................................................................................40 ........................... 9MINGLE AND STOP....................................................................................................41 ........................... 35FRUITS AND ANIMALS .............................................................................................41 .............................7GROUP MOVEMENT ..................................................................................................42 .......................... 21GOING ON A JOURNEY ............................................................................................42 .......................... 19POWER CURRENT .......................................................................................................43........................... 19MOUSE-MOUSE GET AWAY .....................................................................................43........................... 18i○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 5. 199wIZARDS, GNOMES AND GIANTS.........................................................................44 ................................ 3A PERSON OF PRINCIPLES.........................................................................................45.................................. 1BECAUSE AND WHY ..................................................................................................45................................35MIRRORS.......................................................................................................................46 ...............................35moods .........................................................................................................................46 ................................ 4pass the ring ...........................................................................................................47............................... 27all abroad ................................................................................................................47................................12people, polie, thieves............................................................................................48 .............................. 27masilo .........................................................................................................................48 ...............................18ndindo .......................................................................................................................49 ...............................35omo ..............................................................................................................................49 ................................ 8kabujie .........................................................................................................................50 ............................. 20chaos ...........................................................................................................................51 .................................. 1no-without .............................................................................................................51 ............................... 29spoon relay race ...................................................................................................52............................... 29falling animals .....................................................................................................52............................... 29eeeh-aah! ...................................................................................................................53 .............................. 20COLOURS.......................................................................................................................53 ................................. 9YAHOO ..........................................................................................................................54............................... 29SOCIOGRAM ................................................................................................................54................................37TOUCH SOMETHING ................................................................................................55 ............................... 50PRR AND PUKUTU .....................................................................................................55 ............................... 50FRUIT SALAD................................................................................................................56............................ 1/39PASS THE HANDKERCHIEF ......................................................................................57 .............................. 40SECTION iii = cOMMUNICATION 59VALUES VOTING .........................................................................................................61 ................................ 15ARE YOU LISTENING?................................................................................................62 ............................... 15TYING SHOE LACES ....................................................................................................63............................... 46PASS THE PICTURE .....................................................................................................63................................. 7ONE AND TWO-WAY COMMUNICATION...........................................................64 ...............................21HEADBANDS ................................................................................................................65................................. 4THE FEATHER ..............................................................................................................65............................... 34TRUTY AND DECEPTION .........................................................................................66 ................................ 4VISUAL POWER............................................................................................................67............................... 43GOSSIP liNE .................................................................................................................67................................16MASKS ...........................................................................................................................68 .............................. 25MY BOSS ........................................................................................................................68 .............................. 22ACT AND MEET ..........................................................................................................69 .............................. 47PIECES OF ART .............................................................................................................69 .............................. 29FACE-TO BACK .............................................................................................................70 ...............................33THE PILLOW GAME ....................................................................................................70 .............................. 28FOLDING PAPER ..........................................................................................................71 ............................... 28BLIND LINE ........................................................................................................................................................ 9sECTION iv - pERCEPTION 75iNTERLOCKING FINGERS ..........................................................................................77 ............................... 43OLD WOMAN - YOUNG WOMAN .........................................................................77 ................................. 6FACING CHANGE........................................................................................................78............................... 36JURY ...............................................................................................................................78............................... 43SQUARES 1 ....................................................................................................................79................................. 2THE BOX .......................................................................................................................80 ...............................33sECTION v - iNTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION 83BABBLE ...........................................................................................................................85................................. 9BOMB SHELTER............................................................................................................86 ................................ 5CROSS-CULTURAL EXCHANGE.................................................................................87................................ 15VALUE CLARIFICATION .............................................................................................88 .............................. 48CULTURE AND PERCEPTION ...................................................................................89 ................................ 5ii○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○Page sOURCE
  • 6. 200sECTION vi - tEAM - bUILDING AND cOOPERATION 91tANGLE-UNTANGLE .......................................................................................................................................91ORGANIZATIONAL CHANNELS ..............................................................................93................................21ORGANIZATIONAL CHANNELS ..............................................................................94 ............................... 11BUILD A MACHINE ....................................................................................................94 .............................. 10TRUST ME .....................................................................................................................95................................21LOGO..............................................................................................................................95................................21CO-CREATION ..............................................................................................................96 .............................. 44STANDED ON THE SEA .............................................................................................96 ................................ 5SQUARES 2 ....................................................................................................................97................................. 2EGGS CAN FLY ..............................................................................................................98 .............................. 29LOST SHOES ..................................................................................................................98 ................................. 1THE TOWER .................................................................................................................99 ................................ 2MANAGING TALK.......................................................................................................100.............................371-2-4-8 .............................................................................................................................101 ............................. 43i WISH ...........................................................................................................................101 ..............................21THE WHEEL ..................................................................................................................102 .............................. 4SUPPORTING THE LEADER .......................................................................................103 ............................ 43GROUP SELF-SELECT ....................................................................................................104 ............................ 28TRAFFIC jAM 1 .............................................................................................................105 .............................12TRAFFIC jAM 2 ............................................................................................................106 .............................37TUGS OF WAR AND PEACE ......................................................................................107 ............................ 50ME AND MY ORGANIZATION ................................................................................108 .............................37TRICKY TALES...............................................................................................................109 ............................ 23TRUST CIRCLE ..............................................................................................................111 ........................42/50sECTION vii - cONFLICT mANAGEMENT 113SETTING GROUND RULES ........................................................................................115 ............................... 13COME ON OVER .........................................................................................................116 ..............................21GRUMBLE, GRUMBLE .................................................................................................116 ..............................21CONFRONTING THE BEAR .......................................................................................117 ...............................21CHAIRS ..........................................................................................................................117 .............................. 27sECTION viii - cASE sTUDIES AND ROLE PLAY 119PIN THE PROBLEM .....................................................................................................121 .............................. 11ROLE DIAGRAM ..........................................................................................................121 ............................. 10THE SECRET IS IN THE BAG .....................................................................................122 ............................. 29hUDDLE ........................................................................................................................122 ................................ 1HAS DEVELOPMENT TAKEN PLACE? ......................................................................123 ................................ 1ARTIFACTS ....................................................................................................................123 .............................. 11DRAWING A SCENARIO............................................................................................124 ............................. 43dEVELOPMENT INDICATORS ..................................................................................125 .............................. 11ROLE-PLAY INSTRUCTIONS ......................................................................................126 ............................... 4sECTION ix - gENDER aNALYSIS AND SENZITIZATION 129VALUES AUCTION ......................................................................................................131 ............................... 15iF i WERE... ...................................................................................................................132 .............................. 15FAMILY MESSAGES ......................................................................................................133 .............................. 15""tHE SUN ALSO SHINES ON MY TREE ................................................................134 .............................. 13GENDER STEREOTYPES ..............................................................................................135 .............................. 15mY ROLES, MY RELATIONSHIPS ..............................................................................136 .............................. 15WERE IN THE SAME BOAT ......................................................................................137 ............................. 48MY IMAGE ....................................................................................................................138 ............................. 48i AM A WOMAN . . . i AM A MAN ........................................................................138 ............................. 48IDENTITY CONSTRUCTION.....................................................................................139 ............................. 48DAILY CYCLE .................................................................................................................139 ............................. 48LIFE LINE .......................................................................................................................140 .............................. 7iII○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○Page sOURCE
  • 7. 201sECTION x - cREATIVITY AND PROBLEM Solving 143BRAINSTORMING.......................................................................................................145 ..............................21TOPSY TURVY ..............................................................................................................146 .............................. 17WHICH SIDE OF THE BRAIN?..................................................................................146 ............................. 49bRAINWRITING ..........................................................................................................147 .............................. 17METAPHOR, ANALOGY .............................................................................................147 .............................. 17WITCHCRAFT...............................................................................................................148 .............................. 17WALKANALOGY ..........................................................................................................148 ............................. 32PICTURE ........................................................................................................................149 .............................. 17DICTIONARY ...............................................................................................................149 .............................. 17OSBORNE CHECKLIST.................................................................................................150 ............................. 17FORCE FIT .....................................................................................................................151 ............................... 17NONSENSE-DEBATE....................................................................................................151 ............................... 17DRAW THE MUSIC!....................................................................................................152 ............................. 32JOIN THE DOTS ..........................................................................................................152 ............................... 2SECTION XI - RELAXATION AND MEDIATION 155JOURNEY ......................................................................................................................157 ............................. 38MEDITATION...............................................................................................................157 ............................. 38TAI CHI .........................................................................................................................158 ............................. 23LISTEN TO THE FALLING RAIN ...............................................................................159 ..............................14PLEASURABLE MEMORIES .........................................................................................160 .............................14FINE TUNING THE SENSES ......................................................................................160 .............................14RELAXATION................................................................................................................161 ............................. 38BODY LANGUAGE .......................................................................................................163 ............................. 38BREATHLESS ENERGIZER ...........................................................................................164 ........................38/52sECTION xii EVALUATION 167NAMING A PICTURE .................................................................................................169 ............................. 43LIVING SCALE ..............................................................................................................170 .............................37BODY OUTLINE ...........................................................................................................170 .............................. 9DRAW A FACE..............................................................................................................171 ................................ 2SUITCASE & ASHTRAY ................................................................................................171 ............................... 51LETER TO.......................................................................................................................172 .............................. 15EXPRESSIONS ...............................................................................................................172 ................................ 1FACILITATORS SELF-ASSESSMENT WHEEL ............................................................173 ............................. 49sECTION xiii - eND GAMES 175JOINT PAINTING .......................................................................................................177 ............................. 43SONGS ...........................................................................................................................177 ............................. 29FREEING THE BIRD ....................................................................................................178 ............................... 9REGRETS ........................................................................................................................179 ............................... 9GOODBYE CIRCLE........................................................................................................179 ............................... 9YOURRE OK .................................................................................................................180 .............................213POSITIVE STROKES....................................................................................................180 .............................21GROUP RAP ..................................................................................................................181 ............................... 9i SENT A LETTER .........................................................................................................181 ..............................14TALKING OBJECT ........................................................................................................182 ............................. 43WISHING GOOD LUCK ..............................................................................................182 ............................. 43aPPENDIX 185sOURCES 191iv○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○Page sOURCE
  • 8. 1PROLOGUEThis manual was written to fill a gap. Although there are many collections ofgames and exercises for group processes for business and educational settings,only a small percentage of these have proven to be useful in international andcross-cultural settings. Many are heavily grounded in one culture and do noteasily translate. The games and exercises in this manual have been carefullyselected with an intercultural application in mind, especially, but not necessarily,in the area of international development. The games included here are inaddition to those described in the manual on Visualization in ParticipatoryProgrammes (VIPP) produced by UNICEF in Bangladesh in 1993.But why a manual on games and exercises? What does this have to do withsuch serious business as international development or organizational renewal?The answer to this question is grounded in learning theory. Educators will tellus that we learn very little through passive listening and note taking. Weremember only 10 percent of what we read, 20 percent of what we hear, 30percent of what we see. However, when we combine senses, the memorycurve increases sharply: 50 percent of what we see and hear, 80 percent ofwhat we say in a particular context and 90 percent of what we say and do.The doing is all important.Games and exercises activate more senses to increase creative learning ofnew information and assimilation of new ideas. This is especially important ininternational work where new criteria, values and world views must be takeninto account. Dominant intellectual or cognitive processes can marginalize theseimportant factors, impeding intercultural exchange and progress. Games andexercises produce new dimensions to human experience and allow us to shareperceptions.This manual is written as a resource for facilitators and trainers who are involved inparticipatory group events, especially but not exclusively in internationalsettings. There aremanydifferentsystems and philosophies of participation forvarious applications.
  • 9. 2This manual is a useful supplement to any of these approaches. It is not designed tostand on its own. It is assumed that the user is already involved in participatoryfacilitation and training and can make appropriate selections, with the help of theguidelinesgiven.This manual is not an original piece of writing. It is a compilation of games andexercises which have been tried and tested in many settings across the globe. Theyhave been adapted from a wide collection of existing publications and have beenfound to be the best for facilitation and training in diverse settings.The decision to produce this manual arose out of a global consultation for VIPPfacilitators which was held in Mauritius in June 1995. Many new games, includedhere, were introduced and tested at that event. Participants were asked to contributeother games and exercises for possible inclusion. These were collected and formattedby UNICEFs Eastern and Southern Africa Office (ESARO) in Nairobi and takento a meeting in Jaipur, India in January 1996, where the collection was furtherrefined and the introductory sections written.The producers of this manual would like to thank UNICEF Mauritius, UNICEFJaipur, UNICEF-ESARO and the Staff Training and Staff Development Section,UNICEF, New York, for its collaboration in the process of production. We wouldalso like to thank all those writers of other manuals from which we have borrowedand adapted material.This manual does not represent the final word in participatory games andexercises. We hope users will adapt and utilize the contents according to theirsituations and will contribute their experiences, variations and new ideas. Wevery much hope the contents will enhance your training, planning and othergroup processes and thereby contribute to worldwide efforts in education andparticipatory development.
  • 10. 3VISUALIZATION INPARTICIPATORYPROGRAMMES (VIPP)Many workshops, seminars and training sessions are essentially formal affairs whereparticipantsarerequiredtolistentoalargenumberofspeechesfromadaissetinfrontof rows of chairs or a boardroom-style table. Hierarchical relationships are strictlyadhered to. Speakers often present fixed positions on various subjects and attempt totransferviewsandinformationinlectures,relyingontheirwitandcharmtokeepaudiencesreceptive.Veryoftenso-calleddiscussionsessionsconsistofyetanotherseriesofformalspeeches with little or no real exchange or feedback. Much of the content of speechesis lost to audiences.However, in the past few decades there has been a recognition of the importance ofparticipatory processes in group events. VIPP methodology is an attempt to breakdownthisseminarculture.Itisacreativecombinationofdifferentparticipatorymethodsderived from 25 years of experience in adult learning and participatory development.VIPPcomesfromtwomainschoolsofthought;thegrassroots,participatorymovementsof Latin America begun by such figures as Paulo Freire and Orlando Fals Borda, andtheMetaplanmethodologycreatedbyEberhardSchnelleandhis"QuickbornTeam"inGermany in the 1970s. The latter was applied to development work by the GermanFoundation for International Development in the 1980s. VIPP was formulated duringthe period 1991 - 1993 by the Programme Communication and Information Section,UNICEF- Bangladesh, in collaboration with Dr. Hermann Tillmann and Dr. MarujaSalas, with input from the Training and Staff Development Section of UNICEF, NewYork, and Dev Bir Basnyet, an experienced facilitator from Nepal.
  • 11. 4There are dozens of community-level participatory methods and packages promotedby development organizations around the world. These are essential tools forbottorn-up planning, training and research with communities. However, the creatorsof VIPP recognized that there is often a discrepancy in such work. While agenciesand institutions are often deeply engrossed in getting villagers and slum dwellers toparticipate, their own institutional work processes - planning, decision making,training, etc. - may be very undemocratic. VIPP is a collection of techniques appliedto encourage literate, educated people to participate and cooperate with theircolleagues, as well as with partners in governmental and non-governmentalorganizations. However, VIPP also has application at the grassroots level, and intraining people for community work.Metaplans influence on VIPP is primarily the use of moveable cards of differentshapes and colours on which the participants express their main ideas in lettersor pictures large enough to be seen by the whole group. Private note-taking isdiscouraged. Participants are asked to use only one idea per card. Theysynthesize their thoughts, or the thoughts of others, on these cards and displaythem on boards.By this method, everyone takes part in the process of arriving at a consensus.Less assertive participants find a means of expression and those who mightnormally dominate a group must respect and include the opinions and ideas ofothers. By visualizing the groups main train of thought, repetition and circularityin argument are reduced. If there is a record of the groups progress, visibleto everyone, it is easier to point out such repetition and refer to or rememberthe proceedings.The rule of one idea per card isimportant.Flip-chartswithlonglistsofideasallowonlypartofthegroupprocess to be visible at one time.Someoftheideasareflippedoutofsight. It is possible to pin or tapeflip-chart paper to a wall or board.However, it is difficult to separateindividualideas,moveideastoothergroupings or categories, or tocondense the ideas of twosubgroups,rulingoutredundancy.Ifthereisoneideapercard,allofthisis possible. Individuals andsubgroups can identify their ownwork and see how it fits in with thethoughts of the group as a whole.
  • 12. 5In VIPP processes, a whole range of participatory methods arc used: cardcollection, visualized discussion, brainstorming, drawing exercises and debates.Participants move from plenary discussion to buzz groups to small groups orlarge groups to "walk-abouts" that could take them outside the room. Throughoutthey remain active and creative. Games and exercises are introduced intoprocesses to "break the ice", help participants get to know one another, varythe pace of the process, activate different senses, and engage people inproductive group dynamics. Games and interactive exercises are enjoyable andadvance group learning at the same time.VIPP is a set of techniques backed up by a solid philosophy of participation andcooperation. It does not promote a single planning framework or sequencing ofexercises in group events, nor should it be used to promote one persons "vision" ofreality or the future. Such use runs counter to VIPPs philosophy and values. VIPPrelies on the use of participatory facilitators or trainers who can foster a groupsprogress without directing each step of the way. The VIPP facilitator is not anentertainer, nor a guru, nor a messiah, but someone who creates optimal conditionsfor individual and group teaming to take place.VIPPs first applications were in the area of rural development, agriculture andtraining for Participatory Rural Appraisal, especially in Latin America. However,in UNICEF it has spread from Bangladesh to New York headquarters, Easternand Southern Africa, Latin America, West Africa and South East Asia and hasbeen applied to both internal and external programme planning, project proposaldevelopment, curriculum development and training processes in the areas ofhealth, sanitation, nutrition and education. It has also been used for cross-cutting issues such as gender sensitization, communication, social mobilizationand story conceptualization and writing. More recently it has been applied torunning meetings, management training and planning, team building, conflictmanagement, and in the analysis and improvement of work processes.
  • 13. 6VIPP processes are supported by a manual and a video, available from UNICEFBangladesh, UNICEF-ESARO in Nairobi or from the Training and StaffDevelopment Section of UNICEF, New York. Training courses for facilitators arecarried out periodically by UNICEF New York, UNICEF-ESARO and by variousorganizations and freelance trainers.Although there are a number of games and exercises in the existing VIPP manual,the content of this manual serves as a rich supplement and will greatly widen thechoices available to facilitators involved in planning and facilitating participatorygroup events.
  • 14. 7ROLE OF GAMES ANDEXERCISESParticipatory processes can be enhanced by games and exercises, carefully placed inthe learning process. Good games and exercises make people reflect, feel emotion,bring about a sense of wonder or curiosity, "grab people in the gut", energize, createhumour,relax,calmandinducemeditation.Theyprovidevariety,discoveryandsurpriseand thereby keep participants engaged.Games should be introduced into a process for a purpose, not just for the sake ofplaying a game or as an attempt by the facilitator to gain "cheap popularity" from thegroup.The best games and exercises activate both sides of the brain - the cognitive, logicalsideandtheemotional,creativeside.Theystimulateperception,affectionorexpressionand create interest through the presentation of a challenging situation. They reinforcelearningthroughexperiencing.Experientiallearninghasprovenmuchmoreeffectivethanmerelyreceiving,discussingandattemptingtodigestinformationfromauthoritativesources.Gamesandexercisescansimulatetheactualexperiencesofourlivesandhelpustoreflectontheapplicationofknowledge.Theymayalsointroduceacertainamountofcomplexityorquestioning,therebystimulatingaprocessofaction-reflection-actionthroughouttheproceedings.Good games and exercises involve everyone in the group, advance the groupprocess, maximize participation and allow as many people as possible to expressthemselves in unique ways. They catalyse individual involvement and expression ingroup events and bring about group synergy. They provide common ground forgroup experience, creating favourable conditions for the growth of participatorybehaviour and a democratic spirit.
  • 15. 8USING AND CHOOSING GAMESAND EXERCISESThe games and exercises described in this manual are not designed to be includedin formal, non-participatory events where the physical and psychologicalconditions mitigate against their intended role. Such attempts will often fall flator backfire on facilitators, or belittle the significance of games and exercises.They need to be carefully considered and planned by competent, experiencedfacilitators who believe in the power of games to advance group processes.They should not be used in a chaotic, ad hoc manner with little thought concerningtheir outcome. The facilitator must prepare and plan, and therefore have onhand all the materials needed for a particular exercise. Last minute substitutesand switches will appear unprofessional.Gamesandexercisesneedtobesequencedproperlyintermsoftheirintensity,frequency,durationandintendedobjective.Forinstance,aseriesofhighlyinteractivegamesatthebeginningofaworkshopmayreallywarmupparticipantsand"breaktheice".However,theymayappeartobechildishandthoughtlesstosomeparticipantswhomaylosefaithin the facilitator. Activating senses and energizing people for no apparent reason mayalsoputthefacilitatorintotheroleofanentertainerwhoisnotseriousaboutthecontentof the event. Instead, games and exercises have to be placed and paced in an order andfrequencywhichwillallowagradualbuild-upofexperienceandoutcomes.Theyshouldbecarefullybuiltintootherplenaryandgroupsessions.
  • 16. 9A trainer should pay attention to the length of each game or exercise in order toapply it within the workshop schedule. Another way of sequencing is to combinelong and short games and exercises. Too many long exercises may consume toomuch time and may frustrate some participants. Too many short exercises can bedistracting and inhibit real learning.Theremaybequestions,doubts,anduneasinesswheninstructionsaregiven.Duringthegame itself there may be a lot of action and tension. Attitudes or behaviours may bedisclosedandconflictsmayarise.Thegamemayproducesomekindofan"aha!"effectforsomeoftheparticipants.Otherswilltakelongertograspthepoint.Therearealwaysafewwhomaybedisappointedorfrustrated.Therearealwaysdifferentreactionsfromparticipantsbuttheyallexperiencesomethingwhichhelpstobondthemtogether.Someparticipantsmayalreadybefamiliarwithcertaingamesandexercisesandmaytrytoderailormonopolizetheprocess.Itisbesttoaskfirstifanyoneisalreadyfamiliarwiththe exercise and, if a substitute cannot be found immediately, give those participantsroles which will not spoil the process and outcome. You may ask them to help you runthe game or to act as observers.Dont ask participants to assume the role of facilitator unless you are certain they havethe knowledge and skill to facilitate. Often people will not be prepared. They will giveunclearinstructionsandtheresultwillbedisappointing.Someparticipantsmaycomeupwith a different variation on a game. Thank him or her for helping to open up a newdimension. However, if you dont know the variation and its possible outcome, stick toyouroriginalplan.Seeifthereistimetoplaythevariationinalesscrucialsession,suchas an evening set aside especially for games and exercises.Sometimes senior officials or "experts" will refuse to participate, which sets anegative tone for the whole group. You can overcome resistance by explainingme use of games at the outset, by gradually increasing the frequency of interactivegames or by getting a few key people to support you and join enthusiastically.
  • 17. 10If people see that their bosses or senior people arc involved, their own inhibitionswill usually disappear. In groups composed of people from different levels inan organization, games should not be introduced which will accentuate conflictsand differences, including hierarchical position, when the opposite effect isintended.The facilitator must be aware of the age, physical, gender and cultural differencesand, accordingly, avoid inappropriate games and exercises. For instance, olderpeople and pregnant women should avoid rough, physical contact games. Also, insuch games all participants must be warned to remove breakable or potentiallyharmful jewellery or clothing, eye glasses and contact lenses. Physically disabledpeople should not be made to feel left out. Find games which can include them.References to sexual stereotypes, unless they are introduced for a specific purpose,and sexual language or other vulgarity, can create conflict and run counter to thespirit of participation. The balance and involvement of both sexes in games andexercises has to be thought out. Conflict may also be created when the participantsread unintented meanings into games. Some games may threaten, introduce negativecompetition or invade privacy. Games and exercises should be non-threatening anddemonstrate the value of differences between people. They should never single outindividuals for ridicule.Not all games and exercises are appropriate for all cultural settings. Humour, forinstance, varies a great deal in different cultures. In certain countries men and womenwho are not married should not touch one another. Even if the participants acceptsuch processes for the purpose of the workshop, pictures taken of such interactionsmay be misinterpreted by non-participants. Setting up games or exercises on taboosubjects may induce conflict in the group and derail progress. The facilitator mustbe sensitive to the cultural values of participants and should avoid pushing them in adirection which is in direct opposition to their world view.
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  • 20. 13USING AND CHOOSING GAMES :A SUMMARY● Use games in the appropriate psychological and physical setting. They are notdesignedforformalevents.● Familiarizeyourselfwellwithalltheinstructionsbeforeapplication.● Make sure all materials are quickly available. Avoid ad hoc, and last minutesubstitutionsorimprovisation.Avoidusinggamesas"lifesavers".● Sequence games and exercises carefully in terms of their intensity, frequency andpurpose.Forinstance,avoidputtingawholeseriesofhighlyinteractivegamesoneafter the other.● Avoidturningyourselfintoanentertainer.● Stick to your plan. Dont let participants who are familiar with a game put you off.Acknowledge them and use them to support or observe the process.● Involvepotentiallyresistantpeoplebybeginningwithmilder,lessinteractivegamesandexercises,buildinguptheirtrustgradually.● Be aware of age, physical condition, or other factors which may cause harm toparticipants.Havethemremoveitemswhichmayhurtthemorwhichmaybedamagedinphysicallyactivegames.● Do not force people into processes which are against their cultural values or worldviews. Avoid culture-specific humour and perspectives on gender and sexualstereotypes, unless you are prepared to undertake a reflective process on suchsubjects.● Always plan and carry out debriefing sessions after the exercise. Dont leaveparticipantshanging.● Choose games carefully, according to the overall topic, time available, objectiveof the event, group progress and mood at the time, the presence of conflict, etc.● Usegamestointroducemoredrama,therebyincreasingattention,involvementandenthusiasm.
  • 21. 14● Change your menu of games and exercises frequently. Do not get trapped in a narrow repertoire.● Use this "toolbox" to build your own plans. Modify and adapt according to your purpose andexperience.Thereisnouniversalguideorprescription.Notes :Timesandgroupsizesgivenforexercisesinthefollowingdescriptionsareonlyapproximations.Debriefing :Note that debriefing is recommended after every game or exercise but that this has been indicated inthismanualonlywhenspecificquestionsarerecommended.See sources pages 191 to 196.
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  • 24. 17DOUBLE LETTERGroup size: Maximum 25Time: 1O to 20 minutesMaterials: None✔ OBJECTIVETo learn the names of the other participants.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USETo facilitate introductions at the beginning of agroupevent.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask participants to sit in a circle.2. Askparticipantstothinkofanadjectivethatbeginswiththefirstletteroftheirname,e.g."Devilish Deidre" or "Awesome Anthony".Uselastnamesiftheparticipantsarefamiliarwithfirstnames.3. Ask them to keep the adjective a secret untilit is their turn to share their name with thegroup.4. Introduce yourself with your double-lettername and then ask the person to your righttointroducehim/herself,usinghis/herdouble-letter name. The person to your right thenintroducesyou,himorherself,andthenasksthe person to the right, etc.5. Thisprocesscontinuesuntilthelastpersoninthe circle re-introduces all the rest of theparticipantstohis/herleftandhim/herself.6. The game is over when all participants havebeenintroducedbytheirdouble-letternames.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ALPHABET PUZZLEGroup size:10 to 30Time: 10 to 20 minutesMaterials: Cards, pins, boards, flip-chart,wrapping paper and markers✔ OBJECTIVETo encourage communication betweenparticipants.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USETo facilitate introductions at (he beginning of agroupevent.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Before the session, collect all the names ofthe participants and facilitators who will bepresent.2. Jumblethelettersofeachpersonsnameinapronounceableway(e.g.Neiltolien,Nuzhatto zunath, Sue to use).3. Prepare cards with the new names writtenonthem.4. Pin all the cards on a board and keep themcovered with paper.5. When you are ready to play, uncover thecards.6. Askparticipantstofindtheirownnames onthe board.7. The facilitator can begin the process bypicking out her card and reading it aloud,pronouncingheractualname.8. Encourage the participants to keep theprocesslightandlively.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 25. 18MISTAKEN IDENTITIESGroup size: 20 to 50Time: 10 to 15 minutesMaterials: Name tags✔ OBJECTIVETo enable people to make new acquaintances.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAtthebeginningofagroupevent.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Make name tags with large letters for allparticipants.Usefirstorfamiliarnamesonly.2. Asthesessionbegins,handoutnametagstoeach person. Ask participants to circulatearound the room and find the person whomatches the name tag they have. (Be surethatparticipantsdonotgettheirownname.)3. Continue until all group members have thecorrect name tag.NOTE: You can prepare formal, printed nametags or hand written name tags with VIPPcards which are fastened with masking tape.Whateveryoudo,makethenameofthepersonlarge and easy to read from eight metres. Smalllettersonnametagsinhibitgroupinteractionandcommunication.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○WRITTEN NAMESGroup size: 10 to 40Time: 10 to 20 minutesMaterials: Cards, masking tape and markers✔ OBJECTIVETofacilitateintroductionsandcreateafriendlyenvironment.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAtthebeginningofa groupevent.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask each participant to write their name inlarge letters on a card and tape it to theirclothing in a visible place. Ask the group toformacircle.2. Give them an appropriate amount of time tomemorize the names of the other people intheircircle.3.Whentheallottedtimeisup,askeveryonetotake off their name cards and pass themclockwisearoundthecircleuntilthefacilitatorasks them to stop.4.Participantsareleftwithnamecardsbelongingto other people. Give them ten seconds tofind the correct owner of the name tag.5. After ten seconds, those left with someoneelses name card are chased and caught orpushed into the centre. They are asked tolook around and find the correct person. (Atthispointthegroupmayhelp.)6. Repeattheexerciseuntilallparticipantsknoweach others names.
  • 26. 19○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○THE WALKINGBILLBOARDGroup size:10 to 30Time: 30 minutesMaterials: Flip-chart paper, markers andmasking tape✔ OBJECTIVETo encourage participants to mingle and sharepersonalinformationwithoneanother.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAtthebeginningofagroupevent.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Explain to the group that they have theopportunity to design their own get-acquainted session. Ask them to proposequestions that they would like to ask otherparticipants.Examplesmightinclude:- Favourite foods- Thingsyoudontlike- Best books recently read- Favouritemovieactors/entertainers2. Askforaquickshowofhandsregardingthethree most useful questions. Using a roughtabulation,selectthefiveorsixitemsreceivingthe most votes.3. Provideparticipantswithasheetofflip-chartpaper and a marker. Ask them to place theirnameatthetopandtolisttheitemsdowntheleft side and the answers on the right.4. Attach the sheet to each participantsshoulders.Askthemtowalkaroundtheroomanddiscuss.DEBRIEFINGWhat additional information would you like toaskfellowparticipants?○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○I AMGroup size: 10 to 30Time: 15 to 20 minutesMaterials: Paper, markers, masking tape✔ OBJECTIVETofacilitategroupintroductions.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAtthebeginningofagroupevent,particularlyinlong-term,group-buildingsituations.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Give each participant a piece of paper and amarkerandaskthemtowritetheirnamesonthetopandtofinishthestatement,"Iam...,"usingsixdifferentendings.2. Ask the participants to attach their papers totheirchestswithmaskingtapeandthenwalkaround the room and read each othersstatements.3. Suggest that people spend at least thirtysecondstalkingwithoneanother.4. When the exercise has been completed, the"I am" sheets can be taped to the wall as a"Group Gallery". If you have photos ofparticipants these can also be added.VARIATIONAskeachparticipanttobegintheirsentencewith"I am a resource for/to ..."
  • 27. 20○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○Animals, PlantsAnd FurnitureGroup size:10 to 30Time: 25 to 50 minutesMaterials: Flip-chart paper, markersand masking tape✔ OBJECTIVETo provide an opportunity for individuals toincreasetheirunderstandingofthemselvesandtheirgroupmembers.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAtthebeginningofaworkshop.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Askparticipantstodivideintothreegroups:2. Ask each person to draw the following:• GroupA:Representyourpersonalitybydrawingananimal.• GroupB:Representyourpersonalitybydrawingaplant.• Group C: Represent your personality bydrawingapieceoffurniture.3. Ask each person to explain their drawing toothers in the group.4.Askthemtowritetheirnamesonthedrawingsand tape them to the wall. Have participantswalk around and look at the pictures.DEBRIEFINGInplenaryask:- Whatnewinsightsdidyougainintoyourownpersonalityandthepersonalitiesofothers?○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○Introductionwithout wordsGroup size: 10 to 30Time: 30 minutesMaterials: Flip-chart paper,markers,masking tape✔ OBJECTIVETo demonstrate that effective interpersonalcommunication can be accomplished withoutwords.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAtthebeginningofagroupevent.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask the group to divide into pairs.2. State that the purpose of this exercise is tobe introduced to your partner, but that theentire activity must be done without words.Participantsmayusevisuals,pictures,signs,gestures, signals, anything non-verbal. Ifnecessary, they may offer hints such aspointingtoaweddingringtoindicatemarriage,running-on-the-spottoindicatejogging,etc.3. Give each person two to three minutes forthenon-verbalintroductiontohis/herpartner.Then allow each person to guess what his/herpartnerwastryingtocommunicate.4. Then allow each person to state, verbally,what they were trying to communicate non-verbally.DEBRIEFINGInplenaryask:- Howaccuratelydidyoudescribeyourself?- How accurate were you in reading yourpartners gestures?
  • 28. 21SKILLS I HAVEAND SKILLS I NEEDGroup size: 10 to 25Time: 45 to 60 minutesMaterials: Flip-chart paper, markers andmasking tape✔ OBJECTIVETo encourage participants to identify theirstrengths and weaknesses.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAtatimeintheworkshopprocesswhenitwouldbehelpfultoencourageself-reflection.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask participants to list, on flip-chart paper,all of the skills they possess and the areaswheretheyneedstrengthening.Askthemtokeep the list to themselves.2. Ask them to think of the one skill they dobest.3. Ask each participant to act out their skillwithoutusinganywords.4. Ask the rest of the group to guess what eachpersons mime represents.5. Putthelistsonthewallandlettheparticipantswalk around and read them.DEBRIEFINGDiscussthefollowing:- The number and variety of skills eachindividualhas.- Thefactthatdifferentindividualshavedifferentstrengths/weaknesses.- Thetotalcompositionofskillsinthegroup.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ACTIVITIES I ENJOYGroup size:10 to 30Time: 10 to 45 minutesMaterials: Flip-chart paper and markers✔ OBJECTIVETo encourage participants to understandthemselvesbetter.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAtthebeginningofaworkshop.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask participants to draw a picture ofthemselvesdoingsomethingwhichtheyenjoy.2. Ask them to find a partner, explain theirdrawingsandtelltheirpartnerwhytheyenjoydoingthatparticularthing.3. Askeachpairtojoinanotherpairandrepeatthe explanation to each other. This can berepeatedmanytimes.DEBRIEFINGInthelargegroupdiscussthefollowing:- Thevarietyofthingsthatindividualsinthegroupenjoy.- Thegenderdifferencesinenjoyment.- What participants have learned aboutthemselvesandothers.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 29. 22HOW WELL DO IKNOW MYSELF?Group size: 10 to 30Time: 45 to 90 minutesMaterials: Flip-chart paper, masking tape,and markers✔ OBJECTIVETohelpparticipantsgainself-confidenceandtobecome more aware of themselves and of theirstrengths and weaknesses.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAtaparticularpointinthegroupprocesswhereitwouldbehelpfultoencourageself-reflection.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask the participants to draw a picture ofthemselves in the centre of a large sheet ofpaper.2. In the top left-hand corner of the picture askthem to write the words "AS A PERSON".In the top right-hand corner write the words"AS A WORKER".3. On either side of the picture, under eachheading, ask them to write five words thatbest describe them as a "person" or as a"worker" (in their occupation). Ask them tolist things they like, enjoy, and can do wellandgivethepicturethetitle,"THEBESTOFME".4. Display the pictures on a wall or board.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○5. Ask participants to walk around and look ateachotherspictureswithouttalking.6. Trytoidentifytheownerofeachpicture.Putnames on pictures as they are guessedcorrectly.7. Discuss the activity with the entire group.Categorize the skills identified asinterpersonal, technical or communicationskills.Introducetheideasofself-perception,positive self-concept, self-assessment andself-acceptance.DEBRIEFINGAskthefollowingquestions:- Is self-concept static or does it change?How?Why?- How does self-concept relate to attitudestowards oneself? Others? Ones work?- Discussthepictures.- How easy was it for you to do this exercise?- Whatdidyoulearnaboutyourselfandaboutothers?VARIATIONS1. Have participants describe bad points/weaknesses and draw something that theydislikedoing.2. Have them list five things they cant do sowell.Titlethepicture"TheOtherSideofMe".3. Gendertraining:haveparticipantslistpointswhich describe them as a person and also asa man or woman.
  • 30. 23DETECTIVEGroup size: 10 to 30Time: 30 to 60 minutesMaterials: Markers and flip-chart paper✔ OBJECTIVETo introduce group members to one another.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAtthebeginningofagroupevent.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Askthegrouptodivideintopairs.Distributethe markers and paper to everyone.2. Ask each person to draw six items that theyhaveusedinthelastthreemonths.Askthemto choose items which will help the otherpersontodiscoversomethingaboutthemandtheir interests (e.g. a person interested inclimbingmightdrawarope;amusicianmightdrawaninstrument).3. Giveeachpersonaturnatbeingthedetective,guessing as much as they can about theirpartner.4. Ask the pairs to introduce their partner tothewholegroup.VARIATIONS1. Insteadofdrawingobjectseachpersoncouldusesixitemstheyhavewiththem(e.g.keys,pens, membership cards). The detectiveexaminestheseitemstolearnsomethingaboutthe person.2. Dividethegroupintosmallgroupsinsteadofinto pairs. The drawings or objects can alsobe shown to the whole group who then joininguessing.IVE GOT SOME SECRETSGroup size:10 to 30Time: 20 to 30 minutesMaterials: Flip-chart paper and markers✔ OBJECTIVETofacilitateindividualintroductionsandtohavefun.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAtthebeginningofagroupevent.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask each member of the group to choose apartner who they do not know well.2. Askpartnerstostandorsitinacircleorsemi-circle.3. Ask them to find out their partners namesandorganizationsorsections/divisionstheyare affiliated with. Also ask them to find outtwo to three "secrets" that "nobody in thewholeworldknowsaboutthem".4. Askparticipantstointroducetheirpartnerandone of their "secrets" to the group. Thefacilitator and her partner can begin. Keepthingsmovingquicklyandlightly.Giveeachperson only forty-five to sixty seconds topresent.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 31. 24THE RIVER OF LIFEGroup size: 10 to 30Time: 45 to 60 minutesMaterials: Flip-chart paper and markers✔ OBJECTIVETobuildfriendshipandencourageopennessandtrustwithinthegroup.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAt a stage in the workshop when deeper groupsynergyisrequired.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask participants to form pairs.2. Ask them to discuss the highlights and thedifficult periods of their lives. (Allow aboutten minutes per person.)3. Askparticipantstodrawtheinformationgivenbytheirpartnerasa"riveroflife".4. Participants then present and explain theirpartners life to the plenary.VARIATIONSThis exercise is similar to "Mutual-interview"described in the VIPP manual, page 101. It isnotrecommendedtodobothgamesinthesameevent.PORTRAIT OF MY JOBGroup size:10 to 30Time: 45 to 60 minuteMaterials: Flip-chart paper and markers✔ OBJECTIVETo acquire a perception, individually orcollectively,ofhowpeopleseetheirjobsortheirplaceinanorganization.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAtthebeginningofanevent.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Asktheparticipantstodrawthemselvesandtheirplaceinanorganization.2. Then ask them to form small groups anddescribe the drawings to one another.3. Encouragediscussioninthesmallgroupsbyusingthefollowingquestions:- How do you see your job?- How do you fit in?- Hasthisperceptionchangedrecently?How?Why?- How do you think your clients orcolleaguesseeyourorganization?4. Ask the small groups to bring the results toplenaryandpresenttheirfindings.VARIATIONSRelationshipmapping:askparticipantstodrawtheirrelationshipswithotherpeopleintheirworkenvironment.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 32. 25WHAT DO WE EXPECT?Group size: 10 to 30Time: 45 to 60 minutesMaterials: Flip-chart paper and markers✔ OBJECTIVETodiscoverwhattopicsparticipantshopewillbeaddressedorexplainedduringtheworkshop.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEIntrainingandplanningworkshopsasamethodofdiscoveringtheexpectationsofparticipants.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Asktheparticipantstoreflectonthefollowingquestions:- What do I expect from this event?- What can help me achieve this?2. Askeveryonetomoveaboutinsideoroutsidethe room and look for two objects, eachrelated to or associated with an answer toone of the above questions (allow fifteenminutes).Requestthattheybringtheminsideandlaytheminfrontofthefacilitator.3. Ask each person to present their objects tothegroup,answeringthetwoquestionsbriefly.DEBRIEFINGAskwhatinformationtheparticipantsnowknowabout each other. Are there common interests?What are important topics for group work?VARIATIONSExpectations and fears (see VIPP manual,page 67).DIFFERENT FOLKS, DIFFERENTHOPESGroup size:10 to 30Time: 45 to 60 minutesMaterials: Flip-chart paper, masking tapeand markers✔ OBJECTIVETo help participants define and clarify theirexpectations for the group event.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAsanopeningexercise.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask each member of the group to write on apiece of paper one thing they expect to gainfrom the workshop.2. Ask participants to form groups of four orfive people and discuss their expectations,noting the similarities and differences andexplainingthereasonsforthese.3. Ask each group to list their similar anddifferentexpectationsintwocolumns.4. Display the large sheets on a wall or boardand ask these questions:- How realistic are the expectations?- Canalloftheexpectationsbemetduring theworkshop? What factors determine this?- Is there a need for compromise?VARIATIONSRemaining in plenary, have participants movearound and find a group of thirty people withsimilarexpectations.Whilestanding,havethemformulateacommonstatement.Expectations and fears (see VIPP manual,page 67).○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 33. 26SELF IMAGEGroup size: 10 to 30Time: 30 to 60 minutesMaterials: Flip-chart paper, markers, asample for presentation andmasking tape✔ OBJECTIVE- To encourage group interaction.- Tounderstandparticipantsexpectations.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAt the beginning of a group event. (It can alsobe effective when the participants know eachotherquitewell.)✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Collect and fold aflip-chartsheethorizontallyandverticallyintoquarters.2. Writethefollowing:- Upper left section: Name/section/organization- Upperrightsection:Self-image- Lower left section: What I need- Lowerrightsection:WhatIcanoffer3. Explain that one way of understanding self-imageisbydrawingfeelings,likings,dreams,etc. Ask participants to take a sheet andmarker and fill it in. Allow five minutes tocompletetheactivity.4. Ask them to return to plenary. Askparticipants to explain their drawing to thegroup.Givethemabouttwominuteseach.DEBRIEFINGSummarizetheimages,needsandqualitiesattheend of the session. Relate those with theobjectives and processes of the group event.GET THE PICTURE?Group size: 10 to 20Time: 45 to 60 minutesMaterials: Markers, scissors, glue,newspapers and magazines✔ OBJECTIVEToenhanceparticipantsawareness ofthemselves and each other.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAtthebeginningofa group event.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Give each participant a sheet of paper and amarker.Instructthemtofoldtheirnewsprintsheets in half and write at the top of eachhalf,"Thisisme!"and"Thisismyfuture!"2. Ask the participants to cut pictures, words,drawings, and phrases from magazines thatsymbolizethingsaboutthemselvesandtheirfuture. For the side labelled, "This is me!",examplesmightincludephysicaltraits,partsof the body, clothes, hobbies orachievements, personality traits, etc. Theseshouldbegluedintoplacetoformacollage.3. Ask participants to present their collage tothelargegroup.DEBRIEFINGAsktheparticipantsthefollowingquestions:1. Werethesymbolsusedpositiveornegative?2. Didanyoneusethesameorsimilarsymbols?VARIATION1. Drawwithmarkingpens.2. Cutthetwopartsinhalf,scramblethemandthenguesswhichpartgoeswithwhich.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 34. 27CELEBRITIESGroup size: 15 to 40Time: 20 to 30 minutesMaterials: Cards, markers and masking tape✔ OBJECTIVE- To encourage individual participation in thegroup.- Tohelpparticipantsdevelopgoodquestioninganddatagathering/detectiveskills.- To meet people and have fun.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAt the opening of a group event.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Make a list of famous or infamous peoplesufficient to cover the number of expectedparticipants.Celebritiesmightincludefamoussingers,actors/actresses,politicians,businesspeople,writers,musicians,etc.2. Names may have a common threadconnecting them (e.g. celebrities related tothe nature of the group, names starting withthe same letter or people who were popularduringaparticularera).3. If you know the participants well, you maydecide to match the assignment of celebritynames to individuals who have similarcharacteristics.4. Write the names on stick-on or pin-on nametags or cards. Keep the celebrities" nameshiddenfromtheparticipants.5. When participants arrive, fasten a name toeach participants back and encourage themto walk around, asking other peoplequestionsabouttheirunknownpersona.Theycan only ask questions which can beanswered "Yes" or "No". No other hints tobegiven.6. The exercise continues until all or almost allparticipants have discovered the identity oftheircelebrity.DEBRIEFINGAftermostcelebritieshavebeenidentified,askthegrouptodiscussthefollowingquestions:- Whatkindofquestionsweremostuseful?- Werenon-verbalcluesuseful?- Whatdidyoulearnaboutothersthroughthisexercise?○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 35. 28○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○- Whatangeredyoumostinthelastweek?2. Place the cards face down in the middle ofthegroup.3. Give the following instructions: Each cardhas a question on the other side. At eachpersons turn they will take a card and try toanswerthequestionastruthfullyaspossible.Anyone who feels unable to answer says"pass" and gives the card to the next person.4. Someoftheanswerswillprovokediscussion.Dependingonthetimeavailable,discussioncan be encouraged.NOTE:Thisgameworksbestifthefacilitatororgroupleaderiswillingtotakeaturnandtoanswerhonestly. It is also important that the type ofquestionsareappropriateforthegroup.If there are shy members in the group it mayhelptodrawthemintothegamebygettingthemto shuffle the cards before the game starts andaskthemtohandoutcardstoeachpersonwhenitistheirturn.TRUTH GAMEGroup size: 10 to 30Time: 30 to 40 minutesMaterials: Cards and markers✔ OBJECTIVEToenergizethegroup.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAt the opening of a group event.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Prepare cards with questions - for example:- What do you do best?- What TV or radio programmes do youlike?- Ifyouwon$1000,howwouldyouspendit?- Whatmakesyoulaugh?- Whatwasyourhappiestmoment?- Would you like to be someone else?Who?- What has pleased you most today?- Whatwillyoubedoingintenyears?- Whatliehaveyoutoldrecently?- What scares you the most?- What embarrasses you?- When was the last time you cried?
  • 36. 29MIME AN INTERESTGroup size: 10 to 25Time: 20 to 30 minutesMaterials: None✔ OBJECTIVE- To increase participants knowledge of eachother.- Toenergizethegroup.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAnytime.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Askthegrouptoformacircleandtothinkofa personal interest that they can mime, e.g.anathleticsenthusiastmightrunonthespot;amusicianmightmimeplayinganinstrument.2.Withoutanyfurthertalking,haveeachpersoninturn(includingthefacilitator),tomimetheirown interest. The rest of the group tries toremembereachpersonsmime.3. Explaintothegroupthattheyarenownearlyready to start the game but there will be aminute to practice before the game starts.4. Theprocedureisasfollows:onepersonclapshands,performstheirownmime,clapshandsagain, says a persons name and points tosomeoneelsewho,withouthesitation,clapsandperformsthemimeofthepersonnamed,claps, names and points, and so on ...(Sequenceofactions:clap-mime-clap-name- point to someone.)5. Thegamecaninvolveelimination,withpeoplesitting down if they hesitate beforeperforming.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○IF YOU WERE AN ANIMALGroup size:15 to 30Time: 15 to 20 minutesMaterials: None✔ OBJECTIVE- To improve participants knowledge ofeach other.- Toincreasegroupinteractionandhavefun.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEWhengroupparticipationislow.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask the participants: If you were an animalwhich one would you be and why?2. Ask them to imitate or pose like the animalthey have chosen. Allow a minute forpreparation.3. Havethemformacircle.4. The facilitator may begin by going to thecentre of the circle and imitating or posinglike the animal of her choice and explainingwhyshechosetheanimal.5. The exercise is then repeated by allparticipants.VARIATION"If you were a flower," etc.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 37. 30MOOD CARDSGroup size: 15 to 30Time: 20 minutesMaterials: Cards, markers and masking tape✔ OBJECTIVETo allow participants to talk about moods andfeelingsaspartofwarminguporgettingtoknowone another.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAtthebeginningofagroupevent.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. As people enter the room, give them a card,a marker and a piece of masking tape.2. Ask them to write, in no more than threeWords,theirdominantmoodatthemoment.The written card should be stuck on theirchest with tape.3. Encouragetheparticipantstowanderaroundtheroomlookingateachothersmoodcardsandquestioningeachotherabouttheirmoods.4. After everyone has sought and receivedclarification, invite them to form groups ofpeoplewithsimilarmoods.5. Allow the groups to share. They can alsowrite a title card for their moods and all themoods can be pinned on a boardVARIATIONThisexercisecanbevariedbywritingotherthingson the card, such as a workshop expectation, afear or secret wish, etc. It can also be used asan evaluation exercise in place of a "flash" ormood metre.FIND YOUR PEERSGroup size:15 to 30Time: 10 minutesMaterials: Cards of the same colour,markers, magazines and glue✔ OBJECTIVETodivideparticipantsintosmallgroups.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAs a process for forming groups.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Countthenumberofparticipantsanddecideon the number of groups you would like.2. Select sets of words like names of flowers,birds,rivers,countries,fish,etc.3. Preparethedesirednumberofcategorycardswith words or pictures.4. Shufflethecards.5. Spread the cards upside down on the tableorfloor.6. Invite participants to pick up a card and findtheir group by showing their card to others.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 38. 31TREE OF LIFEGroup size: 10 to 40Time: 40 minutesMaterials: Flip-chart paper and markers✔ OBJECTIVETohelpparticipantsreflectontheirownlifeinafocusedway.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAtthebeginningofagroupevent.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask each person to draw the "tree of life".- Rootsrepresentthefamilyfromwhichwecome, strong influences which haveshaped us into the person we are now.- Thetrunkrepresentsthestructureofourlife today - our jobs, families,organizations,communities,movementstowhichwebelong.- The leaves represent our sources ofinformation - newspapers, radio,television, books, reports, friends.- The fruits represent our achievements,projects and programmes we haveorganized, groups we have started andmaterials we have produced.- The buds represent our hopes for thefuture.2. Give participants about twenty minutes tocompletetheexercise.3. Sharethedrawingsingroupsofthreetofive.If possible, it is good to do this in an open-ended session; for instance, in the eveningwhengroupscancontinuetoshareforaslongastheywish.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○SHARING ACHILDHOOD MEMORYGroup size:15 to 30Time: I 30 minutesMaterials: None✔ OBJECTIVE-Tosharepersonalinformationwiththegroup.- To allow the group leader to gain insightinto the people in the group.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEWhen it is appropriate to encourage theestablishmentofcloserelationshipsandthedevelopmentoftrustwithinthegroup.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Asktheparticipantstoformgroupsofthree.Ask each group member to recall a memoryfrom childhood. Encourage them to freelyexpressthatmemory.2. Allowafewminutesforthemtogetintothememory.3.Haveeachgroupmembersharetheirmemoryfor two or three minutes. Then, withoutcomment,moveontothenextmember.NOTE: When sharing, encourage people tobegininthemiddle-forinstance,"Iamwalkingdown a road and the smell of roses is in theair ..."VARIATIONIn the context of gender training, this activitycouldbeusedtoencourageparticipantstosharememories that emphasize expectations aroundtheir gender and sex roles.
  • 39. 32Shy handsomehard-workingLOOKING AND FINDINGGroup size: 10 to 30Time: 30 minutesMaterials: Paper and markers✔ OBJECTIVEToenhancegroupinteractiononapersonallevel,whenpeoplearealreadyfamiliarandcomfortablewitheachother.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEIn the middle of a group event.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask every participant to write on threeseparate pieces of paper, personalcharacteristics or physical features thatidentifythem.2. Donotincludenames.3. Collect the papers in a container.4. Ask everyone to draw three papers from thecontainer and then find the owners of thecharacteristicswithinthegroup.5. When they have identified the person, askthem to write the name of the person on thepaper beside the characteristic.6. When all participants are identified by theircharacteristics,thepapersmaybereadaloudto the group.Identify your partnerGroup size:10 to 30Time: 20 minutesMaterials: Paper and markers✔ OBJECTIVETo allow each participant to meet other groupmembers.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAtthebeginningofaworkshop.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Prepareshortdescriptionsofeachparticipantahead of time (e.g. someone with a Ph.D. inchemistry, someone who hates ties, etc.).Writethedescriptionsoncardsandputtheminacontainer.2. Ask participants to pick a description out ofthecontainer.3. Ask participants to mingle around the roomand find the partner who matches thedescription.4. When they find their partner, ask them tointroducethemselvestoeachother.5. Ifthereistime,andthegroupisnottoolarge,ask each participant to introduce his or herpartner to the group.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 40. 33FIND OUTGroup size: 10 to 25Time: 5 to 10 minutes per roundMaterials: None✔ OBJECTIVETo encourage participants to get to know oneanother better.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAtthebeginningofagroupevent.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Askoneparticipanttovolunteertoleavetheroom.Heorshewillbeaskedtothinkoffivequestionsthatcanbeansweredwith"yes"or"no"inordertoidentifyaparticularpersonintheroom.2. While the volunteer is out of the room, thegroup decides who will be the designatedpersonforthevolunteertoidentify.3. Uponreturning,thevolunteerwillbeallowedtoaskfivequestionsbeforeguessingwhothedesignatedpersonis.Givethevolunteerthreeguesses. If he fails the persons identity isrevealed and a new round begins.REVEALING SYMBOLSGroup size:10 to 30Time: 30 minutesMaterial: Cards, markers, and masking tape✔ OBJECTIVETo encourage participants get to know newthingsabouteachother.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAt the beginning of a group event which willrequireparticipantstoworktogetherclosely.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1.Distribute a card to participants and ask eachto draw a symbol of him/herself, based on apersonal interest or a concern.2. Askparticipantstoattachtheircardstotheirchestsandwalksilentlyaroundtheroomandlook at other peoples symbols.3. Eachparticipantattemptstofindapersonwithwhom he or she thinks they may havesomethingincommonbecauseofthesymbol.The pairs may talk to each other about theirsymbolsandwhattheymean.4. Each pair then walks around the room,searchingforanotherpairwithwhomtheythinktheyhavesomethingincommon.5. Each group of four explains their symbols toeachotheranddevelopsagroupsymbol.Thegroupthenpresentstheirgroupsymboltotheplenarywithashortexplanation,introducingthe members of the group.NOTE: Make sure that the participantsunderstand what is meant by a symbol. Givesomeexamples.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 41. 34SECRET ADMIRERGroup size:Maximum 35Time: 15 minutes to organizeMaterials: Cards and markers✔ OBJECTIVE- To develop camaraderie and an atmosphereforpersonalgrowththroughouttheworkshop.- To encourage attentiveness.- To encourage participants get to know newthings about each other.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAnytimeduringagroupevent.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Eachparticipantpullsoutthenameofanotherparticipantfromahat(oranyothercontainer).Thiswillbethepersonofwhomtheywillbea secret admirer.2. Aspecialboardshouldbecreatedforpostingmessages.3. Participants are asked to send supportivemessageswithoutgivingawaytheiridentity.4. A competition on who can send the mostcreativemessagemaydevelopwitheveryonetryingtodeterminewhotheirsecretadmirersare.5. On the final day, time is set aside for peopleto acknowledge their secret admirer.Participants may want to guess who theirsecret admirers were.DOUBLE WHEELGroup size: 10 to 30Time: 20 minutesMaterials: Cassette of local music with acassette player✔ OBJECTIVETointroduceparticipantstoeachotherinahighlyinteractiveway.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEWith a group who do not know one another.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Divideparticipantsintotwogroupsofequalsize.2. Have each group form a circle, one circleinsidetheother.3. Instructparticipantsintheinsidecircletogoclockwise, those in the outer circle gocounter-clockwiseasthemusicplays.4. Askthemtostopmovingwhenthemusicstopsand face the person from the other groupstandinginfrontofthem.Exchangenamesandwhere they come from. When the musicresumes,theygobackinthecircleandmoveinthesamedirectionasbefore.5.Whenthemusicstopsagain,theyshouldrushtofindtheirpreviouspartnerandbothcrouchdown.Thelastfewpairstocrouchdownareselected to have each partner introduce theother to the plenary.6. Continue the "Double Wheel" with anotherfewroundsuntilallparticipantshaveintroducedthem-selves to thegroup.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 42. 35Notes on variation and new games
  • 43. 36Notes on variation and new games
  • 44. 37SECTION 11WARM-UPS AND ENERGIZERSWarm-upsandenergizerscanassistinenliveningandre-invigoratingthegroupprocess.Use these games and exercises :● Afteralongdifficultsession.● When group discussion has become tense or lengthy.● Duringperiodofthedayoreveningwhenparticipantsarefired.● When the pace of the workshop needs to be changed.
  • 45. 38NOTES ON VARIATION AND NEW GAMES
  • 46. 39CHARADESGroup size: 10 to 30Time: 20 to 30 minutesMaterials: None✔ OBJECTIVETo warm up the group while developingperceptual powers.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEDuringagroupevent.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Onepersonactsoutsomethingspecific,suchas pretending to be an animal or person orpretending to be doing something such assewing,playingcards,watchingTV,etc.2. Theotherstrytoguesswhattheactorisdoing.3. Participants can work together in pairs, insmallgroupsorinteams.AN INTRODUCTIONDANCEGroup size:15 to 40Time: 45 minutesMaterials: Flip-chart,paper,pencils,maskingtape, a radio, musical instrumentor tape player✔ OBJECTIVETo energize the group while increasingparticipationinactivitiesinvolvinggroupgoalsorinterests.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEDuringagroupevent.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask participants a specific question; forexample,"Whatisitthatyoulikemostaboutyourwork?"(oranyrelevantquestion).Explainthattheiranswermustbebrief.2. Have each participant write their name andanswer on a piece of paper and tape it ontotheirchest.3. Start the music and invite participants todance (not in pairs). Explain that while theyare dancing they must look for otherparticipants with answers that are the sameor similar to their own. Those with similaranswerslinkarms,keepmovingandlookingfor new participants to add to their group.4. Stop the music. Check to see how manygroups have formed. If there are manyparticipants still alone, start the music againandgivethemasecondopportunitytofindagroup.5. Whenthemajorityhaveformedgroups,stopthe music and invite each group to discusstheiranswers.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 47. 404. Thedriverindicates,withoutspeaking,whichdirectionthecarshouldmovebytappingtheother person on the shoulder. A tap on therightshouldermeansturnright.Atapontheleft shoulder means turn left. Tapping in themiddle of the back means go straight ahead.Speedmayberegulatedbytappingfasterandslower. A hand held solidly on the backmeans stop.5. After several minutes, switch roles. Thedriversshouldavoiddrivingtheir"cars"intoeach other or into solid objects.VARIATION1. Robot testing (see VIPP manual, page 98).2. This activity can be lengthened by askingdrivers,afterthefirstround,toidentifywhattypeofcartheyweredriving.The"cars"cansay what type of car they were.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○CarsGroup size: 10 to 50Time: 5 minutesMaterials: None✔ OBJECTIVE- To increase the level of trust amongparticipants.- Toenliventhegroup.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEWhen a group needs a change of pace.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask the group to divide into pairs.2. One partner stands behind the other. Thepersoninfrontclosestheireyesandpretendsto be a car.3. Thepersonbehindkeepstheireyesopenandacts as the driver.
  • 48. 41MINGLE AND STOPGroup size: 15 to 40Time: 5 to 10 minutesMaterials: Cards, music (optional)✔ OBJECTIVETo increase group concentration andparticipation.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAtanytimeduringagroupevent.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. This exercise works well with music or byusingthecommands,"mingle"and"stop".2. Randomly place cards on the floor at leasttwofeetapart.Thereshouldbeonelesscardthanthenumberofparticipants.3. Asthemusicbeginsorthe"mingle"commandisgiven,playersmoveaboutfreely,withinacentral area.4. When the music is stopped or the "stop"commandisgiven,playersquicklychooseacard to stand on. The person without a cardis out of the game.5. Thefacilitatorremovesacardandthe"mingle"commandisgivenagain.6. This is repeated until only one card isremainingandtwoplayersmustcompeteforit.FRUITS AND ANIMALSGroup size:15 to 40Time: 6 to 10 minutesMaterials: None✔ OBJECTIVEToimprovecoordinationandattentivenesswithinthegroup.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEWhen people are feeling slow and tired. Thisexercise requires everyones participation andalertness.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask the group to form a circle and clap.2. Afterthreeclaps,thefacilitatorsaysthenameofafruit.3. After three more claps the next person saysthenameofananimal.4. After three more claps the next person saysthenameofafruitandsoonaroundthecircle.5. If someone says the name of a fruit when ananimal is required, or cannot think of a fruitor animal, or repeats the name of a fruit oranimalthathasalreadybeensaid,theymustsitdown.6. Continue until the last two participants arecontestingandonewins.VARIATIONThe exercise can be simplified by asking theparticipantstonameonlyfruitsoranimalsinsteadofalternatingbetweenthetwo.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 49. 42GROUP MOVEMENTGroup size: 10 to 50Time: 5 to 15 minutesMaterials: None✔ OBJECTIVEToincreaseinteractionbetweenparticipants.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEDuringagroupevent.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPSMostparticipantsingroupeventswillidentifyafavoriteseatorareaandcontinuetochooseitforthedurationoftheworkshop.Resolvetobreakupthesefamiliarseatingpatternsforthebenefitofthegroup.Thiscanbeachievedby:1. Asking participants to mingle and changeseatseverymorning.2. Changing the size of working groups orvaryingtheworkingareaorarrangement.3. Moving participants into different locationsaccording to their views on a topic.4. Askingparticipantstoselectthepersonaboutwhom they know the least, or identify mostclosely with, or feel most in disagreementwith, and seek out that person as theirconversation partner for the next severalminutes.GOING ON A JOURNEYGroup size:15 to 20Time: 15 to 20 minutesMaterials: None✔ OBJECTIVEToimproveconcentrationandmemoryskills.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAnytime.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask the group to form a circle and clap inunison.2. Askonepersontostartbysaying:"Iamgoingon a journey . . . and on this journey Imbringingmy...(e.g.toothbrush,dog)."3. The next person should repeat the firststatement and add another item.4. Thegamecontinuesuntilalltheparticipantshave added an item to the list and can repeattheentirelist.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 50. 43POWER CURRENTGroup size: 10 to 20 per circleTime: 15 to 20 minutesMaterials: None✔ OBJECTIVE- To focus the concentration of the group.- To develop effective observation skills.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAnytime.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask participants to stand in a circle holdinghands.2. Explainthatthereisapowercurrenttravelingthroughthegroup.Startthepowerbysqueezingthehandofthepersonnexttoyou.3. Thepoweristhenpassedaroundfrompersontopersonthroughsuchsqueezing,sothatonecanseetheenergybeingtransferredthroughbodylanguage.4. One person then volunteers to stand in themiddle,closinghiseyesforhalfaminute,thenopening his eyes and trying to catch thecurrentbygrabbingparticipantshandswherehethinksitispassing.5. When the guess is correct, the participant inthe middle returns to the circle and becomesthecurrentsenderandtheonecaughttakeshisplaceinthecentreofthegroup.VARIATIONSee Power Cable (VIPP manual P. 96).MOUSE-MOUSEGETAWAYGroup size:15 to 30Time: 8 to 10 minutesMaterials: None✔ OBJECTIVETo encourage participants to be informal andrelaxed.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEMost appropriate for use in informal groupsituations.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask the group to form a circle withparticipants holding hands. The spacebetween the participants should be largeenough to let someone pass through.2. Two volunteers are invited to represent amouse and a cat.3. The mouse stands inside the circle, the catstands outside the circle.4. The mouse starts to run in a zig-zag manneraroundthecircle,passingunderparticipantsarms. The cat rushes after the mouse until itcatches the mouse. The participants mayprevent the cat from catching the mouse byloweringtheirarmsupanddown.Thegameis repeated by several other cat and mousepairs.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 51. 44WIZARDS, GNOMESAN GIANTSGroup size: 15 to 40Time: 10 to 20 minutesMaterials: None✔ OBJECTIVETohavefunandlaughalot!❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEInthemiddleofaneventwhenparticipantshavedeveloped trust in the group and feel free to actsilly.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask participants to form two teams.2. Ask each team to form a huddle and choosewhichofthefollowingthreecharacterstheywouldliketobe:- Wizards who stretch their hands out infront, wiggle their fingers and make a"whooooooo"sound.- Giantswhoputtheirhandsupabovetheirheads, jump up and down and make a"ho-ho-ho"sound.- Gnomes who get down close to theground with their hands by their ears andmakeahigh"ning-ning-ning"sound.3. Tell the participants that wizards win overgiants, giants win over gnomes and gnomeswinoverwizards.4. Ask the teams to line up facing each other,two metres apart. Each team should chooseasafetyzonesomewhereintheroom,perhapsmarked by masking tape. The facilitatorbegins each action by saying: "One, two,three,go."Eachteamthenactsoutitschosencharacterandthewinnerschasetheloserstotag(orgrab)thembeforetheyreachthesafetyzone. Anyone tagged (or grabbed) beforereaching the safety zone joins the winningteam.NOTE: Visualize the directions and practice around. It usually takes two turns to understandandtwomoreroundsforhilarity.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 52. 45A PERSON OF PRINCIPLESGroup size: 15 to 30Time: 10 to 20 minutesMaterials: None✔ OBJECTIVETo encourage listening skills and groupparticipation.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAtthebeginningofagroupevent.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask the participants to sit in a circle andselect a letter of the alphabet.2. The facilitator should stand in the centre ofthe circle and make up a story about "APerson of Principles". During the story, thefacilitator pauses and points to a participantwho in turn says a word beginning with thepredeterminedletter.Forexample:Facilitator: I have an uncle named Peter whoisamanofprinciples.HeinsiststhateverythinginhislifemustbeginwiththeletterP.Hiswifesnameis...Participant:Patricia!Facilitator: And Patricia likes to eat...Participant:Potatoes!Facilitator: One day Peter went to visit...Participant:Peking!3. The first participant to make a mistake or totakelongerthanfivesecondstoanswer,goesintothecentre.Thatpersonthencontinuesthestoryandmaychangetheletter.BECAUSE AND WHYGroup size:15 to 30Time: 15 to 20 minutesMaterials: Cards and markers✔ OBJECTIVEToenhancegroupcommunication.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAnytime.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask participants to stand in two lines facingeach other. Give each group a card.2. Ask members of one line to write a questionbeginningwiththeword"why"whilethoseintheotherlinewriteastatementbeginningwiththe word "because".3. The group with the "why" statements beginsby reading their questions aloud. They arefollowedbyappropriate"because"statementsuntilallhavebeenread.NOTE:Participantscanalsoreadthe"why"and"because" statements in the order people arestanding.Thismayinduceagooddealoflaughterbecause of the non sequiturs.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 53. 46MOODSGroup size:15 to 30Time: 15 to 30 minutesMaterials: Prepared cards✔ OBJECTIVETo explore methodsofnon-verbalcommunication.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEWhengroupinteractionhasslowed down.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Arrangethegroupin a circle. Ask them to form pairs.2. Distribute to each pair a card with a moodwrittenonit(e.g.angry,afraid,inlove,tired,broken-hearted, excited, victorious, hunted,mad, depressed).3. Askthemtokeepwhatiswrittenonthecarda secret.4. Each pair will have a turn in the circle. Oneperson will be the clay and the other personwill sculpt his or her legs, hands and face todemonstrate the mood on the card.5. Askthegrouptoguesswhichmoodisbeingportrayed by the pair.6. Ask a new pair to come to the centre of thegroup and repeat the process.VARIATIONTosavetime,havehalfofthegroupsculptwhiletheotherhalfmovesaroundguessingthemoodsbeingportrayed.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○MIRRORSGroup size: 10 to 40Time: 15 to 20 minutesMaterials: None✔ OBJECTIVEToallowparticipantstoexploremethodsofnon-verbalcommunication.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAs a warm-up exercise,anytime.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask participants todivideintotwogroups.2. Askthegroupstolineupintworowsfacingeach other about 1.5 metres apart.3. Ask participants to raise their hands to theheight of their shoulders and extend them toalmost touch those of their partner in thefacingrow.4. Withoutspeaking,theparticipantsinrowone(thedesignatedleaders)initiatemovementswiththeir hands, arms, legs and bodies. Theirpartners,inrowtwo,mirrorthemovements,e.g.movelefthandwhile"mirror"movesright.Thoseinitiatingthemovementscanbeaskedtomimesomethingspecific,likegettingdressedforanimportantdateorbuildingsomething.Afterafewminutes,telltheparticipantsinrowtwototake the lead and those in row one to be themirrors.DEBRIEFINGYoumaydiscusswhatbehaviourshelporhindereffective communication in the context ofleadership.
  • 54. 47PASS THE RINGGroup size: Subgroups of 8 to 15Time: 10 to 15 minutesMaterials: One unsharpened pencil or strongstraw for every participant,2-3 rings✔ OBJECTIVETo energize the group through playfulcompetition.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAfter a plenary session or a lunch break.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask participants to stand in two lines facingeach other.2. Askeachpersontoputanunsharpenedpencilintheirmouth.3. The first person in each row places a ring ontheirpencil,closestheirlipsandtriestopasstheringrapidlyontothepencilofthesecondperson.4. Iftheringfalls,thegroupmuststartagainwiththe first person in the row.5. Thewinninggroupisthefirsttosuccessfullycompletepassingtheringtoallmembers.ALL ABOARDGroup size:15 to 20Time: 10 minutesMaterials: Masking tape✔ OBJECTIVETo work together to achieve a common goal.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEWhen group interaction has slowed down.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Using masking tape, make different sizesquares on the floor. Suggested sizes are: 3m x 3 m, 2 m x 2 m, 1 m x 1 m, 0.5 m x 0.5m and 0.25 m x 0.25 m.2. Tell the participants that they are on a boatsimilar to the Titanic, and it has just hit aniceberg.Allthegroupmustgetontheiceberg(begin with the three metre square) so thatthey will not drown. No one can touch thearea outside the square (water).3. After they have figured out how to geteveryonewithinthesquare,tellthemthattheiceberg is cracking and they have to find thenextlargestsquare.Continueuntiltheymoveto the smallest square.DEBRIEFING- How did the group work together to reachthegoal?- What did not work?- Who was the leader?- How did you reach agreement?○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 55. 48PEOPLE, POLICE, THIEVESGroup size: 10 to 40Time: 5 minutesMaterials: None✔ OBJECTIVEToencourageenergeticgroupcommunication.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEWhen the group needs an energizing break orbefore starting a new topic.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Dividethegroupintothreesections.2. Inform one section that they are the people,thesecondsectionwillbethepolice,thethirdwillbethethieves.3. Tellastoryaboutthesethreegroupsofpeople.Everytimeyoumentionthenameofagroup,thisgroupmuststandupandsitdownquickly.Inthestory,createconnectionssothatpeoplehave to think and pop up and down quickly.You can trick participants by appearing tobe just about to mention a particular group,butstopjustbeforeandaltertheplotofyourstory.MASILOGroup size:10 to 30Time: 5 to 10 minutesMaterials: A marker or small objectfor each participant✔ OBJECTIVEToimprovealertnessandcoordination.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEWhenever there is a need to bring the grouptogether.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Giveeachparticipantanobjecttoholdintheirright hand (for example, a marker could beused).2. Askparticipantstoformacircleandtokneeldownontheirkneesandplacetheirlefthandonthefloor.3. Startwiththesong,"Masilowee,heelaMasilowee; heela Masilo wee, heela Masilo"(meaningMasilodear,helloMasilodear;helloMasilodear,helloMasilo).4. As they sing, each participant passes hisobject to the person on the right who thenpasses it to the next person. While the songisrepeatedthepassingoftheobjectcontinues.5. The movement of the object is coordinatedwiththerhythmofthesong.6. Changethedirectionofthemovementoftheobject to the left and everyone follows.7. After the objects have been passed around,you may select a new leader.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 56. 49NDINDOGroup size: 20 to 30Time: 5 to 10 minutesMaterials: None✔ OBJECTIVEToimprovegroupconcentration.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAs a warm-up exercise at the beginning of theday or any time throughout the workshop.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask the group to form a circle.2. Ask the group to sing the following song:"Ndindo ndindo, aee ndindo" (two times),"Haa nakumwene kwi?" (Where did I seeyou?)3. Askparticipantstobendforwardatthewaistastheysing,clappingtheirknees.4. When the group sings, "Haa nakumwenekwi", the leader turns to look at the secondpersonfromhimorher.Thatpersonalsoturnsto look at the leader. They look over top ofthe person standing between them, whobends forward and claps his or her knees totherhythm.5. After this pair looks at each other it is theturn of the one standing between them andthepersonstandingtwoplacesawaytolookateachother.Therestofthegroupcontinuesto clap their knees and sing.6. The game continues around the circle untilone pair fails. They stand outside the circleandthegamecontinues.OMOGroup size:10 to 30Time: 10 to 15 minutesMaterials: None✔ OBJECTIVEToenhanceconcentrationandco-ordination.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAs the first exercise in amorningsessionoranytimewhenthegroupneeds a change of pace.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask participants to stand in a circle.2. Explainbeforebeginningthegamethat"Omo"is the name of a popular soap powder inAfrica.3. Tell the person on your right to "Go and buyOmo." The person turns to them and asks,"What?"andyourepeat,"Omo".Thepersonon your right then turns to the next personandrepeatstheprocess.Whentheyturnandask, "What?" the middle person turns backtotheleaderandsays,"What?"andtheyagainreply,"Omo".4. Repeattheprocessuntilthewordshavebeenpassed around the circle. The person whobreaksthecycleiseliminatedfromthegame.NOTE: The game can be embellished withrhythmic clapping to make it more musical,entertainingandphysicallystimulating.Besurethatthedirectionsareclearbeforebeginning.Thisgame is easier said than done!○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 57. 50KABUJIEGroup size: 15 to 30Time: 5 to 10 minutesMaterials: None✔ OBJECTIVE- To relax participants and break downinhibitions.- Tohavefun.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAsthefirstexerciseinamorningsessionoranytimewhenthegroupneedsachangeofpace.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Askthegrouptostandinacirclewithyourselfinthemiddle.Explainthegameprogressivelyandplayitinpartsbeforeattemptingthewholegame.2. Begin by saying the word, "Kabujie", andaskingtheparticipantstochantback,"Eeh",inrhythm.3. Asktheparticipantstoplacetheirrightpalmson their right knees and bend slightly into aforward position, all facing in the samedirection.4. Ask the group to combine the chant and themovement(i.e.youchant"Kabujie",andtheparticipantsresponding,"Eeh")asthecirclemoves around with participants thumpingtheirfeetinunison.5. When you say "Turn over", the participantsrotateonthespotchanting"Eeeeeh,Eh!"untilyou say,"Kabujie", and they begin to moveagaininthecircle.6. Ask the group to change to the left palm ontheleftkneeandcontinuethechantwhilemovingintheotherdirection.Ifyoucall"Kabujie"loudly,the group should be equally loud in theirresponses;ifyouwhisper,thegroupresponseshouldbethesame.NOTE:Encouragetheparticipantstoenjoythebody movement. Take care not to let the gameruntoolong,asitwillloseits"punch".
  • 58. 51CHAOSGroup size: 15 to 30Time: 10 to 15 minutesMaterials: Paper and pen✔ OBJECTIVETo energize the group and improveconcentration.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEWhen the group is beginning a process thatrequiresintenseinteraction.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. In preparation, the facilitator should write aseries of actions on pieces of paper.2. Ask the group to stand in a circle. Distributethe papers to the participants.3. Thefacilitatormaythenexplainthatatagivensignal,eachparticipantmustactouttheactionwritten on their paper and that at anothersignaltheymustallstop.4. Repeat the exercise several times.NOTE:Examplesofhumorousactionsmightbe:Hoplikearabbit,croaklikeafrog,sing"HappyBirthday".VARIATIONSPrepare a series of actions which correspond toeach other and write them down on separatepieces of paper. Tell participants that whileperformingtheirparticularactiontheymustlookforaparticipantwithcomplimentaryormatchingactions. For example: "Moo like a cow"correspondsto"milkingacow".NO-WITHOUTGroup size:10 to 20Time: 15 to 20 minutesMaterials: Ball or soft object✔ OBJECTIVE- To increase group concentration andparticipation.- Toencouragelisteningandthinkingskills.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USETorevitalizethegroupafteralongpresentationorintensesession.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask the participants to form a circle.2. Thefacilitatorshouldexplainthatoneplayerwillthrowaballoranylightobjecttoanotherplayerandsaythefirstlineofa"no...without"phrase (e.g. "no summer without flowers").The person whom they address must catchthe ball and answer with another "no...without" saying (e.g. "no bread withoutcrumbs").3. Thegamecontinuesastheballisthrownfromplayer to player, each in turn adding a "no ...without"statement.4. If the player cannot think of a contribution,the rest of the group may help.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 59. 52SPOON RELAY RACEGroup size: 10 to 30Time: 15 minutesMaterials: 1 teaspoon per player and 1 sugarcube, or egg or ping pong ball perteam✔ OBJECTIVE- Toenergizethegroup.- To demonstrate effective team work.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAfter an intense session or before a session onteam work.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Asktheparticipantstodivideintotwoorthreeteams and line up in two or three rows.Explain that the purpose of the game is foreach team to pass the sugar from person toperson using only their teaspoons and nottheirhands.2. Ask each player to put the handle of theteaspoon in their mouth and to hold theirhands behind their back.3. The facilitator places a cube of sugar on theteaspoon of the first player in each row. Araw egg or a ping pong ball may be usedinstead.4. Theteamwhichsucceedsinpassingtheobjectto the end of the row first is the winner. If itfalls from the teaspoon, the team has to startfrom the beginning (with a new egg, if youareusingeggs!).○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○FALLING ANIMALSGroup size:10 to 40Time: 10 minutesMaterials: Paper and pen✔ OBJECTIVEToenergizethegroup.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAfteranintensesession.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Prepare a slip of paper for each player. Oneach paper the word "dog" is written. Thepapers are folded and put in a container.2. Explainthatthereisananimalsnamewrittenoneachpaperinthecontainerandeverybodyis supposed to draw one slip of paper andkeep their animals name secret.3. Ask the participants to form a circle. Beforethegamebeginsthegrouppracticestheexercise.Say,"SupposethatJohndrawselephantfromthecontainer.Then,ifIcalloutelephant,Johnfallsdowninthemiddleofthegroup.However,those beside him must try to stop him fromfalling."Practiseseveraltimeswithdifferentanimalnamesuntilparticipantsareconfidentenoughtofall.4. Askparticipantstoeachdrawaslipofpaperfromthecontainerandkeeptheanimalnameon it a secret. Ask the group to link armsagain.5. Thefacilitatorcallsout"dog!"NOTE: The game can only be played once.
  • 60. 53EEEH-AAAH!Group size: 10 to 30Time: 15 minutesMaterials: None✔ OBJECTIVEToenergizethegroup.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAfteranintensesession.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Form a circle and ask participants to placetheir arms behind the backs of the personstandingbesidethem.2. Ask each participant, to introduce him orherselfbynameandaddadescriptionsuchastheir country. The group then repeats thepersonswords,followedbyalongdrawn-out"eeh" after the name and "aah" after thedescription. For instance, "Justus eeh" . . ."Kenya aaaah" ... "Violet eeh"... "Ugandaaaaah".3. Ask the circle to sway one way and then theother in a slow, rhythmic fashion with each"eeh"and"aaaah".COLOURSGroup size:15 to 30Time: 10 minutesMaterials: None✔ OBJECTIVETofacilitatepositivegroupinteraction.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAnytimeduringaworkshop.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask the group to sit in a circle.2. Thefacilitatorasksthequestion,"Whatcolourwouldyouusetodescribethepersononyourleft?" and begins the game by saying, "I callyouyellowbecauseyouarealwayssosunnyandcheerful."3.Eachpersoninturn,choosesacolourwithanexplanatorystatementforthepersonontheirleft.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 61. 54YAHOOGroup size: 20 to 40Time: 15 minutesMaterials: None✔ OBJECTIVE- To end a session on a positive note.- Tohavefun!❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAnytime.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Before beginning the game, select aparticipant to be the "Martian" (or selectanonymouslybytappingtheshoulderofoneperson when all eyes are closed).2. Explain to the group that they are on anexpeditioninouterspace.TheirspaceshiphasjustlandedonMars.Thisplanetisinabsolutedarkness.Thecreaturesthatliveontheplanetcannot make any noise. However, they willrecogniseyouasafriendifyousay"Yahoo".3. Asktheparticipantstowalkaroundtheroomwith their eyes closed. One of them is theMartian.OnlytheMartianknowswhoheorsheis.4. Whentwoparticipantsmeet,theygreeteachotherwithaquestioning"Yahoo?"Thatisallthey can say. The player who is the Martianwill not answer. Others will respond with"Yahoo".5. The person who finds the Martian holds ontoitandalsobecomesmute.Eachadditionalplayerwhomeetsthe"Yahoo-chain"connectsand becomes silent until all players havebecomesilent.SOCIOGRAMGroup size:20 to 30Time: 15 to 20 minutesMaterials: None✔ OBJECTIVETogettoknow one better during the workshopprocess.Asanenergizer.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAnytime.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask participants to stand and quickly formsociogramsaccordingto:-Countryoforigin-Country based in-Sizeoffamily-Age-Occupation(trainer,researcher,programmer,manager,physician,etc.)-Urban/ruralorigin-Religion,etc.2. Havethemformnewgroupsonlyaftereachcategory is complete and everyone has agroup.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 62. 55TOUCH SOMETHINGGroup size: 10 to 50Time: 5 to 10 minutesMaterials: None✔ OBJECTIVEToenergizeparticipants.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAnytime,toraiseenergylevels.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask everyone to stand up.2. Explain that you will call out to everyone tofindsomethingbluearoundthemandthattheyshouldtouchit.Thiscouldbesomeonesblueshirt or scarf, a shoe, etc.3. Thencallout,"Touchsomethinggreen!"andeveryoneshouldruntotouchagreenobject.4. Next, "Touch your toes!" or "Touchsomeonesear!","Touchthattreeoverthere!",etc.PRR AND PUKUTUGroup size:10 to 50Time: 5 minutesMaterials: None✔ OBJECTIVEToenergizeandhavefun.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAnytimespiritsareflagging.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPSAskeveryonetostandinacircle.Explainthatyouwouldlikethemtothinkoftwobirds.Onecalled"prr"andtheother"pukutu".2. Ifyoucallout"prr",alltheparticipantswillgetup on their toes, stick out their elbows andmovethemupanddown,asiftheywerebirdsrufflingtheirwings.3. If you call out "pukutu", everyone stays stilland does not move a feather.4. Proceedbycallingout"prrr"or"pukutu".5. Anyonewhomoveswhentheyshouldnotorwhostaysstillwhentheyshouldmoveisoutofthegame.Theycanthenhelpyoutowatchtheotherparticipants.6. Go on until there are only a few people left.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 63. 56FRUIT SALADGroup size: 10 to 50Time: 5 minutesMaterials: , None✔ OBJECTIVETo energize participants after a long, intensivesession.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAnytimewhenenergylevelsarelow.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. One person stands in the middle of a sittingcircle. Everyone must have a place to sit.2. Participants choose the names of threecommonfruitsfamiliartothem.3. Goroundthecirclenamingeachparticipantoneofthethreefruits,includingyourself,thefacilitator.4. Thenameofafruitiscalledoutandeveryonewith that name has to get up and findsomewhere else to sit.5. The person in the middle also has to found aplace to sit.6. The person who does not find a place willhave to stand in the middle and call out thenextfruit.7. If"fruitsalad"iscalled,theneveryonehastomoveandchangeplaces,attemptingtogetanewchair.VARIATIONSThe name of the game may be changed to"Jungle", in which case it will be the names ofthreeanimalsinsteadofthefruit.Alsosee"TheMail" (VIPP manual, P. 93).○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 64. 57PASS THE HANDKERCHIEFGroup size: 15 to 40Time: 10 minutesMaterials: Two large, clean handkerchiefs✔ OBJECTIVEToenergizeparticipants.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAnytime.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask participants to stand in a circle.2. Take two large, clean handkerchiefs and tieone around your neck with a double knot.3. Remove the handkerchief and demonstratetying the other one around your neck with asingleknot.4. Explainthatthetwohandkerchiefsmustnotbe with the same person at the same time orthatpersonwillbeeliminated.5. Givethepersononyourrightonehandkerchiefandinstructhimtotieadoubleknotandthentake it off and pass it on to the person on hisright, and so on.6. Afterthishandkerchiefhasreachedaboutonethird of the way around, pass the otherhandkerchieftothepersononyourrightandask him to tie a single knot and pass it on.7. The"singleknot"handkerchiefwillcatchupto the "double knot" handkerchief andparticipants will become frantic in trying toavoidhavingboth.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 65. 58NOTES ON VARIATIONS AND NEW GAMES
  • 66. 59SECTION IIICOMMUNICATIONGood communication is central to participatory processes. It is necessary for individuals to expressandexchangetheirperceptionsandtoengagethemselvesincommonthoughtandaction.Butattemptsatcommunicationingroupsettingsareoftenreducedtoamonologueoraone-wayflowofinformation.Theexercisesinthissectionareintendedtodevelopandanalyzeeffectivecommunicationskills.Theexercises encourage interaction in which people are treated with respect, interest and empathy. Theyaredesignedtoenhancemutualinterchangeandconstructivedialogueandtoreflectonthemeaningofgoodcommunication.Use these games and exercises:● Forsessionsoncommunicationtrainingorlifeskills.● Todemonstratetheuseofverbalandnon-verbalcommunicationtechniques.● Toenhancegroupcommunication,cooperationandsensitivity.
  • 67. 60NOTES ON VARIATIONS AND NEW GAMES
  • 68. 61VALUES VOTINGGroup size: 10 to 40Time: 30 to 45 minutesMaterials: Cards and markers✔ OBJECTIVETo develop respect for diversity and differenceand to encourage participants to explore theirpersonalvalues.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEFortrainingsessionsoncommunication,lifeskills,andgendersensitization.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. The facilitator should prepare a list of valuestatements ahead of time. (See examples.)2. Beforethegamebegins,placecardshighuponboardsorwallsinthreeareasoftheroomwith the words "agree", "disagree" and"unsure"writtenonthem.3.Explaintotheparticipantsthattheywillreada list of value statements, one at a time. Asthe statements are read, ask participants tostand near the card which indicates theirreaction:"agree""disagree"or"unsure".4. Invitetwotothreevolunteersfromeachgroupto explain why they agree, disagree or areunsureaboutthestatement.5. After volunteers from each group haveexpressed their opinions, ask participants ifthey would like to change their positions.Allowthemtimetomove.6. Repeat the process with each statement,emphasizing that everyone is free to changeposition.7. Continue voting on statements as long asappropriate. Encourage participants to taketurnsexplainingtheirpositions.8. If it would be helpful, you can record all theresponses on cards for everyone to see.9. Remind participants that there is no rightanswer.Some examples of statements (for gendertrainingapplicationonly):- Itshouldnotbesex,butskillsthatcountwhenit comes to getting a job.- Birth control is totally a womansresponsibility.- Women should not get jobs that men havealwayshad.- The man should cook three times a week ifhe and his wife both work outside of thehouse.- It is all right for a man to cry.- Menwhofatherchildrenshouldshareequallyintheresponsibilityofcaringforthem.- There cannot be rape in marriage.DEBRIEFINGPointsfordiscussion:- How did you feel about the diversity ofvaluesandopinionswithinyourgroup?- Didanyoneelseinthegroupinfluenceyourvote or make you change your position?- Whydidyouchangepositions?○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 69. 62ARE YOU LISTENING?Group size: 9 to 33Time: 30 to 45 minutesMaterials: Cards or flip-chart paper✔ OBJECTIVETo demonstrate the role of listening incommunication.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEPrior to discussions or other exercises oninterpersonalcommunicationskills.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Asktheparticipantstoformgroupsofthree.Ask each group to decide who will be thespeaker, the listener, and the observer.2. Asktheparticipantsineachcategorytoformseparate groups, far from one another, for abriefingontheirroles.3. Give each listener one written instructiontofollow(seeexamplesbelow):- Listencarefullyandaskrelevantquestionsatan appropriate time.- Interrupt and prevent the speaker fromfinishinghis/hersentence.- Changethesubjectfrequently.- Complimentthespeakerfrequently.- Put the speaker down.- Laugh when the speaker is serious.- Talk to someone else while the speakeristalking.- Lookaroundtheroomandappeardistractedwhilethespeakeristalking.- Give advice you werent asked for.- Beshockedoroffendedbywhatthespeakersays.- Dontmakeeyecontactwiththespeaker.4. At least one listener should get the firstinstruction in 3. above. Note that theseinstructions can be given on cards or paperbuttheyshouldremainhiddenfromtheothers.5. Instruct the speakers to think of somethingthey feel strongly about and to be preparedto speak on this topic for five minutes whenthey return to their groups.6. Ask the observers to silently note allinteractions between the listener and thespeaker.Remindthemthattheyshouldremainsilent.7. At the end of five minutes, ask theparticipantstoreconveneinplenary.8. Discuss their reactions to the exercise, whathappened in each group and how they felt.First, ask the observer to explain, then thespeakerandfinallythelistenermayrevealtheinstructions.DEBRIEFINGPointsfordiscussion:- Didyoufeelthatthelistenerswerelistening?- How does it make you feel when someonedoesnt listen to what you are saying?The facilitator should write down all responsesoncardsorflip-chartpaperforeveryonetosee.Havethelistenersandspeakersshakehandsandshow that there are no bad feelings and that itwas just a game.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 70. 63TYING SHOE LACESGroup size: 15 to 30Time: 15 to 25 minutesMaterials: Shoes with laces✔ OBJECTIVETo illustrate the difficulty of one-waycommunication.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEIncommunicationtrainingexercises.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask the participants to form groups of threepersons. One person must have a shoe withlaces.Anotherpersoncanbethe"instructor."The third person should be designated as anobserver.2. Ask the person with shoe laces to sit back-to-back with the instructor. The observershould sit on the side.3. Thelacermustremovethelacescompletelyandthenfolloworalinstructionsforre-doingthem. The instructions should be followedliterally.Noquestionsareallowed.4. The observer should ensure that thecommunicationremainsstrictlyoralandone-way.5. Lookattheresult.Asktheobservertoreportto the plenary how the exercise was carriedout.DEBRIEFINGAsktheotherteammembershowtheyfeltaboutthetask,beginningwiththeinstructor.PASS THE PICTUREGroup size:15 to 30Time: 10 to 15 minutesMaterials: Flip-chart paper and markers✔ OBJECTIVEToexploredifferentmethodsofcommunication.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEBefore a group event.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Draw a simple picture on flip-chart paper.Make it large enough for the entire group tosee.2. Askfivevolunteerstoleavetheroom.Showthe picture to the remaining members of thegroup.3. Call one of the volunteers to come back intothe room and see the picture.4. Cover the picture.5. Callthesecondvolunteerintotoeroom.Thefirst volunteer describes the picture to thesecond.Continuethisprocessuntilthefourthvolunteerhasbeeninformed.6. Call in the fifth volunteer and ask the fourthto describe the picture. Now ask the fifth todraw the picture based on this description.7. Showbothpicturestothegroupandanalyze/discuss the differences between the firstpictureandthefinaldrawing.DEBRIEFINGDiscusswhathappenedintheprocessandwhy.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 71. 644. The volunteer may only use verbalcommunication - no gestures, hand signals,etc. No questions are allowed from theparticipants. Only one-way communicationispermitted.5. When the exercise is completed, show thediagram and ask participants to compare itwiththeirdrawings.6. Selectanothervolunteerandrepeatthegame,usingtheotherdiagram.Thistimeallowtwo-wayverbalcommunication(i.e.questionsmaybeasked)butnovisualdirections.7. Compare the results of the two exercises.DEBRIEFINGEncouragegroupdiscussionwiththefollowingquestions:- How many participants were confused andquitlistening?- Whywasone-waycommunicationsodifficulttofollow?- Did two-way communication ensurecompleteunderstanding?- Howcanwemakeourcommunicationeffortsmoreeffective?ONE AND TWO-WAYCOMMUNICATIONGroup size: 15 to 20Time: 20 minutesMaterials: Diagrams, flip-chart paperand markers✔ OBJECTIVETo demonstrate the many problems that occurinone-waycommunication.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEBefore group work sessions.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Preparetwodifferentdiagramsonaflip-chartor overhead. Donotshowthemtothegroup.Ask a volunteer to assist in the followingdemonstration.2. Explaintotheparticipantsthatthevolunteeris going to describe something to them andtheirtaskistosimplyfollowinstructionsandsketch what is described.3. Provide the volunteer with one of thediagrams.Thevolunteerturnshisorherbackto the participants so no eye contact ispossible.
  • 72. 65HEADBANDSGroup Size:10 to 30Time: 20 minutesMaterials: Markers, paper or card material,scissors and stapler or string✔ OBJECTIVETo explore methods of non-verbalcommunication.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEBefore a group task.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Prepare paper headbands for all theparticipants in the group. Each headbandshouldhavealabelwithamoodoranattitudewrittenonit.2. Tieaheadbandoneachperson.Donotallowpeople to see what is written on theirheadband.3. Ask the group members to form a circle.4. Ask them to pretend that they are about togoonaweekendcampingtriptogetherandtheyaretodiscussthearrangements(e.g.wheretheywillgoandwhattheywilldo).Explainthattheyshouldreacttoeveryoneaccordingtothelabelonthatpersonsforehead,butthattheyarenottosaywhatthelabelsays.DEBRIEFING- What do you think is written on yourheadband?- How do you know?- Did it affect the way people responded toyounon-verbally?THE FEATHERGroup size:15 to 30Time: 15 to 20 minutesMaterials: A light, fluffy featherfor each team✔ OBJECTIVEToreflectongroupcommunication,cooperationandsensitivity.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEWhenparticipantsaredealingwithsensitiveissues.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Dividethegroupintotwoteams.2. Have the teams stand in two parallel linesabout a metre apart. Each team membershouldbeanarmslengthawayfromthenextteammember.3. The facilitator hands a feather to the firstperson in each team.4. Ask the person to turn and face the teammember beside them and blow the feathertoward them. One person blows the featherwhile the other person tries to catch it withtheirhands.5. Thepersonwhoisblowingcannotmovehis/herfeet.Standstill!6. If the person does not catch the feather thesender carefully picks up the feather andblows it again. The pair repeats this actionuntilthereceivercatchesthefeather.7. The process continues until the feather hasreached the last member of each team. Thefirstteamtocompletetheexercisewins.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 73. 66TRUTH AND DECEPTIONGroup size: 10 to 30Time: 20 minutesMaterials: Written instructions on a smallpiece of paper✔ OBJECTIVETounderstandnon-verbalcommunication.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEBefore a group event.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Distributeacopyofthefollowinginstructionstofourgroupmembers.GiveinstructionAtotwo people and instruction B to two people.Askthemnottorevealtheinstructionstotheplenary.Personal instruction ADo not let anyone see this. In order for groupmembers to get to know you more, you will beasked to talk about yourself for two minutes.You should always tell the truth. You may talkabout your life history, your family, or yourinterests. After you have spoken you will beasked questions. Answer these as truthfully aspossible.Personal instruction BDo not let anyone see this. In order for groupmembers to get to know you more, you will beasked to talk about yourself for two minutes.You should not tell the truth. You might like toinvent your life history, your family, and yourinterests. After you have spoken you will beaskedquestionsbythegroup.Trytomakethembelieveyourstory.2. Asktheotherparticipantstodetermineiftheyaretellingthetruthbyaskingquestions.3. Askthe.grouptodecidewhowastellingthetruth and who was lying. Discuss how theymadethedecision.DEBRIEFING- Discuss cultural differences in non-verbalcommunication.Forexample,signsoflyingmay include avoiding eye contact, blushingorsweating.- Discussthecommunicationproblemswhichcan occur when behaviours and perceptionsaredifferent.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 74. 67GOSSIP LINEGroup size:15 to 30Time: 10 minutesMaterials: None✔ OBJECTIVETo highlight the importance of non-verbalmessages.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEBefore communication training and/orsensitizationexercises.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Have a group of participants stand in a linewith,everyonefacingthesamedirection.2. Tell them that you are going to tell the lastperson in the line an action/emotion, non-verbally.Thispersonturnsaroundtofaceyouwhile receiving instructions and then turnsback.Thispersonwilltapthenextinlineontheshoulderwhowillturnaroundtoreceivethe same action/emotion, non-verbally, andthenturnaroundandtapthenextperson,andsoon.3. Theprocesscontinuesinsilenceuntileveryoneinthelinehasbeen"tapped"andhasreceivedtheaction/emotionfromthepreviousperson.4. Ask those at the ends and middle todemonstratetothegroupwhattheythinktheaction/emotion was. Demonstrate yourinstructiontothefirstperson.DEBRIEFINGQuestions to ask:- What happened?- Whatdifficultieswereexperienced?- How can we overcome them?- Arethereanyparallelsinourdailylife?○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○VISUAL POWERGroup size: 10 to 30Time: 3 to 5 minutesMaterials: None✔ OBJECTIVETocomparevisualandoralcommunication.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USETointroducesessionsoncommunication.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask participants to stand in a semi-circle.2. Thefacilitatorgivesthefollowinginstructions:"Now I am going to give you very simpleinstructions. Just do what I say." Askparticipantswhethertheyareclearabouttheinstructions.3. Standinfrontofthegroup.Giveinstructionswhile doing the same, for example, "Raiseyourleftleg.Raiseyourrighthand.Dropyourleftleg.Raiseyourlefthandtoo.Spreadyourfingers. Drop your right hand. Bring yourthumbandsmallfingerstotoucheachother."4. Youshouldchangetheactionssotheydonotmatch the verbal instructions. For example,"Touchyourchin."Butwhilesayingthis,touchyour cheek.5. Notice what the participants are doing. Askwhytheyfollowedtheactions.Theymaysay"we followed you!" You answer: "No, youdidnt. I asked you to follow what I said, notwhatIdid!"DEBRIEFINGAskforcommentsontheexperience.Whyweretheinstructionsconfusing?Doyouevergetsuchinstructions?Fromwhom?
  • 75. 68MASKSGroup size: 10 to 30Time: 10 to 15 minutesMaterials: None✔ OBJECTIVEToexplorenon-verbalcommunicationskills.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEIngroupsessionsthatfocusoncommunicationskills.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask participants to form a circle.2. Thefacilitatorbeginsthesessionbymimingatragic facial expression and then graduallypretending to peel the mask of tragedy fromherfacetorevealasmiling,joyfulface.3. Namesomeoneinthegroupand"throw"thetragic mask to that person.4. Thepersonnamedwillcontinuethemimebyputtingonthetragicmaskandthenpeelingitoff slowly, revealing a happy face. Theyshould "throw" the tragic mask to someoneelse,andsoon,untileveryoneinthegroupiswearing a happy face.5. Each person in the group should continue tohold the happy mask on their face until thewhole group has done it.NOTE:Asthemaskis"thrown"fromonepersonto the next the pace should quicken. The moreexaggeratedandvariedthefeaturesofthemasksare,themorefunthisgamewillbe.MY BOSSGroup size:10 to 30Time: 30 to 45 minutesMaterials: Markers and flip-chart paper✔ OBJECTIVEToencourageconstructivedialoguebetweensupervisorsandstaff.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEIn group events where supervisors and staff arediscussingrelationshipsorperformanceissues.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask the participants to form a circle. Giveeach person some paper and a marker.2. Ask participants to close their eyes for amomentandallowimagesoftheirsupervisoror boss to pass through their mind, thenchoosethestrongestormostrecurrentimageof their supervisors character or behaviourand try to show it in a drawing.3. Encouragethemtobehonest,butinformthemthatthedrawingwillbediscussedwiththeirsupervisor and the group.NOTE: This exercise can be effectively usedwhensupervisor(s)andsuperviseesaremeetingtogether. It would be particularly appropriateduring a staff retreat when relationships in theofficearediscussed.Severalpicturesofthesamesupervisorcanbuilduparevealingoverallimage.It is important that the supervisor has agreed tothe exercise in the first place and is willing todiscuss the drawings with frankness and goodhumour.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 76. 69ACT AND MEETGroup size: 15 to 30Time: 5 to 7 minutesMaterials: Word cards on paper of thesame colour✔ OBJECTIVETo break the plenary into small groups.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAtthebeginningofasessiononcommunication.As a process for forming groups.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Countthenumberofparticipantsanddecideon the number of groups you need.2. Prepare two to four word cards for eachgroup, using actable words such asaggressive,dominant,submissive,shy,flying,rowing,crying,etc.3. Shuffle the cards thoroughly and distributethemtotheparticipants,requestingthemnottoreadthemimmediately.4. Explain that at the "start" signal, they are toreadtheircardswithoutshowingittoothers.Then each person will act out the word ontheir card.5. While acting, they look for another personwho is acting out the same or a similar wordand go to join them.6. Whenallormostpeoplehavejoinedagroup,askthemtocomparetheircards,anddiscusshow accurate their acting was.7. Ifanyoneisleftout,helpthemfindandjoinagroup.PIECES OF ARTGroup size:10 to 20Time: 30 minutesMaterials: Paper and markers✔ OBJECTIVETodemonstratethedifficultyinmixingvisualandwrittenmethodsofcommunication.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEIn a session which focuses on communicationskills.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask the participants to sit in a circle. Giveeach person a long sheet of paper and askthem to draw a small picture on the top andtheir name at the bottom.2. Ask them to pass the paper to the person ontheirright.3. The second person writes a description ofwhat they see in the drawing and folds thepaper in such a way that only the writtenexplanation can be seen. The paper is thenpassed on to the next person on their right.4. The person who now has the paper doesanother drawing according to the writtendescription and hands the paper on to thepersonontheirright,thistimeinsuchawaythatonlythedrawingisseen.Thenextpersonwritesanexplanationofthedrawinginwordsand then folds the paper so that only thewords can be seen and pass it on, and so on.The game continues until every player getshis own paper back.5. Theparticipantsopenthepapersandinspectthe pieces of art together.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 77. 70FACE-TO-BACKGroup size: 10 to 30Time: 20 minutesMaterials: None✔ OBJECTIVETo help participants understand the need forgoodface-to-facecommunication.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEInasessiononstylesofcommunication.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Asktheparticipantstoformpairs.Haveeachpair sit in chairs, one behind the other.2. Ask the person in front not to turn around atany time and the person in back not to moveto the front of the other person.3. Ask them to carry on a conversation for twominutes.4. Bringtheparticipantstogetherinalargegroupanddiscusstheexercise.Thefacilitatormayask the person at the back: "How did youfeel trying to make conversation with yourpartner?" And to the person in front: "Howdidyoufeelrespondingtotheconversation?"THE PILLOW GAMEGroup size:10 to 30Time: 15 to 30 minutesMaterial: A soft object such as a pillow✔ OBJECTIVETo encourage orderly participation in adiscussion.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEWhenadiscussionneedsstructurewhichwouldallow everyone a chance to participate.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask the group to stand or sit in a circle. Tellthe participants that they may speak onlywhentheyareholdingthepillow.2. Whenanindividualhasfinishedspeakingtheyshould pass the pillow to someone else whohas indicated their interest in speaking next,ortheymayplaceitonthefloorinthemiddlefor someone to pick up.3. Ifanyonereceivesthepillowanddoesntwantto speak they may pass it on.DEBRIEFINGWhatwasitliketoreceivethepillowwhenyouhad not requested it? When you had requestedit?○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 78. 71FOLDING PAPERGroup size: 10 to 20Time: 5 to 10 minutesMaterial: Square sheets of paper✔ OBJECTIVETodemonstratethatevensimpleinstructionsareeasytomisinterpret.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEInasessiononcommunication.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Selectfourparticipantsandaskthemtostandinthefrontoftheroom,facingthegroup.2. Giveeachofthefourasheetofpaper.Explainthat there are two rules.- Each person must close their eyesthroughouttheexercise.- They may not ask questions.3. Ask them to fold their paper in half and totear off the bottom right corner. Tell them tofoldthepaperinhalfagainandtotearofftheupper right corner, then to fold the paper inhalf again and tear off the lower left handcorner.4. Ask them to open their eyes and to displaythe unfolded paper to each other and theaudience.DEBRIEFINGDiscussionquestions:- What words in the instructions could beinterpreteddifferentways?- Howcouldthedirectionshavebeenclearer?
  • 79. 72BLIND LINEGroup size: 10 to 15Time: 30 minutesMaterial: Numbered little pieces of paper,Oneblindfoldforeachparticipantand the other cards to recordreactions✔ OBJECTIVETo highlight the importance of communication(throughvariousmeans)inteamwork.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEWhen group members are discussingcommunicationattheworkplace.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Before the activity, on little pieces of paper,write the numbers "1" to however manyparticipants are in the group.2. Foldthemupandputtheminahatorabox.3. Have each participant choose a piece ofpaper, look at it, memorize the number, notsharingitwithanyoneelseintheroom.4. Instruct participants not to speak and to putontheirblindfolds.Oncealltheblindfoldsareon, all participants hold hands and thefacilitatorwalksthemaroundinawidecircle.Then she asks participants to let go of eachothers hands.5. Explaintoparticipantsthatthegoalistolineup in the order of their numbers, and by useofhervoiceprovidesthemwithanindicationofwherethenumber"1"andthelastnumberofthelinearetostand.Remindthemthattheyare to remain silent, but other means ofcommunicationarepossible.6. Ensure that the blindfolded participants donot harm themselves. Remind participantsaboutthepositionsofthebeginningandendofthelineagain,iftheyseemdisoriented.7. Allowabouttenminutesforthelinetoform,andbeforetakingofftheirblindfoldsaskthemto check one last time to be sure that theperson to their right and to their left are the"correct"numbers.Afterthis,askparticipantsto remove blindfolds and have each one telltheirnumber.NOTE:Iftherearemanyparticipants(i.e.morethan 15), ask for some volunteer observerswhoseresponsibilityitwillbetoreportbackwhatthey saw participants do.DEBRIEFINGAsktheparticipantsthefollowingquestions:- What happened during this activity?(Include the observers reports here.)- What were you thinking/feeling as youweretryingtofindyourplace?- What alternative ways of communicatingemergedduringthisactivity?- What can this activity tell us aboutcommunication?Teamwork?- How does this activity relate to your workenvironment?○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 80. 73NOTES ON VARIATIONS AND NEW GAMES
  • 81. 74NOTES ON VARIATIONS AND NEW GAMES
  • 82. 75SECTION IVPERCEPTIONWeassociateperceptionwiththesenseofsight.However,perceptionismultidimensionalanddependson many senses. The way we perceive conditions our behavior toward other people. Perceiving is anongoing process of grasping bits of reality and interpreting them according to our interests, customs,norms, needs and learning styles. We act according to the way we perceive. The following exercisesmay enhance awareness of the way that different people and cultures perceive their world.Use these games and exercises:● Incommunicationtrainingsessions.● When there is a need to develop group cohesion.● Insessionsthatfocusonpersonalororganizationalchange.
  • 83. 76NOTES ON VARIATIONS AND NEW GAMES
  • 84. 77INTERLOCKING FINGERSGroup size: 5 to 50Time: 3 to 5 minutesMaterials: None✔ OBJECTIVETo encourage respectforthedifferentstyles,mannerismsand practises of group members.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEWhenthereisaneedtodevelopgroupcohesion.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Inviteparticipantstoformacircle2. Askparticipantstoclasptheirhandstogether,interlockingtheirfingers.3. Askthemtolookattheirhands.Whichthumbis on top? (Some will say "left" and some"right".)4. Askthemtorearrangethefingerssothattheopposite thumb is on top.5. Ask them how it feels, easy or uneasy? Theanswerwillusuallybe"uneasy".6. Thefacilitatormayexplainthefollowing:"Youmust have noticed that different people arecomfortable with different ways. Thesedifferencesarenaturalandtobeexpected."VARIATIONCrossarmsinfrontofyou.Whicharmisontop?○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○OLD WOMAN - YOUNGWOMANGroup size:10 to 20Time: 10 to 15 minutesMaterials: Photocopy of the two ladies(illustration-see Appendix, Fig. 1)✔ OBJECTIVEs- Tounderstanddifferencesinperception.- To increase communication and empathywithinthegroup.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEIn a communication or orientation session orworkshop.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Photocopyillustration.2. Ask participants to look at Figure 1 anddecide what they see. Most people will seean old lady or a young lady, or both. Do notgive participants any suggestions as to whatimagetheymightsee.3. After a few minutes the facilitator shouldcheckwiththeparticipantstoseewhichfigureeach one sees.4. If a participant can see both images, theyshould explain what they see to the rest ofthegroup.DEBRIEFINGEncouragediscussiononthefollowingpoints:- Perceptionsmaybedifferent.- Is it easy to explain to someone else whatis obvious to you but not to them?- Is it easy to perceive exactly what someoneelseseesdespiteoureffortstobeempathetic?○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 85. 78FACING CHANgEGroup size: 10 to 20Time: 20 minutesMaterials: None✔ OBJECTIVETo recognize and discuss the nature of change.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEBefore or within a session on personal ororganizationalcommunication.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask participants to form pairs and to look ateach other for about ten seconds. Then turnaway and stand back to back.2. Askeachmemberofthepairtoquicklymakethree changes in his or her appearance.3. Once this is completed, have the pairs faceeach other again and try to identify the threechanges.4. You may do the exercise a second time ifappropriate. Allow participants the creativespace to think up their own changes.DEBRIEFINGAskparticipantstodescribetheirexperienceandto reflect on their comfort or discomfort withchange. In the discussion that follows, elicitanalysisofhowchangewasperceivedbythem.For example, change is often seen as asubtractionnotanaddition.JURYGroup size:10 to 20Time: 60 minutesMaterial: Paper and pencils✔ OBJECTIVETo demonstrate the relationship betweenperceptionandbehaviour.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEBefore or within a session on personal ororganizationalcommunication.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. The facilitator should plan ahead of time tocreateanincidentwhichsuddenlyinterruptstheplenarysession.Itcanbeanexchangeorstrongargumentwithaggressivegestures.Itshouldnotlastlongerthanaminute.2.Giveparticipantsfivetosevenminutestowritenotes on what they have witnessed.3. Ask participants to read their notes to thegroup.DEBRIEFING- What happened?- Whydowehavesomanydifferentversionsofasingleshortincident?- What if we were a jury, could we make adecisiononthisincidentanddeterminewhowasguilty?○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 86. 79SQUARES 1Group size: Up to 70Time: 10 minutesMaterial: Illustration(seeAppendixFigure2)on an overhead transparency,projector, flip-chart paper andmarkers✔ OBJECTIVETounderstanddifferencesinperception.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEInacommunicationtrainingcourse.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Projectillustrationonthewall.2. Ask participants to look at the squares anddecide how many squares they can find intheillustration.Theyshouldnotdiscusstheirconclusionswithothergroupmembers.3. After one or two minutes, ask them to writetheir answers on flip-chart paper.4. Ask participants to explain their answers tothe group. Continue (he discussion until thecorrect answer (30) has been given.DEBRIEFINGDiscuss how and why people perceive thingsdifferently.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○Figure 2
  • 87. 803. Divide the participants into groups A, B,and C.4. Allow group A to shake the box. Then, theycan briefly discuss what they think is insideandwritethedescriptionintheirnotebooks.Instruct each group not tell the other groupswhattheythinkisinthebox.5. Allow group B to feel the objects inside byholding the box behind their backs andallowingthemtoputtheirhandsinside.Theywill also then discuss and note down whattheythinkisinside.6. Finally,allowgroupCtolookinside,discuss,andnotewhattheythinkisinside.7. Each group reports on their findings (beginwithgroupA).DEBRIEFINGAskthefollowingquestions:- Whathappenedinthisactivity?- How did each group feel when they triedto describe the objects in the box?- Why?- Which groups description was mostaccurate? Why?- If this box was a problem, which groupwould you prefer to solve it?- In your own work situations, who couldeach group represent?NOTE:Thisactivitysuggeststhatthoseclosestto a situation should play a major role indescribing their situation. How can an outsideperspectivealsobeuseful?○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○THE BOXGroup size: 12 to 25Time: 20 to 30 minutesMaterials: One box which may be bothopened and closed during thisactivity, containing four to sixobjects which are familiar toparticipants.Includeanotebookorpiece of paper containing writingon it (something that can becompletelyrecognizedonlythroughsight). Cards to record participantresponses.✔ OBJECTIVEToillustratehowweperceivethingsdifferentlydepending how close to a situation we are.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEWhengroupmembersareexploringdifferencesin perception, particularly in the context ofproblem-solving.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Explainthatourperceptionsofneedsand/orproblemsaregreatlyinfluencedbyhowclosewe are to the situation, as well as by howmuch information we have or are able toobtain.2. Show the group the closed box and explainthattheboxcontainsseveralitemswhicharefamiliartothem.Duringthenextfiveminutestheparticipantswillbeaskedtoidentifywhatis in the box.
  • 88. 81NOTES ON VARIATIONS AND NEW GAMES
  • 89. 82NOTES ON VARIATIONS AND NEW GAMES
  • 90. 83SECTION VINTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATIONThepeoplesoftheworldarenolongerisolatedfromoneanother.Asfacilitators,weareoftenconfrontedwithadiversegroupofpeoplefromdifferentcultures.Therearealsogenderdifferenceswhicheffectperceptions,preferences,valuesandformsofcommunication.Suchdiversityshouldbeseenasstrengths,not as obstacles. We can be personally enriched through exposure to other cultures. The purpose oftheexercisesinthissectionistohelpusdevelopanawarenessandrespectforotherwaysofthinking,feelingandacting,withoutlosingourownculturalidentity.These exercises on intercultural communication attempt to avoid cultural stereotypes and valuejudgements.Theyareintendedtobroadenperceptualhorizons,increasecommunicationskillsandtocreateanatmosphereofharmoniousgroupparticipation.Use these games and exercises:● Inorientationsessionsforpeoplewhoareworkinginmulticulturalormultilingualsituations.● Tofocusonvaluedifferencesamongparticipants.● Inanygroupwhichhasparticipantsfromdifferentsubcultures.
  • 91. 84NOTES ON VARIATIONS AND NEW GAMES
  • 92. 856. Switch places so that each member of thenew groups has a chance to be an instructor.Allowfiveminutesforeachinstructor.7. Ask the groups to go through the exerciseagain,thistimewithoutblindfolds.8. Ask participants to put their blindfolds backon,andthenbyshoutingoutthefirstwordintheir language (the greeting), find the otherpeopleintheiroriginalgroup.9. End the exercise. Ask the participants toreassemble in the plenary for discussion.DEBRIEFING- Ask participants to share their feelings asteachersandasstudents.Weretheyfrustratedwith their inability to teach the language toothers?- What happened in the first round when thestudents were blindfolded? What teachingaids were used? Raised voices? Repetition?Didthishelporhindertheteachingprocess?- Comparethesecondroundtothefirstround.Wasiteasier?Whatteachingaidswereused?- Draw comparisons to reality. In what waysis the game realistic? In what ways is it notrealistic?Whatparallelsdotheblindfoldshavetoreallifelearningsituations?- What can we do to deal with the problemsandfrustrationsthatmayarise?Howcanweprepare for a cross-cultural experience?BABBLEGroup size: 15 to 30Time: 60 minutesMaterials: Blindfoldsfor everyone✔ OBJECTIVETo enable participants todevelopsensitivitytoissuesincross-culturalcommunicationandmultilingualsituations.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEIn orientation programmes for people goingoverseas or working in multicultural or multi-lingualsituations.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Divide the participants into groups of three.Ask them to work in separate areas of theroom and not to mix with other groups.2. Explain that each group will create its ownlanguage.3. Ask each group to make up four words in amake-believe language. The words are toinclude:agreeting,anoun,averb,anadjective.4. The members of the group should practicetheirnewlanguageuntileveryoneisfamiliarwiththefourwordstheyhaveinvented.5. Askthethreegroupstolineupinthreeparallellines.Makenewgroupswiththefirstpersonineachline,thesecondandthirdaswell,andsoon.Askonepersontoactastheinstructorandblindfoldtheothertwopeopleinthenewgroups. Instruct the members of each newgroup to take turns teaching the others theirnew languages, without using any words inEnglish or other languages the participantsnormally use. They may not even say, "yes"or"no!"○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 93. 86BOMB SHELTERGroup size: 15 to 25Time: 40 to 60 minutesMaterials: Printed instructions for eachparticipant✔ OBJECTIVEToencouragerespectfordifferencesinculture,values,beliefs,andassumptions.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEInsessionswhichfocusonvaluedifferences.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Divide the plenary into three to five groupsoffivepeople.2. Distributetheinstructionsheettoallmembersof the group.3. Allow the groups to work on the problemforthirtyminutes.Instruction sheetTheproblem:An atomic war has just started and your groupis safe in a bomb shelter, which means that youwillsurvive.Thereisstillroomforthreepersons.Please make a choice of three individuals fromthefollowinglistwhoyouwouldinviteintotheshelter.Waiting list1. Apriest2. Anengineer.3. Anarchitect.4. A poetess.5. A social worker.6. Anagronomist.7. Apolitician.8. Anarmygeneral.9. A banker.10. Apsychologist.11. Afemalesurgeon.12. Alanguagespecialist.13. A construction worker.14. A pastor.15. Aprimaryschoolteacher.16. Ageneralphysician.17. Aspecialistinelectronics.18. Amechanic.19. Ajournalist.20. Abusinesswoman.21. Aneconomist.22. Apoliceman.23. Afemalespecialistinnutrition.DEBRIEFINGThe facilitator asks one representative of eachgroup to report on the choices made.Discussthedifferentchoices:- What values are behind the choices?- Are there any right or wrong choices?○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 94. 87Space-age technology will safely transportanyitem,nomatterhowlargeorsmall.Someexamples of items you may want to includeare: Something that portrays your culturesbeliefsaboutnature.Asymbolofreligiousorspiritual beliefs. Something that shows howyour culture treats certain groups of people-children, women, the elderly or people withdisabilities. The work of a great artist ormusician from your culture, which portrayssomethingyouvaluehighly.Asaying,amyth,song or story that has been passed down forgenerations and has great meaning in yourculture. An item that symbolizes somethingyour people have struggled for throughouthistory. Photographs or a video about aparticularplace,anywhereintheworld,thathasspecialimportancetoyourculture.4. Ask each person to write on the cards thesix items they would take. Share these withthegroup.5. Allow about ten minutes for participants towork in groups. Then ask volunteers fromeach group to share one or two of the itemsthey have chosen to take on the journey andexplaintheirchoices.DEBRIEFING- What would it be like to explain to peoplefrom another galaxy about your people?(Whathasbeenimportanttothemthroughouttheirhistoryonearth?)- What are the most important objects topeopleofyourculturalheritage?- Whatdidyoulearnaboutyourselfandothersinthisexercise?CROSS-CULTURALEXCHANGEGroup size: 15 to 30Time: 40 to 60 minutesMaterials: Cards and markers✔ OBJECTIVEToidentifyvaluablecomponentsofculture.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEIn a workshop that iscomposed of peoplefromdifferentcultures.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask participants to spend a few minutesthinking about what is most important topeoplefromtheirethnicbackgrounds.2. Formsmallgroupsoffourorfivepeopleanddistributecards.3. Ask the group to imagine the followingscenario: The group has been invited torepresent earth at an intergalactic gatheringof young people from around the universe.We will only be gone for an hour of Earthtimebutbecauseofintergalactictime,itwillseemlikewewerethereforaweek.Aspaceshuttle is coming to pick us up and transportustothenextgalaxy,severallightyearsaway,wherewewilljoinothergroupslikeours.Without much time to prepare, we need toidentify objects and information which willrepresentthedifferentpeoplesofEarth.(Dontworry. You can create anything you mightneed for the trip by using the replicator ontheshuttle.)Eachpersonwillneedsixobjectstohelpexplaintheircultureandwhatitvaluesmost. The goal is to accurately portray thediversityofculturesonEarth.
  • 95. 88VALUE CLARIFICATIONGroup size: 15 to 20Time: 45 minutesMaterials: None✔ OBJECTIVETo expand and deepen understanding ofpersonalvalues.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEIn the middle of any group exercise.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Read the following story to the group.2. Whowasthehero/heroineinthestory?Why?3. Discuss personal differences in values andwhatformsvalues.The Story of MolaMola was a young girl. She was deeply inlovewithherclassmate,Raton,averybrightstudent.MolaandRatonlivedintwovillageson the opposite sides of a big river. Molascousin,Ramon,wasaverybusybusinessmanwho liked Mola a great deal, but Mola didnotlikeRamon.SubashwasasocialworkerinMolasvillage.Theyusedtomeetoftenanddiscussdifferentsocial issues of their village. Subash was avery straightforward man. He knew of therelationshipofMolaandRaton.One evening, Mola heard that Raton wasseriouslyill.Shebecameveryanxioustoseehim. The weather was very stormy. All theboats had to be moved to a safe place. Theferry boat was not running. When she was○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○returningfromtherivertoherhouseshemetGopul, the ferry operator. She asked Gopulto take her to the other side of the river.ShementionedtheconditionofRatonbutherefused to take her across the river. ShepleadedwithGopul,whofinallyagreed.HisconditionwasthatMolasleepwithhim.Withmuchdissatisfactionandangersheagreedtodo so, but only because she wanted to seeRaton so badly.She went to Ratons house. She saw him inhisbedandhewasveryill.Shestartednursinghimand,withinafewdays,Ratonrecovered.Raton heard about the bad weather the dayMola crossed the river. He praised her forherbraveryandsaidthatbecauseofherloveand care he was cured within a very shorttime.ThenMolaconfessedhowshewasableto cross the river.When Raton heard this, he became veryangry and abusive. Raton said, "I neverthought you were such a girl! I do not wantto see your face, go away from here!" Molawent back home, weeping all the way. Shewent to Ramons house and told the story tohim, to seek his help. He told her that healways had loved her, but that now he couldnot help her. He was leaving for a businesstripintenminutes.She next went to see Subash and told thesamestorytohim.Subashbecameveryangrywith Raton and rushed to Ratons house. Heshouted at Raton for insulting Mola. Ratondefended his behaviour on the basis of hishonour.
  • 96. 89CULTURE ANDPERCEPTIONGroup size: 10 to 30Time: 20 minutesMaterials: Transparency of illustration (seeAppendix, Figure 3) and projector✔ OBJECTIVETo understand differences in perception acrosscultures.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEIninterculturalcommunicationtraining.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask five participants to leave the room.Projecttheillustrationonthewailsothattherest of the group can see it.2. Ask one of the participants who has left theroomtocomein.Showtheillustration.3. Turn off the overhead projector.4. Bring another person into the room and askthe first person to describe the picture. Donot show the transparency.5. Bringinthethirdpersonandaskthesecondperson to describe the picture.6. Repeat the process with the fourth and fifthpersons.7. Finally, ask the fifth person to describe theillustration to the plenary and then finallycomparethedescriptionwiththerealpicture.DEBRIEFINGThefacilitatorshouldhelpthegrouptoanalyzewhatchangedinthedescriptionoftheillustrationandwhy.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 97. 90NOTES ON VARIATIONS AND NEW GAMES
  • 98. 91SECTION VITEAM-BUILDING ANDCOOPERATIONTeam building and cooperation are important for any participatory event. In participatory processes,differentcapabilitiescomplimentoneanother.Agroupcanonlybecomeateamwhenallthemembersareinterdependent.Withconstructiveinteraction,dialogueandconsensus,cooperationandteamworkincreases. These exercises are designed to encourage such dialogue and to reflect on the nature andprocess of teamwork.Use these games and exercises:● In workshops where groups must perform specific tasks.● Whengroupsaredealingwithissuesofcompetitionandcooperation.● Tohelporganizationsorgroupsevaluaterelationshipsintheworkplace.
  • 99. 92NOTES ON VARIATIONS AND NEW GAMES
  • 100. 93TANGLE-UNTANGLEGroup size: 15 to 25Time: 10 to 15 minutesMaterials: None✔ OBJECTIVETo demonstrate that cooperation and teameffortsaresuccessfulproblemsolvingtechniques.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAtthebeginningofasessiononcooperationandteam-buildingorparticipation.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Askonepersontovolunteerasthe"director".2. Ask the other participants to join hands andformacircle.Then,withoutlettinggoofeachothers hands, move the people over, under,and between each other to form a humanknot.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○3. After the participants have formed the knot,the"director"isaskedtountiethem.Everyonemust follow the directors instructionscooperatively.Theymaynotmoveunlesstoldto do so. Keep track of the time it takes.4. Afterthegrouphasbeenuntied,thedirectoris asked to join hands with the group and toformtheknotonceagain.Thistimetheymustuntietheknotbythemselves,withoutthehelpof a director. (It should be much easier.)5. Compare the time it takes with and withoutthe director.DEBRIEFINGAsk the group what they thought the exercisewas about. They will probably comment onteamwork, cooperation, not relying on onedirector, etc. Allow this to lead to a discussionon the issue of teamwork.
  • 101. 94ORGANIZATIONALCHANNELSGroup size: 10 to 25Time: 40 to 60 minutesMaterials: Flip-chart paper and markers✔ OBJECTIVEToprovideparticipantsanopportunitytoexaminecommunicationwithinanorganizationanditsaffectsonboththeindividualandtheorganization.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAt the beginning of a team-building or processredesignexercise.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Thefacilitatorshouldaskparticipantstothinkof the one person with whom theycommunicatemostintheirwork.2. Havethemwriteonapieceofpaperthejob/role of that person.3. Now they list two ways in which theycommunicate with that person, the reasonswhy they communicate and any problemswhichtheyhaveindoingso.4. Repeat the above steps and apply it to thepersonwithwhomtheycommunicateleast.5. Divideintogroupsoffourorfiveandasktheparticipants to share what they have writtenwitheachother.Usetheinformationprovidedby the discussion to develop role plays oncommunicationissueswithinanorganization.Present these to the plenary.VARIATIONSRelationship mapping - draw diagrams ofyourselfandyourrelationshipwithothersinanorganization and carry out the same discussionroleplays.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○BUILD A MACHINEGroup size:10 to 30Time: 10 to 20 minutesMaterials: None✔ OBJECTIVE- To encourage group rapport.- To demonstrate cooperation.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEWhen the group needs a change of pace.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. The facilitator should ask one participant tobegin a motion that is machine-like, such asmovingtheirarmupanddown.2. Ask the next player to add a movement thatadds to the machine and corresponds to themovementthatthefirstplayerismaking.3. Ask the third player to add a movement thatcorresponds to the second and so on, untilyouhavebuiltanentireimaginarymachine.NOTE: You can have each person add a soundto their movement which makes the machinemore fun and expressive. You can vary themovements from staccato-like to fluid andgraceful.Youcandirectanypartofthemachineor the whole machine to speed up and slowdown on a scale from one to ten.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 102. 95TRUST MEGroup size: 12 to 36Time: 30 minutesMaterials: Blindfolds✔ OBJECTIVETo demonstrate the benefits of teamwork.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEInasessiononteambuildingwithaspecificemphasisontrust.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Thefacilitatorshouldaskthegrouptodivideinto teams of three or four.2. Participationshouldbevoluntary.3. The teams should select one person to beblindfolded and another as the leader whowillinstructtheblindfoldedpersontogofrompoint A to point B in the room or adjacentarea.Onlyverbalinstructionsareallowed.4. Theothergroupmembersmayonlyassisttheblindfolded person to make sure he or shedoesntbumpintoanything.5. When the walk (two to three minutes) iscompleted, have people change roles andrepeat the exercise using a different route.DEBRIEFINGEncouragegroupdiscussions:- Howdidyoufeelwhenblindfolded?- Did you trust your leader?- Did you trust your co-workers?- How does this activity apply to roles inyourorganization?- How does it apply to new employees?LOGOGroup size:15 to 50Time: 30 minutesMaterials: Flip-chart paper and markers✔ OBJECTIVETodevelopcomfortableworkingrelationshipswithinateam.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEIn a workshop where groupsmustperformspecifictasks.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. The facilitator should ask the participants tofotmseveralsmallgroupsandselectanamefortheirteam.2. Ask each team to develop a graphic logo(trademark)thatwillportraywho/whattheyareto the rest of the participants. Draw a largeversion on a flip-chart for the group to see.Allowtenminutesforthisactivity.3. After they have completed their logo, askeach team to develop a slogan with twelvewords or less that explains their logo andcreates an identity for the group. Allow tenminutesforthisactivity.4. Ask each group to show their products tothe rest of the participants and explain whatthe logo and slogan represent.DEBRIEFINGDiscussthevalueoftheexerciseforconstructiveteam-building.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 103. 96CO-CREATIONGroup size: 15 to 30Time: 15 to 20 minutesMaterials: Anything available✔ OBJECTIVETobuildgroupcohesion.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAt the beginning of a group process.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask participants to form groups of three.2. Ask the groups to go outside and findsomething that they feel is a symbol of theworkshopthemeandbringtheobjectsback.They have five minutes for this part of theexercise.3. Ask the participants to put their objects on atable in the room.4. When all are reassembled, ask members tointroduce themselves and explain why theyhave chosen the objects.5. Theendresult:atablecoveredwithsymbols,the workshop co-creation.VARIATIONSThe facilitator may ask the participants to findobjects that symbolize their organization, theircountry or any other common areas of interest.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○STRANDED ON THE SEAGroup size:15 to 30Time: 30 minutesMaterials: Flip-chart paper and cards✔ OBJECTIVEs- To show value differences.- To show the logic behind priorities.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAny time in a group process.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Thefacilitatorshouldreadthefollowing storytothegroup:A group of people were travelling in a boaton the sea. They had only one life boat.Suddenly, they hit some rocks and weregrounded. Some people jumped overboardand were drowned. The survivors were apregnantwoman,ababyofeighteenmonths,a priest and a businessman. They also hadsome life-saving medicine and some water.But the weather worsened and the boatthreatenedtocapsize.Theyhadtolosesomeweightortheywouldalldrown.2. Ask them which three objects/people theywould save? Have them write their choiceson cards.3. Askthemtosharetheirchoicesandtoexplainthelogicfortheirchoiceswiththeplenary.DEBRIEFINGDiscussthevalueswhichencouragedthechoices.
  • 104. 97SQUARES 2Group size: 5 to 45 (groups of five)Time: 45 to 60 minutesMaterials: For each group:One instruction set, five sets ofsquareparts(seeAppendix,Figure4), 5 small envelopes, 1 largeenvelope,paperandmarkers✔ OBJECTIVEToexperienceproblemsolvingasateameffort.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAnytimewithinagroupprocess.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Prepare, ahead of time, several sets ofsquares cut into eleven pieces each (seeAppendix,Figure4fordetails).Scramblethepiecesandputthemintofivesmallenvelopes.Placethefivesmallenvelopesintoonelargeenvelope.2. Divide participants into groups of five andhave them sit around tables. Choose oneobserverateachtable.Theobserverstaskistokeeptrackofthetimeandwritedownwhathappens in each group. There should be onelargeenvelopeforeverygroupof5.3. Give every group their envelope and theinstructions.Thepiecesinallfiveenvelopeswill allow the group to assemble fivecompleted squares.5. Thetaskofeachgroupistobuildfivesquaresof the same size, as quickly as possible.6. However, no one should speak after theinstructionsarereadandthefacilitatorgivesthe"go"signal.7. No one is allowed to ask another groupmembertogivethempieces,ortogivesignsfor the need of a piece.8. Groupmembersmayputpiecesinthemiddleof the table or offer a piece to another groupmember but they are not allowed to assist incompleting another persons square.Everyone can take pieces from the centre ofthe table.9. Thegoalofeachgroupistocompleteallfivesquaresfirst.10. Whenallthegroupshavefinished,askthemtojointheplenaryanddiscusstheobserversfeedback.DEBRIEFINGAskthefollowingquestions:- What did you feel when somebody held apiecewithoutseeingthesolution?- Whatdidyoufeelwhensomebodyfinisheda square wrongly and was happy about it?- Wastheretensionwhenyousawan individualsolution but realized the need for groupcooperation?○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 105. 98EGGS CAN FLYGroup size: 10 to 30Time: 60 to 90 minutesMaterials: Raw eggs, 4 metres of cloth cutinto 1 inch wide strips or piecesof a light rope, rolls of scotchtape, sheets of paper (40 x 40cm), and balloons.✔ OBJECTIVETeam-building.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEWhen you want toenergizethegrouptowork together.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask the participants to form groups of threeto five people.2. Giveeachgroupthefollowingmaterial:- 4 metre strip of cloth or rope pieces- 1 roll of Scotch tape- 2 sheets of paper- 2balloons- 2 raw eggs3. Askeachgrouptodesignanapparatuswhichwillallowthemtosafelydroptheireggsfroma higher floor window or balcony. You canuse any or all of the materials provided butnothing else. Allow twenty minutes for thisexercise.4. Whenthegroupshavefinishedconstructingtheirapparatus,onepersonfromeachgroupgoes to try it out while the rest of theparticipantsstanddownstairstoseeiftheeggsbreak.DEBRIEFINGReflect upon the level of cooperation in eachgroup.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○LOST SHOESGroup size:10 to 30Time: 20 minutesMaterials: Shoes✔ OBJECTIVEToexperienceputtingyourselfinthesituationof another person.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEBefore the concepts of empathy andinterpersonalcommunicationarediscussed.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. The facilitator should ask the participants totakeofftheirshoesandpiletheminthemiddleof the room.2. Mix the shoes, separating the pairs. Make alargepileofshoes.3. When everybody is sitting again, call theparticipants to quickly select shoes that arenot their own and put them on.NOTE:Thefacilitatorshouldbesensitivetotheculturalappropriatenessofthisactivity.DEBRIEFING- When everybody has on another personsshoes,askvolunteerstowalktothefrontoftheroomanddescribehowtheyfeel.- Write the comments on the board.- When there are enough reactions collected,asktheplenarywhattheyhavelearnedfromthis experience. Reflect upon cooperation,division of skills and innovations.- The facilitator should summarize thecomments listed on the board or call for asummaryfromthegroup.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 106. 99THE TOWERGroup size: 10 to 30Time: 75 to 90 minutesMaterials: For each group: 4 sheets of posterboard of different colours, 1 ruler,1 pair of scissors, 1 bottle of glue,4 sheets of paper and 1 pencil.Poster board and marker for thefacilitator.✔ OBJECTIVETo develop group cooperation skills.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEWhenitwouldbehelpfultoincreaseandanalyseteam-buildingskills.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Divideparticipantsintotwogroupsoffiveorsix people. Select one observer for eachgroup.2. The facilitators choose two or threeparticipants as independent judges.3. No piece of paper may be larger in size than30 cm (12 inches).4.Distributethematerialstoeachgroupandgivethefollowinginstructions:Youhaveonehourtobuildatowerusingthematerialsyouhaveand it has to be stable, high and beautiful.Afteranhourtheplenarywillseeyourworkof art and a judgment will take place. Thejurywillbeverystrictandeachtowerwillbejudged according to the criteria of stability,heightandbeauty.5. Allowtimeforclarifyingquestionsbutdonotgive any tips on how to build the tower.6. State again that they have only one hour forconstruction.7. Givethefollowinginstructionstothe observer:Record the process as follows:- How long does the group plan?- Howlongdotheyspendonconstruction?- How long do they spend on finalizing?Alsonotethegroupdynamics:Whotakesthe initiative? What is the division oflabour?Isthereparticipationbyallorjusta few?8. The observer should write down theseobservations according to intensity andfrequency,preparingashortreportabouttheprocess.9. When the groups and observers are ready tostart,thefacilitatorshouldwritedownthetimeand send the groups to separate rooms orcorners of the room to build their towers.10. While the participants are building thetowers, the jury prepares a competitionmatrix,asfollows:Grp 1 Grp 2 Grp 3CriteriaHeightStrengthBeautyTotal scoreScoring will be one to ten points with ten asthe best. Maximum score of thirty points.Deduct one point for each minute the groupdelaysinfinishingtheproject.DEBRIEFINGBringthelargegrouptogetherfortheobserversreportsandthejudging.Discusscompetitionanddynamics in group work and the results of thejudgesratings.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 107. 100MANAGING TALKGroup size: Any sizeTime: 10 minutes to explainMaterials: Small pieces of paperOther objects (beans, sticks)may be used instead of papers.✔ OBJECTIVETo enhance full participation in a group withdominatorsandsilentpeople.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEWhenparticipantsappeartobecontributingveryunequally,withcertainindividualsdominatingandothers not being heard at all.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Give each participant two or three pieces ofpaperwiththeinstructionthatwhenevertheyspeakinthegroup,theyhavetoplaceoneofthe pieces of paper on the floor in front ofthem. Other objects (beans, sticks) may beused instead of papers.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○2. Aftertheyhaveusedupalltheirpieces,theycan no longer speak up in this particularsession.3. Youmaynegotiateforanadditionalpieceofpaper from one of the participants who hasnot used up all of his/hers.DEBRIEFING- Discussifthistechniquemakesboththelong-winded and the silent speakers more awareof how much or how little they contribute toa discussion, and the former more judiciousabout when and how to speak up in a group.- Discusshowthistechniqueisreminiscent ofthe usage of traditional objects/symbols incertainsocietiestogivepeoplepermissiontospeakduringameeting.
  • 108. 1011-2-4-8Group size: 16 to 48Time: 20 to 30 minutesMaterials: Flip-chart paper and marker✔ OBJECTIVEToencourageanexchangeofviewpoints.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEWhenatopicisnotclearlydefinedanddifferentopinions are present and need to be discussed.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Formulate the question or task for analysis.Ask everybody to reflect on it alone.2. Afterfiveminutes,asktheparticipantstoformpairsandexchangetheirpointsofview.3. Afteranotherfiveminuts,askthepairstomeetwith other pairs to form groups of four,exchangingtheirconclusions.4. Thenasktheparticipantstomakeupgroupsof eight, exchanging their ideas andconclusions.5. Bring the groups back to the plenary.6. The facilitator should conclude the exercisebywritingtheresultsofthegroupdiscussionon a flip chart.DEBRIEFINGAsk the participants what happened to theirpointsofviewastheywentthroughtheprocess.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○i wishGroup size: 10 to 30Time: 20 to 30 minutesMaterials: Flip-chart paper or cards✔ OBJECTIVETo highlight problem areas within anorganization.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEInasessionthatdealswithemployee-employerrelations.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Tell the employees/participants to create awish list. If they could change anythingabout their job, what it would it be?2. Ask the participants to write their commentson cards or a flip-chart.3. Encourage discussion with the followingquestions.- What do you like best about your job?- IfyouwereChiefExecutiveOfficerforaday what would you change in theorganization?- What could we do to make you jobbetter?- What would your boss make as a wish?○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 109. 102THE WHEELGroup size: 10 to 30Time: 20 to 60 minutesMaterials: Flip-chart paper and markers✔ OBJECTIVETo map relationships in the work place or in anorganization.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEBeforeanin-depthsessionontheworkprocessorinmanagementtrainingsessions.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Distribute markers and paper to allparticipants.2. Askeveryonetothinkofsixtoeight importantpeopleintheirlives.3. Ask the participants to draw a wheel withspokesofdifferentlengths.Attheendofeachspoke write the name of one of the peopleyouthoughtof.Placethepersonwhomeansthe most to you on a spoke near the centreor on the axle. The least important personwill be the furthest out. Rank the othersaccordingtoimportanceinbetween.4. Ask the participants to divide into pairs todiscuss:- Areyouhappywithyourwheel?- How much has your diagram changedinthelastyear?- What would you like it to be like in ayearstime?- What can you do to help that changetake place?NOTE: This exercise is sometimes used inmanagement training and can also be used as apersonalassessmentexercise.VARIATIONRelationshipMapping:Ask people to draw themselves and theirrelationships to others within a particular workprocess, including arrows to connect"conversations" people are having, either onewayortwoway,andkeywordstoindicatewhatthe conversations are about.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 110. 103SUPPORTING THE LEADERGroup size: 10 to 35Time: 20 minutesMaterials: None✔ OBJECTIVETo allow participants to experience groupcohesion and support.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEInteam-buildingandtrust-buildingsessions.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Askparticipantstoformgroupsofsixtoeightand to select a leader for each group.2. Ask the leader to stand in the middle of thegroupwhiletheothersencircleherclosely.3. The leader closes her eyes, folds her armsacross her chest and lets go of her balance(keepingthekneesrigid).4. As the leader falls, the rest of the groupsupports her with their hands and passes heraround to share the weight.5. After passing the leader around once ortwice,stoptheactivity.6. Select a new leader and repeat the process.7. Thefacilitatorshouldaskdebriefingquestionswhileparticipantsarestillintheirsmallgroups.DEBRIEFING- What was it like to be in the middle of thecircle?- How did it feel to give up so much control?- Whatwasitliketobesupportingtheleader?- Does this happen in your workplace?- Whatpartofthisexperiencewouldbeusefulto apply to your style of leadership?NOTE:Makesurethatinstructionsareproperlyunderstood(demonstrateifnecessary)toavoidanyaccidents.Also,iftherearecertaintaboosaboutwho can touch whom, ensure that the groupcompositiondoesnotviolatethese(e.g.incertainculturalsettings,youmaywanttohavefemale-onlyandmale-onlygroups).Smallgroupscanalsobelargerthanfour,althoughthereshouldnotbemorethanteninonegroup.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 111. 104GROUP SELF-SELECTGroup size: 10 to 30Time: 10 to 15 minutesMaterials: Cards, pins and pin boards✔ OBJECTIVEs- Toformsubgroupsbasedontheparticipantsinterests.- To help people feel more part of the grouptheyhavechosen.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEIn the group formation process.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Brainstorm with the plenary, a list of criteriaforselectingsmallgroups.Criteriashouldnotbe subjective; they should be objective, andfacilitatorsshouldnotpredeterminegroups.2. Askeachindividualtofillinashortresume,under each of the chosen criteria.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○3. Thefacilitatorshoulddesignatetwowallsinthe room as group As area and group Bsarea. Ask people to place their resume onthe wall where they feel best suited; wheretheir skills will contribute to the group. Tellthem to freely move their resume until theyhave helped form balanced teams.Participantsmayonlymoveanotherpersonscard if they consult them first. Encouragethemtonegotiateabalancedgrouping.NOTE: More then two groups may be formed.It depends on the requirements of the ongoingprocess.GROUP A GROUP B
  • 112. 105TRAFFIC JAM 1Group size: 15 to 20Time: 15 minutesMaterials: 2 wooden planks(3 m x 0.2 m to 0.3 m)✔ OBJECTIVETo experience the benefits of teamwork inachievingacommongoal.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEInateam-buildingexercise.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Put wooden planks together to form awalkway. If possible, raise them up to a halfmetreofftheground.2. Divide into groups of no more than four tosixpersons.3. Ask one group to stand up on one end of theplank and the other group on the other end.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○4. Tellthemtheyareontheeighty-sixthfloorofthe Twin Towers in New York City. Half ofthem are trapped in one of the towers andthere is a fire raging behind them. The otherhalfarefirefightersandhavetosavethefirstgroup and then make it to the other side tofightthefire.5. Thetwogroupsmustattempttoswitchsidesat the same time without falling off of theplank. If anyone falls off they have to startthe game over by going back to the side ofthe plank where they began.DEBRIEFING- What techniques helped the group reach theother side?- What did not work?- Was there a leader? Who?- Howdidyouallreachagreement/cooperate?
  • 113. 106TRAFFIC JAM 2Group size: 8 to 24Time: 30 to 45 minutesMaterials: Masking tape, flip-chart or cardsto post rules.✔ OBJECTIVETohighlightissuesofgroupparticipationandleadershipinsolvingaproblem.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEWhengroupmembersarereflectingontheirdynamicsandleadershipstyles.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. This activity is best for groups of eightparticipants.(Itcanalsobeplayedingroupsof six or ten.)2. Prepare for this activity by marking on thefloor a "U" with masking tape, paper plates,blocks,orwhateverishandy.Withinthe"U",mark off one more space than there areparticipantsineachgroup.Thespacesshouldbe marked an easy step from each other.3. Divideeachgroupofeightintotwoequalsub-groups.4. Ask each subgroup to stand on one side ofthe "U", keeping the space in the middle ofthe"U"curveempty.5. Using the following moves, participants onthe left side of the group must end up on theright side and vice versa by moving throughthe"U".6. Givetheseinstructions:Legalmoves:- A person may move into an empty spaceinfrontofhim.- A person may move around one personwhoisfacinghimfromtheothergrouptothe empty space beyond that person.Illegalmoves:- No moving backwards.- Nomovingaroundsomeonefacingthe sameway you are (in the same subgroup).- No move is allowed which involves two ormore people moving at once.- Two people cannot be in the same space atthesametime.7. Allow each group at least ten minutes tocomeupwiththesolution.8. Oncetheyhavediscoveredthesolution, askthem to practice it again at least one moretime. If one group is having trouble comingupwiththesolutionwhileothergroupshavefinished,suggestastudytour.DEBRIEFINGAskthefollowingquestions:- Whathappenedduringthisactivity?- Whatwereyouthinking/feelingasyouwerelookingforthesolution?- Whatcanthisactivitytellusaboutteamwork?Participation? Leadership? (Note to thefacilitator: choose topic(s) that best relate tothe group and workshop themes.)- How does this activity relate to your worktogetherintheofficeenvironment?○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 114. 107TUGS OF WAR AND PEACEGroup size: 10 to 30Groupsize: 16 to 24Tune: 15minutesMaterials: A long, strong rope✔ OBJECTIVEToillustratethebenefitsofworkingtogether.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEBefore or after an exercise or discussion oncooperation.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Dividetheparticipantsintwogroupsoften.2. Ask the two teams to stand up and holdopposite ends of the rope.3. Mark a line in the middle of the area, overwhich each team/group must try to pull theother.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○4. Whenyouhavesaid"One,two,three,Go!",theteamsshouldstartpullingateachother.5. They have to go on pulling each other untiloneteamhasfallenoverthedividingline.6. Next ask every one to sit in a circle on thefloororground.7. Tie the same rope in a circle and allparticipants in the circle to get hold of theropewhiletheyaresittingaroundtheedgeofthe rope.8. Ask the participants to pull together on therope so that they can all stand up.DEBRIEFING- Ask the participants to comment on theprocess and outcome of the two exercises.- Whatwasthedifference?- Arethereparallelsinourdailylives?Intheworkplace?
  • 115. 108ME AND MYORGANIZATIONGroup size: 8 to 20Time: 30 minutesMaterial: Cards and a prepared chart withfour categories of information✔ OBJECTIVETo highlight, in a visual manner, how anorganizationisactuallyacompositeofthepeoplewho work there.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEInanorganizational"retreat"wherestaffneedtobemotivatedorwhereareorganizationorfutureworkplanwillbedeveloped.Use in an activity where all the participants arefromthesameorganization(e.gthegovernment,a university, a specific NGO, etc.). Otherwiseset up one prepared chart foreachorganization/companypresent.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Invite participants to think about their workintheorganization.2. Each participant is given eight cards to becompletedinthefollowingmanner:- Twocardsinanswertothequestion:Whatan I like today?- Twocardsinanswertothequestion:Whatin I like at my best?- Twocardsinanswertothequestion:Whatan I like at my worst?- Twocardsinanswertothequestion:Whatgets me to be at my best?3. Participants post their cards on theappropriate spaces on a prepared chartentitled,"Whatis(nameoftheorganization)?"This chart has been divided into fourquadrants with subtitles: ("Today?" "At itsBest?" "At its Worst? "What makes it theBest?")○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○4. After all participants have contributed theircards, review the chart for clarity andunderstanding.DEBRIEFING- Remind participants that in many ways theorganization can be seen as a composite ofthe people who are in it.- Thenseekcommentsfromthegrouponeachof the four quadrants. What picture of theorganization emerges from this informal,information-gatheringexercise?Anyhappysurprises?Anydisappointments?Wheremightthere be opportunities to implement somechange?What is< name of organization >TODAYAT ITS WORST WHAT MAKESIT THE BEST?AT ITS BEST
  • 116. 109TRICKY TALESGroup size: 10 to 30Time: 20 to 30 minutesMaterials: Envelopes and cards✔ OBJECTIVEToincreaseanalyticalandproblem-solvingskills.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEDuring a group event which focuses on teamworkorproblemsolving.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Write the answers/clues on VIPP cards.Includethenumbersofthetales.(Seebelow.)2. Asktheparticipantstoformfourgroupswithone observer per group.3. All cards labelled "1" are placed in anenvelope marked "1," and so on, for theremaining three sets of cards. Bach teamshould have four envelopes marked 1, 2, 3,and 4.4. Ask the teams to solve the puzzle. Toaccomplishthistask,eachteammustdotwothings: obtain all clues and determine thecorrect solution. The solution may not besubmitted until all of the clues of the tale arein the teams possession.5. To obtain all the clues, team members mustnegotiatewiththeotherthreeteams.Therulesfornegotiationare:RulesOnly one member of a team may leave theroomatanyonetime.Onlyonemembermaynegotiatewithanyteamatanyonetime.Eachmember of the team must have at least oneopportunity to negotiate with another team.No more than two clues may be exchangedduringanyonetransactionwithanotherteam.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○Tale 1: The car crashMr.Smithandhissonaredriving a car. The carcrashes. The father iskilledinstantly.Thesoniscriticallyinjuredandrushedtohospital.Thesurgeon takes a look at him and says,"I cantoperate on him. He is my son Arthur." Howdoyouexplainthis?Tale 2: How about them apples?Agrocerhassomeapplesforsale.Onecustomerbuysonehalfofalltheapples,plushalfanapple.Asecondcustomertakesonehalfof the remaining apples plus half an apple. Thethirdcustomerpurchasesonehalfofthequantityleft plus half an apple. The grocer is nowcompletely sold out. None of the customersbought fractions of apples. All purchases werewholenumbers.Howmanyapplesdidthegroceroriginallyhave?Tale 3: The loser is the winnerTwo people own a horse each.Eachinsiststhathis/herhorseisthe slowest. They were going tohave a race to settle the argument but neitherperson would trust that the other would ride tothefullest,withouttheslightestholdingbackofthe horse. How can the slowest horse bedefinitelyestablished?Tale 4: Socks foxThere are twelve white socks andforty-nineredsocksallmixedup in a drawer. These areindividualsocks,notpairs.Whatistheminimumnumberofsocksyoumustpulloutofthedrawer,with your eyes closed, to ensure one matchingpair was among the chosen? All socks are thesame size and made of the same material so nodistinction can be made by sense of touch.
  • 117. 110The car crashAnswerThesurgeonwasArthursmother.How bout them applesAnswerThegroceroriginallyhadsevenapples.The loser is the winnerAnswer:Each person rides the other persons horse inthe race.Socks foxAnswerIf you take three socks from the drawer, two ofthethreemustmatchsinceonlytwocoloursexist.OBSERVERS GUIDELINES ANDDEBRIEFINGSitwhereyoucanseeandhearmostoftheteam.Takenotes;includequoteswherepossible.Notethe things that help and hinder the team and theimpact of what was said or done.Look for data on:- Competitive behaviour (working againstthe other teams).- Collaborativebehaviour(workingwiththeother teams).- Task oriented behaviour (focusing on thejob to be done).- Strategic behaviour (seeing the big picture).- Processbehaviour(howtheteamisworkingtogether).At the end of the exercise, the observers willreportontheaboveandadiscussionshouldtakeplace on what happened in each group and inthewholegroup.
  • 118. 111TRUST CIRCLEGroup size: 8 to 24Time: 15 minutesMaterials: None✔ OBJECTIVETo increase trust among participants anddemonstrate how it feels "to be supportedbythegroup".❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEWhen group members are exploring issues oftrust and interdependence.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Explain the purpose of the activity, andreassurethegroupthatwhatwewillbedoingis pleasant, not dangerous, and will bring uscloser to our goal of working together as ateam.2. Ask the group to form groups ofapproximatelyeightparticipantseach.3. Askthegroupmemberstostandshouldertoshoulder with one person in the centre. Thepersoninthecentreshouldclosehiseyesandcross his arms over his chest. The othersstandinginthecircleshouldbendtheirarmsandholdtheirhandsupwiththeirpalmsfacingthe person in the centre.4. Ask the person in the centre to think of hisfeetasbeingfastenedtothefloorbutthebodyfalling,kneesstiff.Asthecentrepersonfallstowardsthecircle,thoseinthecirclewillsupporthimandvery,verygentlypasshimaroundthecircleoneortwotimes.5. Beforedoingtheactivity,thefacilitatormaywanttodemonstratethetrustcirclewithonegroup.6.Makesurethatwithineachgroup,eachpersonhas the opportunity to be supported by theirgroupmembers.Facilitatorandco-facilitatormakesurethatparticipantshandleeachothergently.NOTE: In some cultures it will be important tohave separate groups for men and women.DEBRIEFINGAsktheparticipantsthefollowingquestions:- How did it feel to be in the middle?- How did it feel to give up so much controlthatyougiveupbalance?- Howdidyourfeelingschangeasyouwentthrough the process?- What was it like to be on the outsidecatching the person in the centre?- How does this experience relate to yourwork?○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 119. 112NOTES ON VARIATIONS AND NEW GAMES
  • 120. 113SECTION VIICONFLICT MANAGEMENTParticipatory events, by their nature, provide a means of dealing with conflict. Conflicts arise out ofdifferent perceptions, world views, intolerance and prejudices. Well-facilitated, participatory eventsare processes which create dialogue and encourage understanding, therefore facilitating conflictmanagement.Inthissection,someexercisesareincludedwhichdealdirectlywithconflictandmakeusawareofourbehaviour.Becomingawareofourownbehaviourinconflictsituationsisthefirststeptobeingabletodealwithconflictsobjectivelyandimpartially.Thenextstepistocaptureandusetheproductivesideofconflict.Conflictsarenotnegative,perse.Theyshouldberegardedasanopportunityforparticipantstolearndifferentperspectivesandtogettoknowandfeelmorecomfortablewiththeirownbehaviourin a group.This section does not offer a prescription for all conflict resolution. The content relates mainly tointerpersonalconflictsthatoccurduringplanningandtrainingevents.Use these games and exercises:● When a group needs to deal with sensitive issues.● Afteranintenseconflictualsession.● Inconflictmanagementworkshops.
  • 121. 114NOTES ON VARIATIONS AND NEW GAMES
  • 122. 115SETTING GROUND RULESGroup size: 10 to 40Time: 15 to 30 minutesMaterials: Flip-chart paper, markers andmasking tape✔ OBJECTIVETo establish an appropriate code of behaviourfor the group.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAt the "beginning of a session that deals withsensitiveissues.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Explain to the group that because they willbe discussing sensitive issues, a number ofground rules should first be agreed upontogether.2. Askthegrouptoformulatealistofruleswhichthey will agree to follow (see examplesbelow).Listthemonaflip-chart.3. Haveeachoftheparticipantssigntherules.4. Keep this list in the room throughout thetraining session and refer to it whenparticipants behaviour becomes counter-productive to the group process.Ground rules (examples)Respect: It is important to give your undividedattention to the person who is speaking.Confidentiality: Personal information that issharedinthegroupwillnotbediscussedoutsideof the group.Openness:Itisimportanttobeopenandhonestbut there should be no discussion of otherspersonal/private lives. It is okay to discussgeneral situations as examples but not to usenamesorsaythingssothatpeoplecouldidentifytheindividual.Non-judgmental approach: It is okay todisagree with another persons point of view orbehaviourbutitisnotokayto"putdown"anotherperson.Non-discriminatingapproach:Itisimportantto be aware that the members in the group mayhave different cultural backgrounds and/ordifferentsexualorientations.Thegroupshould be careful about making insensitiveremarksregardingsuchdiversity.Right to pass: It is always okay to pass,i.e. to say, "I dont think I want to answerthatquestion."Anonymity: It is okay to ask a questionanonymously(usingthequestionboxormemoboard), and all questions will be answered.Acceptance: It is okay to feel uncomfortable;anyonecanfeeluncomfortablewhenhe/shetalksabout sensitive and personal topics.Responsibility: Group members should comeat the agreed time. If a person cannot attend,theyshouldnotifyanothergroupmemberortheleader.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 123. 116COME ON OVERgroup size: 10 to 50Time: 5 to 10 minutesMaterials: None✔ OBJECTIVETo demonstrate that non-resistance mayactuallyworkinyourfavour.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEJust before a break in the workshop process.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. The facilitator may ask participants to formpairs and face each other while kneeling.Designateonepersonas"A"theotheras"B".Partnersplacetheirhandsagainsteachotherwith palms open and forward.2. Ask each person to push their hands againsttheir partners with firm pressure. Tell "A"partners to "give in" (stop pushing forward)atanytimewithoutwarning"B".3. Reverse roles and repeat the exercise.DEBRIEFINGAskthefollowingquestions:- How did it feel when you stopped resisting?- Howdiditfeelwhenyouexertedcontinuedpressure?- Unnecessary strength or pressure cansometimesbecounterproductive.- Can you think of some examples in dailylifewhenthishashappened?○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○GRUMBLE, GRUMBLEGroup size:10 to 40Time: 20 minutesMaterials: None✔ OBJECTIVE- To provide an opportunity for the release oftension.-Toencourageparticipantstoexpressnegativefeelings.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAfteranintense,conflictualsession.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Thefacilitatorshouldaskparticipantstodivideintopairs.2. Instruct participants to talk simultaneously,sharing any complaints, reservations,resentments, grievances, irritants, gripes orconcernstheyhaveontheirminds.Whenonemember runs out of issues to disclose, he/she may say "grumble, grumble" until allparticipantsarefinishedspeaking.3. Callahalttotheexercisewhenitisapparentthat the negative energy has dissipated andonlythe"grumbling"isheard.DEBRIEFINGEncouragegroupdiscussionwiththefollowingquestions:- Howdidyoufeelduringtheexercise?- How do you feel now?- Didyoufeelthatyouwerebeingheardduringtheexercise?- What are the benefits of this exercise?- Whatissuesdidyouhearthatmeritfurtherdiscussion?- In what ways do we fall into a "grumble,grumble"trapinourdailylives?○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 124. 117CONFRONTING THE BEARGroup size: 10 to 30Time: 20 minutesMaterials: Flip-chart paper and markers✔ OBJECTIVE- To show that obstacles can be overcome.- To encourage self-analysis.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEInworkshopprogrammesdealingwithself-imageorinterpersonalskills.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Vividly describes a scene of walking alonein a forest and meeting a bear.2. Askparticipantstogiveaonewordresponseas to what they would do in the situation.3. The facilitator records these responses on aflip-chart or on VIPP cards.DEBRIEFINGDiscuss ways in which the responses may besimilar to daily situations in which we meet"bears"orproblems/barriers.CHAIRSGroup size:15 to 25Time: 10 to 25 minutesMaterials: A chair and copies of theinstructions for each participant.✔ OBJECTIVE- To show participants how to turn conflictintocooperation.- Tohighlightculturaldifferencesinhandlingconflict.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAt the beginning of a session on conflictmanagementtraining.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Prepare the following instructions on smallslips of paper.Instruction A: Put all the chairs in a circle.(Fifteenminutestodothis.)Instruction B: Put all the chairs near thedoor. {Fifteen minutes to do this.)Instruction C: Put all the chairs near thewindow.(Fifteenminutestodothis.)2. Giveeveryparticipantonesetofinstructions,either set A, B, or C. Ask them not to showtheinstructionstoanyoneelse.3. Askeveryonetostarttheexerciseandfollowtheinstructionstheyweregiven.DEBRIEFINGAfter fifteen minutes, bring the group togetherandanalysetheexercise.Thefollowingquestionsmayhelpwithdiscussion:- Didyoufollowyourinstructions?- How did you relate to people who wantedtodosomethingdifferentthanyou?Didyoucooperate, argue, persuade, give in?- Ifyouconfrontedothers,howdidyoudoit?○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 125. 118NOTES ON VARIATIONS AND NEW GAMES
  • 126. 119SECTION VIIICASE STUDIES AND ROLE PLAYSTraditionalgroupworkemphasizesprescriptionsandrulesoutcomplexities,variationsandnuances.Participatorygroupeventsencourageacceptanceandanalysisofthecomplexityofsociety.Thegamesandexerciseinthissectionaddressthecontradictionsandconflictsthatexistinsocietythroughtheuseofcasestudiesandroleplayswhicharebasedonreal-lifesituations.Participantsanalyseandsuggestdifferentkindsofsolutions,theysharpenanalyticalandproblemsolvingskills.Use these games and exercises :● Beforeasessiononproblemsolving.● In sessions where assessments are part of the work plan.● Inasessiononproblemidentification.
  • 127. 120NOTES ON VARIATIONS AND NEW GAMES
  • 128. 121ROLE DIAGRAMGroup size:10 to 30Time: 45 minutesMaterials: Markers and flip-chart paper✔ OBJECTIVETo understand the number and variety of rolesplayedinlife.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAs a preliminary exercise before developing apersonalororganizationalmissionstatement.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask participants to make a list of the rolesmostoftenplayedintheirlives,suchaswife,worker,mother,father,son,daughter,student,writer,friend,etc.2. Use circles to represent these roles. Havethemdrawthemaslargeastheyfeeltheyareintheirlivesandinproportiontoeachother.Position them in the order they play in theirlives.Havethemplaceonthetopofthepaper,those played most often and at the bottomthoseplayedlessfrequently.3. Havethemlabeltherolesinsideeachcircle.4. Next to the circles the participants shouldwritefeelingwords,suchasangry,sad,happy,etc. that they associate with each role.5. Have them put a plus sign next to the rolesthattheyfeelgoodaboutandachecknexttotherolesthattheyfeeldissatisfiedwith.6. Now ask participants to take a new piece ofpaper and draw or list the roles in the orderwhichtheywouldlikethemtobe.7. Encourage the group to discuss their roles.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○PIN THE PROBLEMGroup size: 10 to 30Time: 45 minutesMaterials: Paper/cards, masking tape, pinsand markers✔ OBJECTIVE- Torecognizeindividualskills.- To discover how skills may be applied toproblemsofdailylife.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEBeforeasessiononproblemsolving.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Distribute paper or cards and markers.2. On one side of the card ask participants towrite two major problems they face in theirwork or lives and on the other side to list theskills that are needed to solve thoseproblems.3. Ask participants to tape the paper onthemselves,problemsideout.4. Ask them to walk around and look at eachothers problems and not to talk.5. Havethepeoplewithsimilarproblemsformsmallgroupsanddiscusshowtheywouldusetheirskillstosolvetheproblems.DEBRIEFINGIn plenary, discuss the conclusions. During thecourseofthediscussion,pointoutthattheyhavea wide range of skills that they can use to dealwith their own problems and that there may bemanyappropriatesolutions.
  • 129. 122THE SECRETIS IN THE BAGGroup size: 10 to 30Time: 15 to 30 minutesMaterials: Two bags filled with small objects✔ OBJECTIVETo have fun and reduce tension in the group.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAs a break in an intense session.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Prepare two bags and fill them with smallobjects.Examples:pencils,sunglasses,creditcards, jewellery, etc.2. Ask the participants to form two teams.3. Ask each team to create a pantomime usingallthethingsinthebag.Thepantomimecanrelate to their work or organization or it canhe a book or movie title. Give them tenminutestodothis.4. Ask each team to perform its pantomime infrontoftheplenary.5. The object of the game is to guess thesubject of the other teams pantomime.HUDDLEGroup size:10 to 30Time: 15 to 30 minutesMaterial: None✔ OBJECTIVETo make a quick assessment of the knowledgeoropinionsinthegroup.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEWhen you want to quickly assess the level ofknowledgeoropinionwithinalargegroup.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask the participants to divide into groups ofsix.2. Askeachgrouptonameafacilitatortodirectthe discussion and a reporter to relay thediscussion back to the plenary.3. Present a question or theme to the smallgroups and give them six minutes to discussthe issue and arrive at a conclusion.4. The reporters inform the plenary of theirdiscussionresults.NOTE: This exercise is helpful when giving apresentationbeforealargegroup,togetasenseof the participants concerns about the issue. Itis also a way to discover what knowledge agroup already has about a particular topic orissue.Thisexercisemayalsobeusefultohelpagroupformulatequestionsinresponsetoaformalpresentation.Donotuseitasthefinalexerciseiftheobjectisto facilitate a deeper understanding of an issue.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 130. 123STATUESGroup size: 10 to 30Time: 30 minutesMaterial: None✔ OBJECTIVEs- Tofacilitategroupexpressionofanidea.- To evaluate group understanding of theworkshoptheme.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAsagroupbeginsstudyingatheme.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Choose a theme, not based on actual eventsorconcretesituations,butratheronasharedconcept (e.g. religion, democracy, justice,womensrights,etc.).2. Ask for a volunteer to represent what he orshe thinks of the theme by forming a statue,or the volunteer may use other members ofthe group and position them as statues torepresent the theme.3. Ask the other participants for their opinionsandinvitethemtoaddorchangethe"statue".One by one, they make changes and explainwhy to the rest of the group. Changes caninclude repositioning or changing statueexpressions or gestures.4. Thisprocesscontinuesuntileveryoneagreeswiththewaythestatueexpressesthechosentheme.DEBRIEFINGInvitethegrouptodiscussthethemeandgroupprocess: analyze how they began, the reasonswhy they agreed or disagreed with the changesmade to the "statue" and why they all agreedwiththefinaloutcome.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○HAS DEVELOPMENTTAKEN PLACE?Group size:15 to 30Time: 60 minutesMaterials: Flip-chart paper and markers✔ OBJECTIVETo enable participants to assess the level ofdevelopmenttakingplaceintheircommunityororganization.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEInacommunityororganizationaldevelopmentplanningortrainingevent.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Before the session, prepare the followinginstructions on separate pieces of paper.- GROUP A: List words that indicate thatcommunity/organizational development istakingplace.- GROUP B: List words that indicate thatcommunity/organizationaldevelopmentisnottakingplace.2. Ask participants to divide into two groupsand give them the instructions listed above.Tell them they will have five minutes tocomplete the task.3. At the end of five minutes, ask the groups totradetheirlistofwords.Givethemtenminutesto discuss the lists.4. Ask a member of each small group tosummarizethegroupsdiscussions.
  • 131. 124ARTIFACTSGroup size: 0 to 50Time: 15 to 60 minutesMaterials: Markers, flip-chart paper, tencommon objects such as pens,paperclips, rulers, playingcards, etc.✔ OBJECTIVEs- To develop group cooperation.- To encourage creativity.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEWhenyouwishtoencourageandtestanalyticalskillsorimaginativethinking.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Tell participants that "Artifacts" is asimulation.Itissetinthefuturewhenavirusin the computer network has destroyed allrecords, A group of sociologists, historiansandscientistsistryingtofindauseforsomeancient artifacts, such as pens, paper clips,rulers, etc.2. Asktheparticipantstodivideintogroupsandwrite the following headings on their paper:Description ^size, shape, texture, etc.); Use(practical, ornamental, religious, etc.);Significance^social,historical,educational,etc.).3. Give each group an artifact. Explain to thegroup that they are all researchers andmembers of the "Artifacts Research Guild"andtheoccasionisthepresentationoftheoriesabout the origin and use of certain artifacts.Although some artifacts may have aninscriptionwrittenonthem,pretendthatitisin an ancient script and no one can read it.4. Askparticipantstogatherintheirgroupsandwrite their answers to the three questions,including ideas about who used the artifact,what it was, how it was used, etc.5. If the group cannot reach a consensus, thenthe"professors"holdingaminorityviewwillhave to indicate this in the formalpresentations.6. For the formal group presentations, eachmemberofthegroupmustspeak.Theyshouldgivetheirrealname,titleof"Professorship".Time and subject matter should be dividedequallybetweenthegroupmembers.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 132. 125DRAWING A SCENARIOGroup size: 10 to 40Time: 30 to 45 minutesMaterials: Flip-chart paper, markers andmasking tape✔ OBJECTIVE- Toportrayasituation/condition.- Toidentifyproblemsandresources.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAtthebeginningofasessiononsituationanalysisorproblemidentification.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Divide participants into groups of three orfour.2. Ask each group to draw a picture of an areaor situation (e.g. situation within a locality,conditionofwomen,etc.).3. Encouragethemtodrawspontaneouslyandtell them they will have the opportunity toexplain.Theyshouldstartwiththeideasthatcomeintotheirmindimmediately.4. Alloweachgrouptenminutestodiscusstheirdrawings and to draw a common picture.5. After ten minutes, bring them back to theplenary.6. Invite each group to present their drawingswiththeirexplanations.Capturecommonanduncommon points on cards as they describetheirdrawings.Youcanalsoaskothergroupsto capture the points.7. Pin up the cards, discuss and summarize.DEVELOPMENTINDICATORSGroup size:10 to 30Time: 60 to 90 minutesMaterials: Flip-chart paper and markers✔ OBJECTIVE- To arrive at a group definition of"development".- Toidentifydevelopmentindicators.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEIn a group session on development.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Asktheparticipantstoformsmallgroupsoffiveorsixpersons.2. Askeachparticipanttowritethreewords thatcome to mind when he/she hears the word,"development".3. Useallofthewordsthathavebeensuggestedtoarriveatadefinitionofdevelopment.4. Brainstormandlist"indicators"thatshowthatdevelopmenthashappened.5. Displayeachgroupsdefinition,anddiscusseachoneinplenary.6. Agree on a definition that reflects the viewofalltheparticipants.7. Put up the list of indicators on the wall andwith the total group discuss, clarify, andsummarize.8. Compare them with the definition ofdevelopmenttheyoriginallyagreedupon.
  • 133. 126ROLE PLAY-INSTRUCTIONSGroup size: 10 to 50Time: 10 to 90 minutesMaterials: Flip-chart paper or cards,markers and props✔ OBJECTIVEToanalyzeskillsorideas.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAnytimeduringagroupevent.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Explainthatthisisaroleplay,notadramaormini-drama -here the interaction betweenpeople is worked out or rehearsedbeforehand.2. Prepare written instructions identifying asituation to role-play and the parts to beplayed by different people or groups.3. Distributetheinstructionsandallowtimeforquestionsandanswers.Theaimistobesurethatever,onecowswhatisexpectedofthemand to avoid all interruptions to the flow ofthe role play once it is started.4. Ask the groups) how they wish to use thespace they have and how they intend to useany props that they have. This can help therole players define their roles and play themwith conviction. It is also an opportunity toprovideinformationwhichkeepstheexerciserealistic.5. Explain that there can be no planning orinteraction between the parts to be playedbeforehand.6. Give exact time limits for the role play. Fivetosevenminutesisrecommended.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○DEBRIEFINGAfter the role play it is important to ask theparticipants to "deroll" and to debrief theparticipants.Adiscussionoftheexperiencemaybestartedbyaskingthefollowingquestions:- Didyouenjoytheexperience?- Didyoulikeplayingyourrole?- Ifyouwanttoanalyzeskillsdevelopment,thetransitionfromdiscussingfeelingstodiscussingskillscanbemadebyasking:• Whatdidyoufinddifficult?• Whatskillsdidyouuse?• What worked and what skills helped?• What skills do you need to develop orimprove?• Whathaveyoulearnedfromtheroleplay?• Did the role play help you develop adeeperunderstandingoftheissue?Why?NOTE: Written instructions reassure the morenervousparticipantsandgivethemsomethingtorefertoiftheybecomeuncertain.Instructionsshouldbeshort,clearandwritteningeneraltermssothatthe person playing the role can bring their ownexperienceandskillstotherole.Theinstructionsshouldincludeenoughbackgroundinformationtokeepthesituationrealistic.Youmaywishtouseobserversastheycanaddtothevalueofdiscussionsaftertheroleplay.Observersbecomemuchmoreinvolvediftheyalsoreceiveinstructionsaboutwhattheyareexpectedtocommenton.Even the most carefully planned role play willsometimes take on a life of its own and takeunexpectedturns.Unlessthisthreatensthewholepurpose of the exercise, it is best to note how ithappenedanddiscussitlaterratherthaninterrupttheaction.
  • 134. 127NOTES ON VARIATIONS AND NEW GAMES
  • 135. 128NOTES ON VARIATIONS AND NEW GAMES
  • 136. 129SECTION IXGENDER ANALYSIS ANDSENSITIZATIONThe issue of gender is defined differently in different cultural contexts. These exercises do not aim tochangethebehaviourofparticipantsbuttostimulatetheirthoughtprocessandtoencouragereflectionon their own assumptions. The exercises in this section were selected and adapted with sensitivity tomulticultural needs and are intended to support programme planning for gender management. Theseexercises should be used judiciously, to create an environment for understanding diversity and toencourage constructive debate and deeper exploration of gender-related issues.Use these games and exercises:● Ingendertrainingorsensitizationsessions.● Incommunicationtrainingsessions.
  • 137. 130NOTES ON VARIATIONS AND NEW GAMES
  • 138. 131VALUES AUCTIONGroup size: 10 to 30Time: 45 minutesMaterials: Paper and-pens or markers✔ OBJECTIVEs- To explore gender values.- To reflect on how family gender valuesinfluenceperceptionsandattitudes.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEIngenderandcommunicationtraining.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Drawupalistofvalues(seeexamplesbelow).2. Select a volunteer from the group to be theauctioneer.3. Explain to the group that in this exercise theparticipants will have $10,000 in imaginarymoneytospendina"ValuesAuction".Theycan bid on any of the values that are read tothem.4. Provide paper to all participants for thepurpose of keeping track of theirexpenditures. You can also prepare playmoneyin$100bills.5. Emphasizethattheparticipantscannotspendmorethan$10,000inthewholeauction.Forexample,iftheybuyavaluefor$4,000,theyonlyhave$6,000lefttospendonothers.Tellthe group that bids must be in quantities of$100 or more. When someone bids $100,ask for $200 and so on.6. Openthebiddingbyreadingoutthefirstvalueonyourlist.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○7. Makesurethatthebiddingisdoneaccurately.Continuetheauctionuntilsomeonehasboughteachvalueonyourlist.Example Values- Today, womens assertiveness and financialindependence is causing tension in manyfamilies.- Female-malerelationshipswerebetterbeforethewomensliberationmovement.- Theabsenceofcaringandsharingonthepartof men is devastating and destroyingrelationships.- Mens rejection of the femininity in themmakestheminsensitivetoothersneeds.- Menwhofatherchildrenshouldalwayshelpchange diapers and feed the baby.- Understanding gender roles is to recognizethecreativityinvolvedinbakingacake.- Patriarchalcallousnessmakesmenassumeasuperiorrole.- Youdontgivedollstolittleboys.DEBRIEFINGDiscussionpoints:- Somepeoplespentalloftheirmoneyononeortwovalues,whileothersspenttheirmoneyonseveral.Why?- Whatvaluesweremostimportanttothegroupas a whole?- Ifanyvalueonthelistwasnotbought,why?- How does knowing which values are mostimportanttousaffectourlives?VARIATIONSee "Values Voting" p. 61.
  • 139. 132IF I WERE.....Group size: 10 to 30Time: 45 to 60 minutesMaterial: Two different colours of cardsand markers for all participants.✔ OBJECTIVETodevelopinsightongenderdifferences.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEIn a group event that focuses on gender roleanalysis.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Asktheparticipantstodivideintotwogroups:a"womensgroup"anda"mensgroup".2. Give two cards (one colour for men and onefor women) and one marker to each person.3. Askeachwomanparticipanttocompletethefollowingsentences:- I am happy I am a woman because ...- If I were a man, I would ...Eachmaleparticipantwillhavetocompletethefollowingsentences:- I am happy I am a man because . . .- If I were a woman, I would . . .4. When they have finished writing, askparticipants to put the cards upside down onthe floor in separate piles according to thecolour of the cards.5. Pick up one category of cards at a time andpinthemontheboardasyoureadthemaloud.Encouragediscussion.DEBRIEFINGDiscussionquestions:- What happened? How do you feel?- What was the purpose of this exercise?- Wereyoueverdissatisfiedwithbeingamanor woman? Why?○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 140. 133FAMILY MESSAGESGroup size: 10 to 30Time: 45 minutesMaterials: Cards and markers✔ OBJECTIVEToencourageparticipantstoexplorefamilyvalueswhich influence their present perceptions andbehaviours.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEIn a session where gender roles andresponsibilitiesarebeingdiscussed.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Discussadefinitionofvaluesbeforebeginningthe exercise. For example, definition thatcould be used is, "Values are any ideas orqualities that are important, desirable orprized."2. Explaintothegroupthatonewaytoidentifypersonalvaluesistoaskyourselfthefollowingquestions:- Isitsomethingyoubelievein?- Areyouproudenoughofthethingyouvaluetotellyourfriends?- Didyoumakeyourchoicefreely?- Do you act according to your values?- Do you practise what you preach?○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○3. Writethefollowingquestionsoncards:Whatdidyourfamilytellyouabout...- beingmale?- beingfemale?- gettingmarried?- selectingaprofession?- goingoutwithsomeone?- havingsex?- sharingresponsibilities?- diversitiesanddifferences?- aspirationsandambitions?- frustrationandstress?- havingchildren?- caringforchildren?4. Ask for volunteers to choose a card andanswer the question written on it. Based onknowledgeofyourgroup,youcandecidetohaveeachvolunteeranswerthequestionoutloud or write them on cards.DEBRIEFINGDiscussionpoints:- Were there values in your family that werenever talked about openly? Why?- Didyoulearnaboutvaluesfrommenorfromwomen?- Which of the values would you pass on toyour son or daughter? How?
  • 141. 134THE SUN ALSO SHINESON MY TREEGroup size: 10 to 30Time: 60 minutesMaterials: Flip-chartpaper,markersandcards✔ OBJECTIVEIncrease awareness of how society perpetuatestraditionalgendervaluestoexploretheconceptofgender.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEPrior to discussion of the theoretical aspects ofgender.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask the participants to form small groups.Give paper and markers to each group.2. Ask each group to draw a tree with threeparts:theleaves,thetrunk,theroots.Therootsstandforideologyandgendervalues.Thetrunkstandsforinstitutionswhichinfluencethosevaluessuchasfamily,educationandreligion.The leaves stand for the activities that areundertakenbywomen.3. Have them discuss these issues in theirrespectivegroups,capturingthemajorpointson cards before drawing their tree.4. Tell the participants that they can use any ofthe value statements from the board (seebelow) for analysis, but encourage them tocome up with their own gender valuestatementsiftheycan.5. Have them present their drawings and cardstoplenary.Some examples of value statements:- Women make better nurses and secretaries.- Women are better managers at home thaninoffices.- Women lose objectivity, as they are moreemotional.- Women should not get jobs that men havealwayshad.- Womenaremorecaringandsharing.- Awomanssexualityisthreateningtomen.DEBRIEFING- What issues did the exercise raise?- Did the exercise help the group to definetheir concept of gender?○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 142. 135GENDER STEREOTYPESGroup size: 10 to 30Time: 45 minutesMaterials: Flip-chart paper, markers andmasking tape✔ OBJECTIVETo increase awareness of gender stereotyping.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEDuring a session on gender roles.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Write"female"and"male"cardsandputthemon top of two boards.2. Askparticipantsforexamplesofstereotypicalmale and female characteristics. Have themlist them on cards.ExamplesFemales may believe that to be feminine theyshould:- Beemotionallysensitiveandvulnerable.- Submittothewishesanddemandsofa sexualpartner.- Meet the needs of others before their own.- Choose careers in the "helpingprofessions".- Be physically attractive by someone elsesstandards.- Toleratesexuallyharassingbehaviour withoutcomplaint.- Avoid non-traditional careers such as mathor science.- Benon-assertiveoravoidbeingout-spoken.Males may believe that to be masculine theyshould:- Beincontrolandappearunemotional.- Bethedominantpartnerinarelationship.- Exert pressure or force on their sexualpartners.- Becomesexuallyactiveearly.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○- Work in careers that are mechanical oranalytical.- Assumeresponsibilityasthe"breadwinner".- Achievestatusbyearninglotsofmoney.- Take risks to prove manhood.- Resolveconflictswithviolence.3. Divide the participants into small groups ofthe same gender. Have the female groupdiscusstheadvantagesanddisadvantagesofthe male gender and vice versa.4. List advantages/disadvantages on cards orflip-charts.5. After ten minutes, bring the groups togetherand ask each group to put their ideas on theboard.6. Make sure that responses belonging to onegender are placed together.7. Look at the advantages and disadvantagesofbeingafemaleaslistedbythemalegroup.Ask women to add to the list with cards of adifferentcolour.8. Discussthelistsofstereotypes.Clarifyifthenewlistsarestereotypesortruecharacteristicsofwomen.Drawalinethroughanyideasthegroupconcludesarestereotypes.Repeattheprocess with the lists of advantages anddisadvantagesofbeingamale.DEBRIEFINGWhich gender has the most advantages/disadvantages?Why?How?
  • 143. 136MY ROLES, MYRELATIONSHIPSGroup size: 10 to 30Time: 45 minutesMaterials: Activity worksheets on casestudies, 12 cards per group offour and markers✔ OBJECTIVETo help participants examine how gender rolesaffectthewaypeoplereactinrelationships.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEIn a session on gender issues.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Divide the plenary into groups of four anddistribute worksheets, cards and markers toeach group.2. Ask the participants to select one of theirgroupmemberstoreadthecasestudyaloud.Each group should consider these twoquestionswhiletheydiscussthecasestudy.- How would you react to this situation?- Howwouldyourmotherhavereacted tothissituationwhenshewasyoung?- How would your father have reacted tothissituationwhenhewasyoung?3. Ask the groups to record their reactions oncards,labellingthem"me","mother","father".Tellthemtheywillmakepresentationsoftheirworkintheplenary.Sample Case StudiesMikeisabouttoaskLauraoutforthefirsttime.He would like to go out for pizza and then to amovie. Mike thinks Laura should help pay forthe date. What should he do? What should shedo?○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○Sheila and Bodal have been married for fouryears. Both have always worked. Now Sheilais pregnant but wants to go back to work assoon as she can after she has the baby. Bodalwantshertostayhomeforawhileuntilthechildstarts school. What should Sheila do?June has been interested in Bob for the last fewmonths.Shethinkshemightlikehertoo,butheseemstooshytoaskherout.Shehasthoughtaboutcalling him and asking him to go out, but she isafraidoflookingtoo"pushy".Yasmin is doing a "white collar" job and earnsmorethanherhusband.Shefeelsthisiscreatingtensionbetweenthem.Herhusbandisbecomingmoregrumpyandwithdrawn.Shecansensethatquittingherjobmayimprovetherelationshipathome but she needs to earn the money.Ricky has just been approached by a woman ata party. She asked him to dance several timesand invited him to her house after the party.Although Ricky likes her, he doesnt feel readyto go home with her.DEBRIEFINGAskforvolunteerstoexplainwhytheyreactedthewaytheydidandhowpeoplemighthavereactedtwentyyearsago.Howarethingsdifferenttoday?Whatdoyouthinkhascausedthechange?Howhavechanginggenderrolesaffectedrelationshipsbetweenmenandwomen?
  • 144. 137WERE IN THE SAMEBOAT...Group size: 15 to 20Time: 30 to 45 minutesMaterials: Flip-chart paper, markers,masking tape✔ OBJECTIVETo look at sterotypes of men and women insociety.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEIndiscussionsonpeoplesfeelingsabouttheirgenderroles.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Give each group four pieces of paper. Askthem to draw outlines of women on twopieces and outlines of men on the other two.On one female/male set write "TVs perfectwoman"and"TVsperfectman".Ontheothersetwrite"Theidealwomanofthefuture"and"Theidealmanofthefuture".2. Brainstormfirstandthenwriteallresponsesonpaperandhangthemuponthewallforallthe groups to see.3. Encouragepeopletobeasoutrageousastheywant.DEBRIEFING- Howdoweseeourselvescomparedtothesepopularimages?- On what basis are we defining the man/womanofthefuture?
  • 145. 138MY IMAGEGroup size: 20 to 25Time: 1 hour 30 minutesMaterials: Card, marker, pin-board✔ OBJECTIVETo understand gender differences and societal/cultureinfluencesinconstructingidentities.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEBeforeintroducingtheconceptofgender.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Divideplenaryintosinglesexgroups.2. Ask groups to answer: "What is the qualityyouappreciatemostinyourself?"3. Putallideasoncardsandclustersimilarones.Put cards on pin-boards.4. Present to plenary.DEBRIEFING- Didyouhaveanydifficultyinidentifying yourqualities?Why?- Whichgrouphadmoreproblems?- Askparticipantstoexplaintheopportunities(social,cultural,economic,religious,etc.)thatthe)had,todevelopthequalitiesmentioned.Encourage a few participants (4 or 5 fromeach group) to tell their life stories in brief.Capture key ideas and put up on pin-board.I AM A WOMAN...I AM A MANGroup size:20 to 25Time: 60 minutesMaterials: Paper, marker, cards, pin-board✔ OBJECTIVETohelpwomenandmenidentifytheirstrengthsanddifferences.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEPrior to introducing gender theories andconcepts.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Divide plenary into small groups. Ask eachgrouptothinkofarealperson(s)theyadmire(for her/his creativity/assertiveness/goodhumour/abilitytohandleconflictingsituations,etc.).2. Ask groups to capture those qualities oncards and put them up on pin-boards.3. Each group to present its work in plenary.DEBRIEFING- Whatistheimageofawoman/man?- Howcanyouimproveyourself-esteem?○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 146. 139IDENTITY CONSTRUCTIONGroup size: 10 to 20Time: 1 hour, 30 minutesMaterials: Paper, marker, pin-board andopen space✔ OBJECTIVEToanalyzegenderidentityconstruction.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEBeforediscussinggenderconcepts.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Divideplenaryintosmall,singlesexgroups.2. Give cards, paper,andamarkertoeachgroup.3. Ask them to discuss and capture key ideason"whatgendermeanstome".4. Put up the cards on a pin-board or wall.5. Keeping the ideas on cards in mind, draw apictureorasymbols),summarizingtheideas.6. Presentinplenary.Encouragebriefdiscussionon each presentation.7. Reconvenegroupsandanswer,"Whatistheimage of a man/woman?" (Male group tocomeupwithwomansimageandviceversa.)Put up three answers on strips or cards.8. Analyze strips and discuss (in your group)what/how rituals in your cultures areassociated with a man/womans characterdevelopment. Capture as many as possible,on cards.9. Presentinplenary.DEBRIEFINGAsktheparticipants:- Are such rituals generally associated withwomen?Why?- Howdoculturalbeliefsandritualsaffectandinfluencetheimageofaman/woman?○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○DAILY CYCLEGroup size:20 to 25Time: 60 minutesMaterials: Flip-chart and markers✔ OBJECTIVETo understand how personal gender issues canbeinfluencedandchanged.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEWhenanalysinggenderissues.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Divide participants into small, single sexgroups.2. Each group lists down its major dailyactivities.3. Female and male groups exchange theirgroup work.4. Groupsthendiscussandlist:"Isthere anythingyouwouldliketochangeontheothergroupslistofmajordailyactivities?"DEBRIEFING- What happened when you swapped thedailyactivitieslists?- Was it difficult to list the changes youwanted to see? Why/why not?- Why did you ask for these changes?NOTE: Facilitator to capture all ideas indebriefing.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 147. 140LIFE LINEGroup size: 10 to 25Time: 60 minutesMaterials: Flip-chart and markers✔ OBJECTIVETo understand and analyze personal gendervaluesandhowtheycanbeinfluenced.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEBeforeintroducinggenderconcepts.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Askthegroup:whathashappenedtoyou inyour lifetime that is meaningful to you?(Change the years based on average age oftheplenary.)2. Haveparticipantsdoindividuallinedrawingsthat begin with birth and end at present. Ontheline,theparticipantsshouldillustratethemajor influences which shaped their valuesand attitudes about women and men. Thesemightinclude:parents,education/legalsystem,cultural beliefs, economic condition, travel,work, relationships, marriage, parenthood,particularpersonalities/experiences,etc.3. Haveparticipantssharetheirlifelinesingroupsoffour.4. Summarizeinfluencesongenderandpresentinplenary.DEBRIEFINGAsktheparticipants:- Howdidyoufeelwhenyouanalyzedyourlifecyclewithothers?- Did it help you? Did you feel threatenedbythisdisclosure?
  • 148. 141NOTES ON VARIATIONS AND NEW GAMES
  • 149. 142NOTES ON VARIATIONS AND NEW GAMES
  • 150. 143SECTION XCREATIVITY AND PROBLEM SOLVINGCreativity is the ability to look at a familiar situation, task or problem and see solutions that gobeyond the conventional, the normal or the standard procedure.Creativityisnurturedbyanenablingenvironment.Suchanenvironmentrequiresacommittedgroupof people who share a tolerant and open attitude, who are sensitive to cultural issues, whoencouragecuriosityandcriticalawarenessandwhohavetheabilitytothinkbeyondconventionalThefollowingexercisesareintendedtostimulatecreativethinkinginagroupevent.Use these games and exercises:● When you are looking for creative solutions to a problem.● As"Braingymnastics"ortolivenupaworkshop.● Forrelaxationandfun.
  • 151. 144NOTES ON VARIATIONS AND NEW GAMES
  • 152. 145BRAINSTORMINGGroup size: 10 to 40Time: 60 minutesMaterials: A paper clip, feather, or othersimple objects, flip-chart, cardsand markers✔ OBJECTIVEToinvolveparticipantsinacreative,problem-solvingprocess.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEIn a workshop whenever you need to "clear thecobwebs" or orientate participants to a creativeprocess.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Introduce the basic ground rules ofbrainstorming:- Nocriticaljudgmentispermitted.- Freeassociationiswelcomed;thewilderthe ideas the better.- Quantity,notquality,isdesired.- Combination and improvement of ideasissought.2. Askparticipantstothinkofallthewaystheycanuseanobject,e.g.apaperclip,afeather.They have about three minutes for this partof the exercise.3. Havesomeonetallyand/orwritedownideas.At the end of one minute ask the groups toreport the number of ideas they generatedandthengetasamplingofsomeofthe"crazy"or"farout"ideas,aswellassomethatseemmorefeasible.4. Now apply the same exercise to some reallifeororganizationalproblem.5. Condensetheideasintoanewlistofvaluableideasordecidewhichideascouldbeputintopracticebyvotingonthemostfeasibleones.DEBRIEFINGEncourage further group discussion with thefollowingquestions:- What reservations do you have about thetechnique?- Whatkindsofproblemsisbrainstormingbestsuitedfor?NOTE:Researchindicatesthatcreativitycanbecultivated by the use of simple and practicalexercises.Toooftenthesparkofinnovativethinkingisdampenedbyphraseslike,"Wetrieditlastyear"or"Wevealwaysdoneitthatway".VARIATIONBrainstormonanytopic.Eachtime,changeoneconditionradically.
  • 153. 146Topsy TurvyGroup size: 10 to 30Time: 30 to 45 minutesMaterials: Flip-chart paper,cards and markers✔ OBJECTIVETofindnon-conventionalsolutions/alternatives.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEUsefulintheplanningordevelopmentstageof a group process.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Formulateaquestion/problem(e.g.How canwe improve our project coverage?).2. Ask participants to give a spontaneousanswer/Solution.3. Re-formulate the question negatively (e.g.Howcanwedecreaseourprojectcoverage?).4. Ask participants to give a spontaneousanswer/solution (e.g. confuse our field staffwithuncleardirections).5. Discusstheanswers/actionsby"turning themupside down". Develop the positivealternative or action (vice versa). Concludebyselectingthemostrealisticalternativestotheproblems.NOTE:Ifthegroupislarge,divideintosmallergroups.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○WHICH SIDE OF THEBRAIN?Group size:10 to 30Time: 15 to 20 minutesMaterials: None✔ OBJECTIVETointroducetheconcept of right andleftbrain.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAtthebeginningofasessiononcreativityawareness.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask everyone to look at a distant point orobject(e.g.lightswitch,doorknob)withbotheyes open and then to circle this point withthumb and finger of their right hand, armextended away from their face.2. State whether they focused with their righteye or left eye and which eye they closed.3. Explainthatsomepeoplefocuswiththeirlefteye;othersfocuswiththerighteyenormally.Thelefteyeislinkedtotherightsideofyourbrain (the intuitive, creative side) while theright eye is linked to the left side (the morelogicalandrationalside).DEBRIEFINGDiscusstheimplicationsofthedifferentwaysofseeingwhilementioningthevalueofdiversity.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 154. 147BRAINWRITINGGroup size: 10 to 20Time: 30 to 45 minutesMaterials: One large card and marker foreach participant✔ OBJECTIVEToinvolveparticipantsinideagathering.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEFollowingabrainstormingsessionwhenagroupis ready to develop plans.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. List ideas or topics on a board in advance ofthesession.2. Have participants sit in a circle. Distributeblank cards to each one.3. Ask each participant to select a particulartopic already on the board. Write it as aheading,thenwriteasolution,ideaoraction,nomatterhowcrazy,justbelowtheheading.4. Each person will then pass their card to theperson on their right and receive a new cardfromthepersonontheleft.Theyshouldaddanewsolutionandpassthecardtotheright.This continues until participants have theiroriginalcardbackinhand.5. Ask each person to select three ideas thatare workable and three ideas that are not.6. Concludewithagroupdiscussion.METAPHOR, ANALOGYGroup size:10 to 20Time: 45 to 60 minutesMaterials: None✔ OBJECTIVETofindnewsolutionsforafamiliarproblem.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEWhen the group feels stuck or when a task hasbecomedifficult.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Identifytheproblem.2. Explain to the group the meaning of thewords"metaphor"and"analogy".3. Ask the group to collect several metaphorsor analogies for the problem.4. Choose one problem and discuss themetaphors/analogies as they relate to apossiblesolution.5. Selectworkablesolutionsyouwantto followup.6. You can do this exercise several times withdifferent metaphors/analogies, until youdiscover a series of realistic ideas.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 155. 148WITCHCRAFTGroup size: 10 to 30Time: 30 to 40 minutesMaterials: Cards, markers and masking tape✔ OBJECTIVETo improve planning or problem-solvingprocesses.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEWhenthegroupislookingforcreativesolutionsto a problem.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Have the group identify a question, task,problem, or objective.2. Give every person a card and marker.3. Askthegroupthefollowingquestion:"If wecouldusewitchcraft,whatsolutionwouldweuse?" Explain that this is a chance to forgetlogic. They may imagine themselves as asorcerer, shaman or witch-doctor.4. Gatherthecardsandreadthemaloud.Selectcards with the most feasible ideas, prioritizethem and pin the cards up on a board.5. Continuethegroupplanningprocess.NOTE:Participantsmustbeveryclearthattheyshould follow the rules of openness with noboundariesorcensorship.Onlyaftertheprocessshould they judge, reject or discuss ideas.WALKANALOGYGroup size:10 to 30Time: 60 to 90 minutesMaterials: Flip-chart paper or cards .✔ OBJECTIVETo encourage the development of new ideas.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEBeforeyoubeginaplanningprocess.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Formulateaquestion.2. Ask the participants to form groups of three3. Askeachgrouptoclarifyandreformulatethequestion.4. Explain that the group may now begin a"walkabout" (thirty to forty-five minutes;outsidetheroom.Theirassignmentistofin«interesting objects which may provide ananswer to the question, through use 01analogies or metaphors. Encourage them toobserveeverythingintheenvironmentsuchas people, buildings and nature and to beresponsivetonewthoughtsandideasasthey"walkabout".5. When the group comes back togetherdistribute cards to the groups and ask themto write down the metaphors, ideas anaanalogiestheyhavediscovered.6. Ask each group to present their findings tothe plenary and have the plenary discussthem..7. Select those ideas which will assist in the:planningprocess.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 156. 149PICTUREGroup size: 10 to 30Time: 60 minutesMaterials: Flip-chart paper, markers,pictures, magazines andcatalogues✔ OBJECTIVEToenhancetheplanningprocess.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEIn a brainstorming session or before you aregoing to plan a task or event.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Layoutavarietyofmagazinesorcatalogueswithillustrations.2. Ask the participants to form groups of fourto five people.3. Explain that the groups task is to lookthrough the magazines and catalogues andselect a picture which relates to a factor intheplanningprocess.4. Distribute cards and markers to the groups.5. Askthegrouptodescribetheselectedpicturein detail, mentioning everyones ideas andfeelingsaboutthepicture.6. No censorship is allowed or permitted.7. The facilitator should write down the newideas. The groups may then select valuableideastofurthertheplanningprocess.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○DICTIONARYGroup size:10 to 30Time: 20 to 45 minutesMaterials: Dictionary, flip-chart paper andmarkers✔ OBJECTIVETo develop a systematicapproach to thecollectionofnewideas.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEWhenyouwanttofindnew ways to deal with a topic, problem orquestion.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Formulate a problem or question anddescribe it in detail to the group.2. Have participants shout out solutionsspontaneously. Write these down on a flip-chart.3. Takethedictionaryandselectonewordfromany page. Read the word and its definitionaloud.4. Based on this information, encourage thegroup to brainstorm new ideas and actions.Listthesuggestionsontheflip-chart.5. From the resulting list, select new ideas thatwill stimulate the discussion and planningprocess.NOTE:Youcanrepeatthisprocessseveraltimes,lookingforotherwordsinthedictionary.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 157. 150OSBORNE CHECKLISTGroup size: 10 to 40Time: 30 to 60 minutesMaterials: Flip-chart paper, markers andcopies of the Osborne checklist✔ OBJECTIVEToprovidedifferentperspectivesfordealingwithproblems/topics/tasks.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEInAplanningprocess.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPSTheOsbornechecklistisusedtoreformulateanoriginaltask,topicorproblembyreshapingtheperspective from which it is approached. Usethechecklistinsmallgroupsandgiveeachgrouponeortwodifferentquestionsfromthechecklist.After brainstorming the questions in the group,judge the validity of the resulting ideas for thetopicyouaredealingwith.ChecklistWHAT IS SIMILAR? Same function; similarappearance;similarmaterial;parallelconclusions.OTHERPOSSIBLEUSES?Newapplications.Changethetargetgrouporaudience.Newusesbychangingthesubject.ADAPT. What are suggested ideas? Are theseexamples from history or experience? Whatcouldbeadaptedfromtheseexperiences?Whatwould be a good example?CHANGE IT. Give it a new form. Change aimand objective. Change the taste, colour, sound,smell or appearance. Imagine other changes tothe subject.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○AMPLIFYIT.Whatcouldweadd?Howcould:we make it stronger or more resistant? Couldweaddanothervalue?Multiplyit?Makeitmoreexpensive?Over-dimensionit?REDUCE IT. What aspect could be left out?Whatwouldbetheminimumsizeofgroup?offmaterial? How can we separate it into smaller-parts? Lower? Shorter? Flatter?REPLACE IT. What can we replace? Whatother parts could be added? What material,people, processes, energies, locations couldreplace the foreseen ones? Replace solutions?REDESIGNIT.Developnewmodels?Changethe sequence? Exchange causes? Impact?Reduce speed? Speed up?PUT UPSIDE-DOWN. Take the negative, notthe positive. Try to reach the opposite. Bringupside-down. Change the roles and functions.Start from the end.COMBINEIT?Tryamixture.Linkitwithotherelements. Select and regroup things. Linkdifferent actions together. More goals. Moreobjectives.Morefieldsofapplications.
  • 158. 151FORCE FITGroup size: 10 to 30Time; 20 to 30 minutesMaterials: Cards and markers✔ OBJECTIVE- To add competition to the creative process.-Tospeedupathinking/brainstormingprocess.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEWhen the pace has slowed down.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Dividetheplenaryintotwogroupsandselectone person to take notes.2. Formulate a topic for each group.3. Ask each group to clarify all the aspects ofthe topic.4. Ask one group to give a word or concept(imitation word) which has no link to thetopic. The other group has two minutes tofindasolution/answerbasedonthisword.Ifthe group finds a valuable solution, theyreceive two points, and they can pose a newword to the other group. If the group doesnot find a solution, the other group receivesonepointandcangivethenextimitatingword.DEBRIEFINGInrelationtothetopic,allsolutions/ideasarelisted,judged and selected for further elaboration.NONSENSE-DEBATEGroup size:10 to 30Time: 20 minutesMaterials: Flip-chart, cards and markers✔ OBJECTIVETopromoteinnovativethinking.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USE-Beforeaplanningphase,as"braingymnastics".- To prepare for a more serious exercise.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask the participants to collect a series ofquestions on a flip-chart. Some may benonsensical. From these questions, theyshouldselectthosetheywanttoargueabout.2. Keep a "yes" and a "no" card ready. If youraisetheyescard,allshouldargueinfavour;ifthenocardisraised,allargueagainst.Youmaychangethedirectionofthedebateseveraltimesduringeachquestion.Examples- Ridingelephantsisespeciallyusefulforrightbrainusers.- A good facilitator should know aboutmanipulation.- Ahousewifeshouldstudyastrophysics.- To reach equity at home, men should cookthree times a week.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 159. 152DRAW THE MUSIC!Group size: 10 to 30Time: 45 to 60 minutesMaterials: One piece of flip-chart paperand one marker per person.Tape/CD player and music✔ OBJECTIVETo provide a new perspective in approachingtopics or problems.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEWhen the pace of the workshop needs slowingdown.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Formulate and characterize the topic,problem or task to be brainstormed.2. Distribute paper and markers to eachparticipant.3. Ask the group to listen to a piece of musicand draw on their paper any feelings/impressionsgainedfromthemusic.Whentheyhavefinishedthedrawing,theymaywriteonthe side of the drawing some ideas or wordswhich would lead to new ideas for finding asolution to the problem/issue of theworkshop.4. Bring participants into the plenary and askthemtosharetheirdrawingswiththegroup.5. List the ideas and put them on a flip-chart.6. Assist the group to prioritize the ideas.7. Encouragethediscussion/planningprocesstobegin or restart.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○JOIN THE POTSGroup size: 10 to 40Time: 20 to 30 minutesMaterials: One sheet of paper, markers andcopies of Figure 5 (see Appendix,page 189) for each person.✔ OBJECTIVE- To explore the concept of creativity.- To go beyond a usual framework orperceptualfield.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USETobeginasessiononcreativity.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. GiveacopyoftheFigure5toeachparticipantoraskthemtocopyitontotheirpaper.2. Askthemtolinkallninepointswithonlyfourstraight lines, executed in one uninterruptedstroke (i.e. the pen cannot be lifted from thepaper).3. When someone has successfully completedthe exercise, ask them to share it with thegroup.DEBRIEFINGAskthefollowingquestions:- What is required to solve this problem?- How does this exercise apply to the basicprinciplesofproblemsolving?
  • 160. 153NOTES ON VARIATIONS AND NEW GAMES
  • 161. 154NOTES ON VARIATIONS AND NEW GAMES
  • 162. 155SECTION XIRELAXATION AND MEDITATIONRelaxationandmeditationexercisesareintendedtohelpthegroupcontroltheoverloadofinformationthat may hinder effective, systematic and creative discussion and work processes. Relaxation createsspaceforfreethinkingandencouragesaharmoniousatmosphere.Relaxationexercisesrecoverenergyandrevitalizegroupefforts.Use these games and exercises:● At the close of intense sessions. :● Toreinvigorateandrevitalizethegroup.● For pleasure and relaxation.
  • 163. 156NOTES ON VARIATIONS AND NEW GAMES
  • 164. 157JOURNEYGroup size: 10 to 40Time: 10 minutesMaterials: A clean and comfortable surfaceto lie on.✔ OBJECTIVE- To relax and feel good.- Togainnewenergy.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USE- Betweentwocomplextopicsinaworkshop.- Before a new aspect of the workshop isintroduced.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask participants to sit on their chairs or lieon the carpet or grass and close their eyes.2. Beginthejourneybysaying,"Youhaveworkedhardandyouaretired.Youneedtorelax.Nowyoucantraveltothenicestspotyoucanimagine.Dreamthatyouarethereandthatyoufeelfine,comfortable.Enjoythequietness,peace,andsecurity.Relax."3. After several minutes, lead the participantsback to reality by saying, "Now you arerelaxed; you have recovered your energy.You are glad to come back to the group, toour workshop. Now open your eyes andcome back."DEBRIEFINGBriefly exchange some impressions of thejourneys.MEDITATIONGroup size: 10 to 40Time: 10 minutesMaterials: A clean and comfortable surfaceto lie on.✔ OBJECTIVETorelaxandregainenergy.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAfter concluding an intense session and beforeentering a new, creative phase of theworkshop.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Askparticipantstositorlieonacomfortablesurface, such as a carpet.2. Speaking with a low, slow voice, give thefollowinginstructions:"Pleasebringyourselfto a relaxed position; close your eyes now.Observeyourbreathing.Concentrateonhowtheairentersyourbodyandhowitgoesout.Let the oxygen flow into your body. Now,concentrate on your feet. Let them becomevery heavy. Relax them; let them grow intotheground.Relaxyourlegs;lettheheavinesscome up your body, up to your shoulders.Feel your arms becoming heavy. Now yourhands are sinking into the floor. Relaxeverything.Yourheadisgoingback;yourlips,cheeks, eyes are relaxing. Now everythingshould be heavy and relaxed. Concentrateon your breathing." (Maintain silence for aminuteortwo.)Thensay,"Slowlycomeback.Open your eyes. Stand up. Now we shallbeginanewtopic."DEBRIEFINGBriefly exchange some impressions of therelaxationexperiences.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 165. 158TAI CHIGroup size: 10 to 30Time: 10 minutesMaterials: Flip-chart paper, marker✔ OBJECTIVETo relax and induce a meditative mood.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEWhen new energy is needed.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPSThe phrases below are adapted from a Tai Chipoem.1. Write the full poem on flip chart paper, soeveryone in the room can read it. Then readthepoemaloud,accompanyingeachlinewiththeappropriatemovement.Themovementsare suggested below, but you can make upyourownifyoulike.2. Thesecondtimearound,asktheparticipantstorepeateachlineandgesture,justafteryouhave done it.3. Thethirdtimeaskeveryonetodoittogetherin complete silence, joining the gesturestogether in a smooth and graceful flow. Telltheparticipantstoallowthewordsandimagesto flood their mind. Have them hold the lastbalancing pose in silence for as long as theycan.Poem: "I create my own space."Gesture: Both arms move from the chestoutwards,stretchingasfarforwardandsidewaysas possible in a wide arc.Poem: "I walk through fire."Gesture:Startinacrouchingpositionandstandup quickly. Your arms start at your sides butmove upward quickly as you stand up, like aflamerisingsuddenly.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○Poem: "Ifeelrainfallingdownonmyface."Gesture: Stretch both arms above your head.Lookupatyourfingers.Twiddleyoufingers asyoumovethemdowntowardyourface,creatingtheimpressionofraindropsfallinggentlyonyourface.Poem: "I collect minerals."Gesture: Bend sideways to your left andstretchyourleftarminawidearc,movingfromthebacktothefrontina"collecting"gesture.Poem: "The fruit of the earth."Gesture:Repeatthegestureyouhavejustdone,but this time bend to your right and use yourright arm to create the wide arc.Poem: "I touch die good earth."Gesture:Bendforwardandtouchthegroundinfront of you with both palms (or as far as youcanget!)Poem: "I face the tiger."Gesture:Straightenup.Putyourhandstogetherin front of you, sides touching, with the palmsformingamirror.Lookstraightintoyourpalms.Poem: "Then come to rest on a rock."Gesture: Lower your arms slowly from thepreviouspositionandstretchthemoneachsideof your body. Balance on one leg for as long asyoucan.
  • 166. 159LISTEN TO THEFALLING RAINGroup size: 10 to 40Time: 15 to 20 minutesMaterials: Tape/CD player, 2 pieces ofsoothing music, flip-chart paperand markers✔ OBJECTIVEToexperiencesynesthesia,acrossingofthesenses(e.g. to "see" sound and to "taste" texture).❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEToreinvigoratethegroup.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Select and begin to play a piece of music.Culturaldiversitiesshouldbekeptinmind.2. Asktheparticipantstodothefollowing:Liedown in a comfortable position on the floor,remove heavy or tight clothing, includingshoes and socks, so that the body is free toexperiencethetouchofthemusic.3. Asktheparticipantstolistentothemusicwiththewholebody.Inasoothingvoice,pausingin between words, slowly guide theparticipants to experience the sound andfragrance of the music: "Allow yourself torelax.Focusattentiononyourbreathing.Feelyourbodymeltintothefloor.Letgoofstressand tension. Allow the music to flow overyou,throughyou,caressingyourentirebody,movingthroughandaroundyou,enteringandleavingyou,encompassingandbindingyou,playingitselfthroughyou."4. Speak intermittently to help the participantsmaintain focused. With the second piece ofmusic,guidethem,againbysaying:"Allowyourself to feel the colours and textures ofthe music, its smells and tastes. Feel the softincenseofthemusicsettingin,seepingthroughyou,heatingandchilling,lightanddarkness.Let the music sweep through your senses,blending them together in a full orchestra ofthesensorium.Carryingyouintoandbeyondthehearingofthemusic."5.Whenthemusichasendedasktheparticipantsto lie still for a few minutes and savour theexperience. It may be appropriate to writedown the words or images that have arisen,to dance the patterns that have emerged, ortosingthesongthatyoursenseshaveplayed.DEBRIEFINGYoumaywanttoaskhowparticipantsfeelnowandtodiscusstheconceptofsynesthesia.Oncethis has been experienced, it will be possible tocallitforthwitheaseanothertime.
  • 167. 160PLEASURABLE MEMORIESGroup size: 10 to 30Time: 30 minutesMaterials: Cards and markers✔ OBJECTIVETo unlock the doors of memory and bring outpleasurable experiences that can produce asoothingeffectandrelaxthespirit.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USETo relax the group.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Provideeachpersonwithcardsandmarkers.2. Ask participants to make a list of their ownpleasures and delights. Examples may be:lyingonthebeach,listeningtothewaveswithyour toes wriggling in the hot sand, lookingatthestarsonastarrynight,climbingbetweenfreshlyironedsheets.3. Explain that these memories prime thesensorium,thatitwillincreaseawareness.Thecapacity for pleasure will deepen and thebodywillfeellighter.4. After listing the pleasures, ask eachparticipant to think or tell which one isparticularly vivid at that moment. Ask themtoclosetheireyesandfeelitintensely.DEBRIEFING- How do you feel?- Howdodailyproblemslooktoyouafter thisexercise?FINE TUNING THE SENSESGroup size:10 to 30Time: 15 to 20 minutesMaterials: None✔ OBJECTIVETo become aware of individual senses andfeelings.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USETo relax the group.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1.Explaintothegroupthatthisexercisewillhelpto tune the senses so that it will be possible,with practice, to regulate the degree ofinhibitiontheyfeel.2. Give the following instructions: "Sitcomfortably in a quiet place and allowyourself to relax. Feel the tensions in yourmuscles and let them go. Focus on yourbreathing,butdonottrytocontrolit.Imaginea dial like a light dimmer that tunes yoursenses. There are numbers on the dial fromone to ten. One represents the leastawareness of sound and ten the greatestacuity. Five represents your accustomedmodeofhearing.""Listentoasoundintheroomorenvironment.Noticethatasyoufocusonthissounditmayseem louder. This is because we normallyblock our awareness of routine noise.Imagineyournormalawarenessofthissoundto be associated with a number on your dial.Concentrate now on the dial rather than thesound. Turn the dial up to eight and then tonine,listen.Turnituptoten;nowquicklybackto three; then slowly back to two and then toone. Continue until you can easily regulateyoursenses."○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 168. 161RELAXATIONGroup size: 10 to 50Time: 10 to 15 minutesMaterials: None✔ OBJECTIVERelaxation!❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USETo relax the group at any time.1. Arm circles and deep breathing2. Shoulder rolls○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○3. Leg stretches4. Walking in place5. Pushes
  • 169. 1626. Body turns7. Arm stretches8. The radio9. Leg lifts10. Back stretches11. Relaxing the whole body
  • 170. 163BODY LANGUAGEGroup size: 10 to 50Time: 10 minutesMaterials: None✔ OBJECTIVETo release tensions.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAt any time when the group needs to relax.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask the participants to observe their ownbodyposture,facialexpressions,positionsofarmsandhands,feelingsintheirstomach,theireyes, or their back. Tell them not to movebut instead to become aware of the tensionintheirbody.2. Encourage them to sense every part of theirbody and to slowly relax each body partwheretheyhavefeltthetension.Suggestthatthey breath deeply and continuetorelax.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 171. 164BREATHLESS ENERGIZERGroup size: 10 to 30Time: 10 minutesMaterials: None✔ OBJECTIVETodemonstratethatunderpressuremostpeopleforgettobreathedeeplyandtotriggerdiscussionabout the importance of relaxation as a copingskill.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEWhen the group seems tense and fatigued.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. The facilitator makes a brief presentationhighlighting the importance of consistent,deepbreathingandnotingitsrelaxationeffecton the entire body through parasympatheticrebound.2. The facilitator explains that sometimes,especiallyinstressfulsituations,weactuallyforget to breathe, which robs our body of itsown oxygen supply, de-energizes us, anddiminishesoureffectivenessindealingwithchange.3. The facilitator asks participants to stand andinstructsthemtolook,onthecountof"one",at a designated spot on the right side of theroom. On the count of "two", they will shifttheireyestoadesignatedspotontheleftsideoftheroom.Participantsarenottomovetheirheads.4. The facilitator says, "Thats simple enough.Now,go!One,two;one,two;one,two;one,two. Stop!"5.Ask the participants how they felt, followingthe instructions. What happened to theirbreathing? The intense concentration andanxiety over following directions has takenprecedenceovernormalbreathingprocesses.The group then can breathe deeply for twominutes, and then go on to discuss howawarenessofbreathmayhelpusinourworkenvironment.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 172. 165NOTES ON VARIATIONS AND NEW GAMES
  • 173. 166NOTES ON VARIATIONS AND NEW GAMES
  • 174. 167SECTION XIIEVALUATIONAnexperientiallearningprocessshouldendwiththeevaluationoftheideasandfeelingsoftheparticipants.Different methods of evaluation may be used: a flash, an open discussion, a card collection, aquestionnaire.Theyareallappropriateincertainsituations,dependingontheinstitutionalrules,thesizeofthegroupandthetimeavailable.Therearemanywell-knownevaluationtechniques.Wehavechosentoselectexercisesthatencourageaninformalandenjoyableprocessofevaluation.Itisimportantthattheworkshopendonapleasurableand exhilarating note and that the evaluation techniques used allow the participants to leave with asense of closure.Use these games and exercises:● At the end of a workshop or session.● To evduate learning that has taken place in a workshop or session.
  • 175. 168NOTES ON VARIATIONS AND NEW GAMES
  • 176. 169NAMING A PICTUREGroup size: 15 to 30Time: 30 minutesMaterials: Four to six photographs onspecific themes/issues (e.g.conditions of women andchildren, the disabled, etc.),cards of two different colours,markers and masking tape✔ OBJECTIVE- To understand individual perceptions andfeelingsonaspecificthemeorissue.- To evaluate change brought about by theworkshop process.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAtthebeginningandclosingofagroupevent.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Collectfourtosixlargephotographsrelatedto the workshops theme. Attach these toseparate boards and place them in differentareas of the room.2. Asktheparticipantstoformfourtosixgroups.Ask each group to chose one picture and tolookatitcarefully,withoutdiscussingit.3. Ask the participants to return to plenary andprepare a card for the picture and assign it atitle but not to share the titles with otherparticipants.4. Whentheyhavefinished,sendthembacktotheirrespectiveboardstopinthetitlesbytheside of the picture.5. Askthemtoreadallthetitlesforeachpictureand turn the title cards upside down.6. At the end of the workshop or at the end of asession, ask the participants to think againaboutthepicturetheyhavetitled.Inviteeachof them to write a new title for the samepicture,basedontheirpresentfeelings.Allowthree minutes for this part of the exercise.7. Ask participants to pin new cards beside thepicture,usingadifferentcolouredcard.8. Reveal the first set of cards.9. Asktheparticipantstocompareandcontrastbetween the old and the new titles.10.Invitethemtosharecommentsandfeelings.11. Conclude by discussing changes in theirperceptions and why this may have takenplace.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 177. 170LIVING SCALEGroup size: 10 to 30Time: 25 to 35 minutesMiiuriuls: Masking tape, cards, flip-chartand markers✔ OBJECTIVEToinvolveeachparticipantintheevaluationofthe workshop.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEWhenthegroupsspiritormoodallowsanopenevaluation of the workshop or at the end of anevent.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. With masking tape, mark on the floor a lineofaboutfivemetresinlength.Onthetapeorcards write percentages as shown below:100% 25% 50% 75%2. Afteradiscussionwiththeplenary,writeonflip-chart paper or cards all the topics of theworkshop that should be evaluated, leavingspace for different percentages or scoresbeside each item.3. Askeachparticipanttowalktothepercentageonthelinethatindicateshowwelltheythinkthe topic was developed in the workshop.4. Take a rough average of the position of allparticipants and get their agreement. Countthe people and write the results on the flip-chart, continue the exercise for each topic.DEBRIEFINGAnalyze the results together. Comment on theoutstanding features. Write the comments on aflip-chart.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○BODY OUTLINEGroup size:10 to 30Time: 45 to 60 minutesMaterials: Large pieces of paper andmarkers✔ OBJECTIVEs- To focus on individual learning andevaluation.- To facilitate the evaluation process.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAt the end of a workshop.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Dividethegroupintopairs.Askonepartnerto lie down on a large piece of paper and theotherpartnertosketcharoundtheirbodywitha marker. Then ask the other partner to dothe same. Each person should write on theirownbodyshapethefollowinginformation:Head: newideasEyes: newvisionsoftheworldMouth: communicationskillsHands: newthingsIamdoingHeart: newfeelingsStomach: fears I haveFeet: resolutionsaboutthefuture2. The right side of the sketch should representwhattheyhavelearnedandtheleftsidewhatthey want to learn next.DEBRIEFINGPut the sketches upon the wall andencouragegroupdiscussion.Thisexerciseisprimarilyforindividualreflection.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 178. 171DRAW A FACEGroup size: 10 to 30Time: 30 to 45 minutesMaterials: Flip-chart paper and markers✔ OBJECTIVETocreateavisualevaluationofthegroupevent.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAnytime during or at the end of a group event.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1.Askthegrouptojointlydrawafaceorafigurethatdescribestheexperienceoftheworkshopor session.2. Thedrawingshouldbebasedoncontributionsfromeveryparticipant.3. Guide the participants to think about theirdrawing.SUITCASE & ASHTRAYGroup size:15 to 30Time: 20 to 30 minutesMaterials: Flip-chart paper, cards, markersand masking tape✔ OBJECTIVETo evaluate a group event.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAt the end of a group event.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Prepare a large suitcase and a large ashtraydrawing. Place them on a pin-board.2. Askeveryonetowriteoncardsthefollowingthings:a) The things we want to take with us fromthis workshop;b) The things we would like to forget.3. Ask participants to place the cards upsidedown in front of the suitcase or the ashtray;the suitcase for the things they want to takewiththemandtheashtrayforthethingstheywant to forget. Pin the cards up on the boardand read them to the group.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 179. 172LETTER TO......Group size: 15 to 30Time: 30 minutesMaterials: Flip-chart paper and markers✔ OBJECTIVETo creatively evaluate a group process.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAt the end of the day or at the end of theworkshop.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Set up three or four flip-charts.2.Titleeachwiththefollowing:• Letter to fellow participants• Letter to facilitators• Letter to sponsors3.Askparticipantstoformthreegroupsandlineup,facingaflip-chart.Thefirstpersonintheline writes on the paper a salutation andopeningsentence.4. The next person adds the next line, buildinglogicallyonthecontentofthefirstsentence.5.Thiscontinuesuntiltheletteriscomposedandthelastpersonsignsoff.6.Eachparticipantmustwriteonlyonesentenceper letter.7. After the letters have been finished, give theparticipantstimetoreadthroughtheletters.NOTE:Thisexercisecanbeusedtodemonstratethe benefit of group collaboration as theparticipants will likely be very surprised at thepoweroftheirgroupletterwriting!EXPRESSIONSGroup size:15 to 30Time: 30 minutesMaterials: Flip-chart paper, masking tapeana markers✔ OBJECTIVEToclarifyparticipantsopinionsorreactionstoa discussion or presentation.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USETo evaluate a session.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Draw four faces on flip-chart paper: Theyshould reflect the following: depression,sleepiness, anger and happiness. Post thedrawingsaroundtheroom.2.Preparealistofquestionsaboutthediscussionor session ahead of time.3. Ask participants to place themselves by theappropriatefaceinresponsetothequestions.4. Aftereachquestion,givetheparticipantstimetodiscusstheirreasonsfortheirchoiceswithintheirgroup.5.Have them write their ideas on a flip-chart oron cards.6. Askthegrouptosummarizetheirreasonsandsharethesewiththeplenary.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 180. 173FACILITATORSSELF-ASSESSMENT WHEELGroup size: 10 to 20Time: 30 to 60 minutesMaterials: Self-assessment wheels (seeAppendix Figure 6, page 190)(one per participant), pencils,erasers✔ OBJECTIVETo measure progress in learning facilitationskills.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAttheendofafacilitationtrainingcourse.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Distribute copies of the wheel below, to theparticipants.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○2. Ask them to fill in the centre of the circle, inpencil,totheleveltheyfeeltheyhavereachedon each factor. One is lowest and five ishighest.3. Ask them to exchange their wheel with oneother participant, compare and discuss, andmakeadjustmentsifdesired.4. Arrange an individual session with eachparticipantanddiscusstheirevaluation.Havethemmakefurtheradjustmentsifnecessary.5.Askthemtotaketheirwheelhomeandtopinit up in a place where it can seen so they cantrackexperienceinusingtheirnewskills.
  • 181. 174NOTES ON VARIATIONS AND NEW GAMES
  • 182. 175SECTION XIIEND GAMESEndgames,astheirnamedenotes,aremeanttobeusedattheveryendoftheworkshop.Theobjectiveof such games is to say good-bye or to bring the group event to a successful closure.Ineffective,participatorygroupevents,theparticipantsexperienceanintricateandintenseprocessofgroupdynamics.Atsomestage,theymanagetocreate"something"forthemselveswhichisnewanddifferent,andwhichisonlypossibleinthatenvironmeltit,withthatparticulargroup.Onsuchoccasions,there is a need to provide note, diffusing some of the mixed emotions. There is also a need to end theworkshop on a positive note, diffusing some of the mixed emotions that people may have. It is thefacilitatorsresponsibilitytohelptheparticipantsreturntotheireverydaylife.Use these games and excercise:● At the end of a sessions or workshop.● To say goodbye.
  • 183. 176NOTES ON VARIATIONS AND NEW GAMES
  • 184. 177JOINT PAINTINGGroup size: 10 to 30Time: 20 minutesMaterials: Flip-chart paper, markers, tapesor CDs and a tape/CD player✔ OBJECTIVETo conclude a session or a workshop with acreativeactivity.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAt the end of a session or a workshop.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Setupseveraltablesinarowinthecentreofthe room. Cover them with paper.2. Dividetheplenaryintogroupsoffiveorsix.3. Give all participants a marker and ask themto stand around the tables in their groups.4. Ask them to begin to draw when the musicstarts.5. Stopthemusicandaskthemtostopdrawingand walk around the table. When the musicstarts they should stop and begin to drawagain.6. Thegamecontinuesuntilthegroupsfeelsthatthedrawingisfinished.SONGSGroup size:10 to 30Time: 40 to 60 minutesMaterials: Objects that can be used asmusical instruments✔ OBJECTIVETo allow the whole group to participate in theclosingevent.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAt the end of a group event.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask the participants to form small groups ofthree to four.2. Give each group a limited amount of time tocreate and practice a song on the outcomeof the workshop.3. Suggest that they make their own musicalinstrumentsfromobjectsfoundanywhereintheroom.4.Askeachgrouptoperformtheircompositionfortheplenary.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 185. 178FREEING THE BIRDGroup size: 10 to 30Time: 15 minutesMaterials: None✔ OBJECTIVE- To say a formal goodbye.- To provide a bridge between the workshopand going home.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAs a closing exercise or a time during theworkshop when people are particularly tired orrestlessorattimesofextremeconflict.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask all participants to sit in a circle.2. Begin by asking the group to visualize abeautifulsongbirdsittingonthefacilitatorsshouklois.3. Describe characteristics of the bird.4. Pass the bird the person sitting next to you.5. Everyonemustbeextremelyquiet,soasnottotrightenthebird.6. The second person may want to makeimaginary actions with the bird such asstrokingitshead.7. The bird is passed around the circle until itreturnstothefacilitator.8. Get up and walk to the middle of the room.Saysomethinglike:"Thisbirdrepresentsallour collective hopes for the future. It hastouchedeachoneofusanditnowrepresentsour insights about the world we live in, ouranger at the injustices, our hopes forsuccesses, and our love and laughter. I amgoing to release the bird so that it will soaraboveusandwillhelpusinthedaysahead."9.Thenholdyourarmsuptotheskyandreleasethebird.VARIATIONIf this exercise is used in situations of conflictwithin the group, the facilitator should say thatthe bird represents our collective power whenwe work together, and then release the bird.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 186. 179REGRETSGroup size: 10 to 30Time: 15 minutesMaterials: Cards, masking tape and markers✔ OBJECTIVETo evaluate the progress of a workshop.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAt least a day before the end of a group event.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Askparticipantstoimagineleavingtheevent,gettingintotheircarsandlookinginthetheirrearviewmirrorsastheydriveaway.2. Askthemtoimaginewhattheywouldregretnothavingsaidbeforetheyleft.3. Ask them to write their strongest regret on acardandplaceitupsidedownonthefloor.4. Pick up cards one by one and read anddiscussthem.5. Pin up the regrets on a board and encouragediscussion of the comments with the wholegroup.GOODBYE CIRCLEGroup size:10 to 40Time: 15 minutesMaterials: None✔ OBJECTIVEs- To say a formal goodbye.- To provide a bridge between the workshopandgoinghome.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAsaclosingexercise.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask all participants to stand in a circle. Askonepersontowalkaroundthecircle,shakingeachpersonshandandcommunicatingwiththat person. For example, they may say aword of encouragement or something theyappreciated or learned from that person.2. As soon as the first person has started, thesecond person follows, and so on.3. When each person has completed shakinghands with everyone, they go back into thecircle and receive handshakes from the restof the group.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 187. 180YOU RE OKGroup size: 10 to 30Time: 15 to 20 minutesMaterials: Cards and markers✔ OBJECTIVETo end a group event on a positive note.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEIn the closing session of a group event.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask the participants to sit in a circle.Distribute cards to each participant.2. Ask each participant to write their name onthe top of the card.3. Passcardsfromrighttoleftaroundthegroup.Ask everyone to write down one positivecommentabouttheindividualwhosenameison top of the card.4. Return the filled cards to each person.POSITIVE STROKESGroup size:10 to 30Time: 15 minutesMaterials: Cards and markers✔ OBJECTIVETo end the group event on a positive note.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USE- At anytime during a group event.- As a closing exercise.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Givecardstoallparticipants.Askparticipantsto fill out a card about other participants,completingsentencessuchas:- The thing I like best about (name) is ...- Thebiggestimprovementin(name)is...2.Youcoulddothisexerciseseveraltimesduringthe event. Ensure the cards are folded andkeptsafely.3. At the end of the group event, pass out thefolded cards to the person named. Read thecardsaloud.Everyoneshouldgohomewithanumberofpositiveaffirmations.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 188. 181GROUP RAPGroup size: 10 to 30Time: 15 to 20 minutesMaterials: None✔ OBJECTIVETogaugeparticipantsthoughtsandfeelingsabout the workshop.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAsashortclosingactivity.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask all participants to stand in a circle.2. Start the beat by clapping, snapping fingersor hitting your leg in a simple, rhythmicfashion.3. Onceeveryonehasjoinedthebeat,askeachparticipanttodescribehis/herreactionstotheworkshopinoneortwowordsinrhythmwiththe beat.4. Doseveralrounds,thefirstroundusingwordsthat express feelings; the second roundexpressingnewideasorinsights.5. A final round could be words expressingactionsthattheparticipantswanttotakewiththemaftertheevent.I SENT A LETTERGroup size:10 to 30Time: 20 minutesMaterials: Cards and markers✔ OBJECTIVETo understand our personal strengths andweaknesses as assessed by our peers.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USENear the end of a workshop but not at thesession.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Write the names of all the participants oncards.2. Foldeachcardinthemiddleandplacethemonthefloor,callingthemmailboxes.3. Giveoutmarkersandcardstoallparticipants.4. Ask the participants to write letters to theothergroupmembers.Thecommentsshouldbeanonymousbutconstructive.Examplesofstatements might be, "I admire you for yoursincerity, but pay more attention to yourlisteningskills,"etc.5. Theparticipantsmaywritetoasmanypeopleastheylikewithintheallottedtime.6. Whenpeoplehavefinishedwriting,askthemtoplacethecardsupsidedowninthepersonsmailbox.7.Allowthegrouptoreceiveandreadtheirmail.8. Encourage them to read the letters aloud, toattach them to a pin-board or to keep themas a memory of the workshop.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  • 189. 182TALKING OBJECTGroup size: 10 to 30Time: 20 to 30 minutesMaterials: Anything from the workshopsnatural environment.✔ OBJECTIVETo identify major learning points and to giveclosure to the workshop.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAsaclosingactivityforaworkshopwhichspansseveraldays.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. As the workshop draws to a close, askparticipantstoreflectonitsthemeandmajorlearningpoints.2. Ask participants to get up and walk aroundintheworkshopenvironmentastheyreflect,and then to find and bring back a symbol ofthe lessons learned (it may be a rock, stick,flower petal, etc.).3. When they return with their symbol, askparticipantstostandinacircleandhaveeachparticipantsharethestorybehindtheirobject.4. Facilitators should also have an object toshareinthisactivity.5. After the stories, participants may want toholdhandsonemoretimeinthecirclebeforeseparating.WISHING GOOD LUCKGroup size:10 to 50Time: 15 to 20 minutesMaterials: Cards, masking tape and marker✔ OBJECTIVETo reflect on the main ideas that emerged fronthe workshop.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAt the end of a multi-day workshop with largegroups.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask each participant to reflect on what thevlearned at the workshop.2. Distributecardsandaskeachparticipant(thefacilitator as well) to write down one wisttthattheyhaveasaresultofwhattheylearned:duringthetimetogether.3. Ask someone to collect the cards with thewisheswrittenonthem.4. Pin the cards on a board and have everyoneread them.5.Summarizethewishes,ifappropriate.
  • 190. 183NOTES ON VARIATIONS AND NEW GAMES
  • 191. 184NOTES ON VARIATIONS AND NEW GAMES
  • 192. 185APPENDIXFigure 1 - Old woman - Young woman (see page 77).
  • 193. 186Figure 2 - Squares 1 (see page 79).
  • 194. 187Figure 3 - Culture and Perception (see page 89).
  • 195. 188Figure 4 - Square 2 (see page
  • 196. 189Figure 5 - Join the dots (see page 152).
  • 197. 190Figure 6- Facilitators Self-Assessment Wheel (see page 173).
  • 198. 191SOURCES(Please note that many games have been adapted and do not retain their original title.)1. Alforja, El Equipo. (1985). Tecnicas participativas para la Education Popular. Tarea,Asociacion de Publicaciones Educativas, San Jose, Costa Rica.2. Antons, Klaus. (1960). Praxis der Guppendynamik. Group Dynamics, Research and Theory.New York.3. Bailey. Hunter D. andTaylor, B. (1992). The Zen of Groups: A handbook for People Meetingwith a Purpose. Hempstead: Gower Publishing.4. Bond, Tim. (1986) Games for Social and Life Skills. Anchor Brendon Ltd. UK.5. Case, Pierre. (1980). Training for the Cross-Cultural Mind, A Handbook for Cross-CulturalTrainers and Consultants. Washington, DC: The Society for Intercultural Education, Trainingand Research.6. Boring, Edwin G. (1930). A new ambiguous figure, American Journal of Psychology, July1990, p. 444.7. END. (1993). Children and the Urban Crisis: Options for the Future, Training Course forTrainers. Harare, Zimbabwe.8. Chimumbwa,John.(1996).Lusaka,Zambia.Personalcommunication.9 CUSO. (1988). Development Education Basics and Tools, Ottawa.10. Dayton,T.(1990). DramaGamesTechniquesforSelf-Development.HealthCommunications,Inc., Florida.11. Ellis, Pat. (1983). Getting the Community into the Act. 72 Participatory Activities forField Workers and Trainers. WAND. Barbados.12. Focus on Kids AIDS-Prevention Curriculum. University of Maryland, Baltimore.13. GTZ. Manual de Eauidad, Columbia, Bogota.
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  • 200. 19329. Roschmann, Doris. (1991). 111 x Spass am Abend. Windmiihle GmbH, Hamburg.30. Sand, H. Neye. (1979). Methodenzum Kreativen Denken undArbeiten. Kissing, Germany.31. Save the Children. (1989). Learning to Teach: Training of trainers for CommunityDevelopment. Westport.32. Tillmann,Herman.(1996).Personalcommunication.33. UNICEF, World Neighbors. (1991). Facilitators Resource manualfor Training of TrainersWorkshop Series. Kampala, Uganda.34. Whirney,Barbara.(1996).Personalcommunication.35. Zambian VIPP TOT, 1995.36. Cornell University. Short course on change management. New York.37. Wyss,Esther.(1996).Personalcommunication.38. Wujec,Tom.(1989).MentalGym.EditorialAtlantida,BuenosAires.39. Pretty, J.N., Guijt, I., Scoones, I. and Thompson, J. (1995). A Trainers Guide for ParticipatoryLearningandAction.InternationalDevelopmentInstituteforEnvironmentandDevelopment,London.40. Basnyet, Dev. (1993). Personal communication.41. Moffat, L., Geadah, Y. and Stuart, R. (1991). Two Halves Make A Whole. Canadian Councilfor International Cooperation, Ottawa.42. Hope, A., Timmel, S. and Hodzi, C. (1984). Training for Transformation: A handbook forCommunity Workers. Vols 1-3, Mambo Press, Zimbabwe.43. Unknownorigin.
  • 201. 19444. Salas, Maruja. (1996). Personal communication.45. UNICEF Bangladesh. (1993). VIPP: Visualization in Participatory Programmes.46. George, Nancy. (1994). Personal communication.47. Barua,Anish.(1996).Personalcommunication.48. Shahzadi,Nuzhat.(1996).Personalcommunication.49. Hermann, Ned. (1989). The Creative Brain. Brain Books, Germany.50. Welbourne, Alice. (1995). Stepping Stones: A training package on HIV/AIDS, communicationand relationships. ACTIONAID, London.51. Wotton,Ketal.(1995).BasicConceptsofInternationalHealth.CanadianUniversityConsortiumforHealthinDevelopment,Ottawa.52. Structured Exercise in Stress Management. (1983). Whole Person Press.