Games exercises

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Games exercises

  1. 1. 195GAMES AND EXERCISESA MANUAL FOR FACILITATORSAND TRAINERSINVOLVED IN PARTICIPATORYGROUP EVENTSVISUALIZATION IN PARTICIPATORY PROGRAMMESVIPP
  2. 2. 196GAMES AND EXERCISESVISUALIZATION INPARTICIPATORY PROGRAMMESVIPPChief EditorsNeill MCKeeMaruja SolasHermann TillmannContributorsAnish BaruaKrishna Bel BaseDev Bir BasnyetJohn ChimumbwaShabbir Ahmed ChowdhuryRoma HeinSr. Senkenesh G. ManamaOkumba MirukaRodney PhillipsNuzhat ShahzadiBarbara WhitneyEsther Wyss
  3. 3. 197A joint publication of the Communication Section, UNICEF Eastern and Southern AfricaRegional Office, Nairobi, and the Organizational Learning and Development Section, Divisionof Human Resources, UNICEF New York.Communication SectionUNICEF-ESAROP.O. Box 44145, Nairobi, KenyaFax: 254-2-622008Tel: 254-2-622663Organizational Learning and Development SectionDivision of Human ResourcesUNICEF HouseThree United Nations PlazaNew York, New York 10017, USAFax:(212)303-7984Tel: (212) 303-7916Send new ideas, experiences, new games andexercises or variations to the above addresses.Compiled byUNICEF-ESARODesktop Publishing/editing and designPrint productionRadhika MadanTypesetting compilationPhyllis ResslerIllustrationsRegina C. Faul-DoyleUNICEF, 1998
  4. 4. 198ContentsPage sOURCEPrologue 1VISUALIZATION IN PARTICIPATORY PROGRAMMES 3ROLE OF GAMES AND EXERCISES 7USING AND CHOOSING GAMES AND EXERCISES 13SECTION i - iCEBREAKERS AND GETTING TO KNOW EACH OTHER 15dOUBLE LETTER ..........................................................................................................17 .......................... 26ALPHABET PUZZLE .....................................................................................................17 .......................... 38MISTAKEN IDENTITIES .............................................................................................18 ........................... 21WRITTEN NAMES.......................................................................................................18 ............................. 1i AM ...............................................................................................................................19 ............................ 9tHE WALKING BILLBOARD ......................................................................................19 ........................... 21iNTRODUCTION WITHOUT WORDS ....................................................................20 .......................... 21aNIMALS, pLANTS AND FURNITURE ....................................................................20 .......................... 11sKILLS i HAVE AND SKILLS i NEED ........................................................................21 ........................... 11aCTIVITIES i eNJOY ..................................................................................................21 ........................... 11HOW WELL DO i KNOW MYSELF? ..........................................................................22 .......................... 11DETECTIVE ...................................................................................................................23............................ 4iVE GOT SOME SECRETS ...........................................................................................23........................... 21tHE RIVER OF LIFE .....................................................................................................24 ............................7PORTRAIT OF MY JOB................................................................................................24 .......................... 21wHAT DO WE EXPECT?.............................................................................................25............................ 2DIFFERENT FOLKS, DIFFERENT HOPES...................................................................25........................... 11SELF IMAGE ..................................................................................................................26 ......................... 45GET THE PICTURE? .....................................................................................................26 .......................... 15CELEBRITIES ..................................................................................................................27........................... 21tRUTH gAME..............................................................................................................28 ........................... 4mIME AN INTEREST ..................................................................................................29 ........................... 4IF YOU WERE AN ANIMAL ......................................................................................29 ............................7MOOD CARDS .............................................................................................................30 ......................... 10MOOD CARDS .............................................................................................................30 ......................... 10fIND YOUR PEERS ......................................................................................................30 ............................ 1tREE OF LIFE ................................................................................................................31 ........................... 41sHARING A CHILDHOOD MEMORY .....................................................................31 .......................... 10lOOKING AND FINDING .........................................................................................32.......................... 29IDENTIFY YOUR PARTNER .......................................................................................32............................. 1FIND OUT .....................................................................................................................33 .......................... 43REVELEAIND SYMBOLS ..............................................................................................33 .......................... 44DOUBLE WHEEL ..........................................................................................................34............................. 1SECRET ADMIRER .......................................................................................................34........................ 1/51sECTION ii-wARM-uPS AND ENERGIZERS 37CHARADES ...................................................................................................................39.......................... 10AN INTRODUCTION DANCE ..................................................................................39............................. 1CARS ...............................................................................................................................40 ........................... 9MINGLE AND STOP....................................................................................................41 ........................... 35FRUITS AND ANIMALS .............................................................................................41 .............................7GROUP MOVEMENT ..................................................................................................42 .......................... 21GOING ON A JOURNEY ............................................................................................42 .......................... 19POWER CURRENT .......................................................................................................43........................... 19MOUSE-MOUSE GET AWAY .....................................................................................43........................... 18i○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  5. 5. 199wIZARDS, GNOMES AND GIANTS.........................................................................44 ................................ 3A PERSON OF PRINCIPLES.........................................................................................45.................................. 1BECAUSE AND WHY ..................................................................................................45................................35MIRRORS.......................................................................................................................46 ...............................35moods .........................................................................................................................46 ................................ 4pass the ring ...........................................................................................................47............................... 27all abroad ................................................................................................................47................................12people, polie, thieves............................................................................................48 .............................. 27masilo .........................................................................................................................48 ...............................18ndindo .......................................................................................................................49 ...............................35omo ..............................................................................................................................49 ................................ 8kabujie .........................................................................................................................50 ............................. 20chaos ...........................................................................................................................51 .................................. 1no-without .............................................................................................................51 ............................... 29spoon relay race ...................................................................................................52............................... 29falling animals .....................................................................................................52............................... 29eeeh-aah! ...................................................................................................................53 .............................. 20COLOURS.......................................................................................................................53 ................................. 9YAHOO ..........................................................................................................................54............................... 29SOCIOGRAM ................................................................................................................54................................37TOUCH SOMETHING ................................................................................................55 ............................... 50PRR AND PUKUTU .....................................................................................................55 ............................... 50FRUIT SALAD................................................................................................................56............................ 1/39PASS THE HANDKERCHIEF ......................................................................................57 .............................. 40SECTION iii = cOMMUNICATION 59VALUES VOTING .........................................................................................................61 ................................ 15ARE YOU LISTENING?................................................................................................62 ............................... 15TYING SHOE LACES ....................................................................................................63............................... 46PASS THE PICTURE .....................................................................................................63................................. 7ONE AND TWO-WAY COMMUNICATION...........................................................64 ...............................21HEADBANDS ................................................................................................................65................................. 4THE FEATHER ..............................................................................................................65............................... 34TRUTY AND DECEPTION .........................................................................................66 ................................ 4VISUAL POWER............................................................................................................67............................... 43GOSSIP liNE .................................................................................................................67................................16MASKS ...........................................................................................................................68 .............................. 25MY BOSS ........................................................................................................................68 .............................. 22ACT AND MEET ..........................................................................................................69 .............................. 47PIECES OF ART .............................................................................................................69 .............................. 29FACE-TO BACK .............................................................................................................70 ...............................33THE PILLOW GAME ....................................................................................................70 .............................. 28FOLDING PAPER ..........................................................................................................71 ............................... 28BLIND LINE ........................................................................................................................................................ 9sECTION iv - pERCEPTION 75iNTERLOCKING FINGERS ..........................................................................................77 ............................... 43OLD WOMAN - YOUNG WOMAN .........................................................................77 ................................. 6FACING CHANGE........................................................................................................78............................... 36JURY ...............................................................................................................................78............................... 43SQUARES 1 ....................................................................................................................79................................. 2THE BOX .......................................................................................................................80 ...............................33sECTION v - iNTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION 83BABBLE ...........................................................................................................................85................................. 9BOMB SHELTER............................................................................................................86 ................................ 5CROSS-CULTURAL EXCHANGE.................................................................................87................................ 15VALUE CLARIFICATION .............................................................................................88 .............................. 48CULTURE AND PERCEPTION ...................................................................................89 ................................ 5ii○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○Page sOURCE
  6. 6. 200sECTION vi - tEAM - bUILDING AND cOOPERATION 91tANGLE-UNTANGLE .......................................................................................................................................91ORGANIZATIONAL CHANNELS ..............................................................................93................................21ORGANIZATIONAL CHANNELS ..............................................................................94 ............................... 11BUILD A MACHINE ....................................................................................................94 .............................. 10TRUST ME .....................................................................................................................95................................21LOGO..............................................................................................................................95................................21CO-CREATION ..............................................................................................................96 .............................. 44STANDED ON THE SEA .............................................................................................96 ................................ 5SQUARES 2 ....................................................................................................................97................................. 2EGGS CAN FLY ..............................................................................................................98 .............................. 29LOST SHOES ..................................................................................................................98 ................................. 1THE TOWER .................................................................................................................99 ................................ 2MANAGING TALK.......................................................................................................100.............................371-2-4-8 .............................................................................................................................101 ............................. 43i WISH ...........................................................................................................................101 ..............................21THE WHEEL ..................................................................................................................102 .............................. 4SUPPORTING THE LEADER .......................................................................................103 ............................ 43GROUP SELF-SELECT ....................................................................................................104 ............................ 28TRAFFIC jAM 1 .............................................................................................................105 .............................12TRAFFIC jAM 2 ............................................................................................................106 .............................37TUGS OF WAR AND PEACE ......................................................................................107 ............................ 50ME AND MY ORGANIZATION ................................................................................108 .............................37TRICKY TALES...............................................................................................................109 ............................ 23TRUST CIRCLE ..............................................................................................................111 ........................42/50sECTION vii - cONFLICT mANAGEMENT 113SETTING GROUND RULES ........................................................................................115 ............................... 13COME ON OVER .........................................................................................................116 ..............................21GRUMBLE, GRUMBLE .................................................................................................116 ..............................21CONFRONTING THE BEAR .......................................................................................117 ...............................21CHAIRS ..........................................................................................................................117 .............................. 27sECTION viii - cASE sTUDIES AND ROLE PLAY 119PIN THE PROBLEM .....................................................................................................121 .............................. 11ROLE DIAGRAM ..........................................................................................................121 ............................. 10THE SECRET IS IN THE BAG .....................................................................................122 ............................. 29hUDDLE ........................................................................................................................122 ................................ 1HAS DEVELOPMENT TAKEN PLACE? ......................................................................123 ................................ 1ARTIFACTS ....................................................................................................................123 .............................. 11DRAWING A SCENARIO............................................................................................124 ............................. 43dEVELOPMENT INDICATORS ..................................................................................125 .............................. 11ROLE-PLAY INSTRUCTIONS ......................................................................................126 ............................... 4sECTION ix - gENDER aNALYSIS AND SENZITIZATION 129VALUES AUCTION ......................................................................................................131 ............................... 15iF i WERE... ...................................................................................................................132 .............................. 15FAMILY MESSAGES ......................................................................................................133 .............................. 15""tHE SUN ALSO SHINES ON MY TREE ................................................................134 .............................. 13GENDER STEREOTYPES ..............................................................................................135 .............................. 15mY ROLES, MY RELATIONSHIPS ..............................................................................136 .............................. 15WERE IN THE SAME BOAT ......................................................................................137 ............................. 48MY IMAGE ....................................................................................................................138 ............................. 48i AM A WOMAN . . . i AM A MAN ........................................................................138 ............................. 48IDENTITY CONSTRUCTION.....................................................................................139 ............................. 48DAILY CYCLE .................................................................................................................139 ............................. 48LIFE LINE .......................................................................................................................140 .............................. 7iII○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○Page sOURCE
  7. 7. 201sECTION x - cREATIVITY AND PROBLEM Solving 143BRAINSTORMING.......................................................................................................145 ..............................21TOPSY TURVY ..............................................................................................................146 .............................. 17WHICH SIDE OF THE BRAIN?..................................................................................146 ............................. 49bRAINWRITING ..........................................................................................................147 .............................. 17METAPHOR, ANALOGY .............................................................................................147 .............................. 17WITCHCRAFT...............................................................................................................148 .............................. 17WALKANALOGY ..........................................................................................................148 ............................. 32PICTURE ........................................................................................................................149 .............................. 17DICTIONARY ...............................................................................................................149 .............................. 17OSBORNE CHECKLIST.................................................................................................150 ............................. 17FORCE FIT .....................................................................................................................151 ............................... 17NONSENSE-DEBATE....................................................................................................151 ............................... 17DRAW THE MUSIC!....................................................................................................152 ............................. 32JOIN THE DOTS ..........................................................................................................152 ............................... 2SECTION XI - RELAXATION AND MEDIATION 155JOURNEY ......................................................................................................................157 ............................. 38MEDITATION...............................................................................................................157 ............................. 38TAI CHI .........................................................................................................................158 ............................. 23LISTEN TO THE FALLING RAIN ...............................................................................159 ..............................14PLEASURABLE MEMORIES .........................................................................................160 .............................14FINE TUNING THE SENSES ......................................................................................160 .............................14RELAXATION................................................................................................................161 ............................. 38BODY LANGUAGE .......................................................................................................163 ............................. 38BREATHLESS ENERGIZER ...........................................................................................164 ........................38/52sECTION xii EVALUATION 167NAMING A PICTURE .................................................................................................169 ............................. 43LIVING SCALE ..............................................................................................................170 .............................37BODY OUTLINE ...........................................................................................................170 .............................. 9DRAW A FACE..............................................................................................................171 ................................ 2SUITCASE & ASHTRAY ................................................................................................171 ............................... 51LETER TO.......................................................................................................................172 .............................. 15EXPRESSIONS ...............................................................................................................172 ................................ 1FACILITATORS SELF-ASSESSMENT WHEEL ............................................................173 ............................. 49sECTION xiii - eND GAMES 175JOINT PAINTING .......................................................................................................177 ............................. 43SONGS ...........................................................................................................................177 ............................. 29FREEING THE BIRD ....................................................................................................178 ............................... 9REGRETS ........................................................................................................................179 ............................... 9GOODBYE CIRCLE........................................................................................................179 ............................... 9YOURRE OK .................................................................................................................180 .............................213POSITIVE STROKES....................................................................................................180 .............................21GROUP RAP ..................................................................................................................181 ............................... 9i SENT A LETTER .........................................................................................................181 ..............................14TALKING OBJECT ........................................................................................................182 ............................. 43WISHING GOOD LUCK ..............................................................................................182 ............................. 43aPPENDIX 185sOURCES 191iv○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○Page sOURCE
  8. 8. 1PROLOGUEThis manual was written to fill a gap. Although there are many collections ofgames and exercises for group processes for business and educational settings,only a small percentage of these have proven to be useful in international andcross-cultural settings. Many are heavily grounded in one culture and do noteasily translate. The games and exercises in this manual have been carefullyselected with an intercultural application in mind, especially, but not necessarily,in the area of international development. The games included here are inaddition to those described in the manual on Visualization in ParticipatoryProgrammes (VIPP) produced by UNICEF in Bangladesh in 1993.But why a manual on games and exercises? What does this have to do withsuch serious business as international development or organizational renewal?The answer to this question is grounded in learning theory. Educators will tellus that we learn very little through passive listening and note taking. Weremember only 10 percent of what we read, 20 percent of what we hear, 30percent of what we see. However, when we combine senses, the memorycurve increases sharply: 50 percent of what we see and hear, 80 percent ofwhat we say in a particular context and 90 percent of what we say and do.The doing is all important.Games and exercises activate more senses to increase creative learning ofnew information and assimilation of new ideas. This is especially important ininternational work where new criteria, values and world views must be takeninto account. Dominant intellectual or cognitive processes can marginalize theseimportant factors, impeding intercultural exchange and progress. Games andexercises produce new dimensions to human experience and allow us to shareperceptions.This manual is written as a resource for facilitators and trainers who are involved inparticipatory group events, especially but not exclusively in internationalsettings. There aremanydifferentsystems and philosophies of participation forvarious applications.
  9. 9. 2This manual is a useful supplement to any of these approaches. It is not designed tostand on its own. It is assumed that the user is already involved in participatoryfacilitation and training and can make appropriate selections, with the help of theguidelinesgiven.This manual is not an original piece of writing. It is a compilation of games andexercises which have been tried and tested in many settings across the globe. Theyhave been adapted from a wide collection of existing publications and have beenfound to be the best for facilitation and training in diverse settings.The decision to produce this manual arose out of a global consultation for VIPPfacilitators which was held in Mauritius in June 1995. Many new games, includedhere, were introduced and tested at that event. Participants were asked to contributeother games and exercises for possible inclusion. These were collected and formattedby UNICEFs Eastern and Southern Africa Office (ESARO) in Nairobi and takento a meeting in Jaipur, India in January 1996, where the collection was furtherrefined and the introductory sections written.The producers of this manual would like to thank UNICEF Mauritius, UNICEFJaipur, UNICEF-ESARO and the Staff Training and Staff Development Section,UNICEF, New York, for its collaboration in the process of production. We wouldalso like to thank all those writers of other manuals from which we have borrowedand adapted material.This manual does not represent the final word in participatory games andexercises. We hope users will adapt and utilize the contents according to theirsituations and will contribute their experiences, variations and new ideas. Wevery much hope the contents will enhance your training, planning and othergroup processes and thereby contribute to worldwide efforts in education andparticipatory development.
  10. 10. 3VISUALIZATION INPARTICIPATORYPROGRAMMES (VIPP)Many workshops, seminars and training sessions are essentially formal affairs whereparticipantsarerequiredtolistentoalargenumberofspeechesfromadaissetinfrontof rows of chairs or a boardroom-style table. Hierarchical relationships are strictlyadhered to. Speakers often present fixed positions on various subjects and attempt totransferviewsandinformationinlectures,relyingontheirwitandcharmtokeepaudiencesreceptive.Veryoftenso-calleddiscussionsessionsconsistofyetanotherseriesofformalspeeches with little or no real exchange or feedback. Much of the content of speechesis lost to audiences.However, in the past few decades there has been a recognition of the importance ofparticipatory processes in group events. VIPP methodology is an attempt to breakdownthisseminarculture.Itisacreativecombinationofdifferentparticipatorymethodsderived from 25 years of experience in adult learning and participatory development.VIPPcomesfromtwomainschoolsofthought;thegrassroots,participatorymovementsof Latin America begun by such figures as Paulo Freire and Orlando Fals Borda, andtheMetaplanmethodologycreatedbyEberhardSchnelleandhis"QuickbornTeam"inGermany in the 1970s. The latter was applied to development work by the GermanFoundation for International Development in the 1980s. VIPP was formulated duringthe period 1991 - 1993 by the Programme Communication and Information Section,UNICEF- Bangladesh, in collaboration with Dr. Hermann Tillmann and Dr. MarujaSalas, with input from the Training and Staff Development Section of UNICEF, NewYork, and Dev Bir Basnyet, an experienced facilitator from Nepal.
  11. 11. 4There are dozens of community-level participatory methods and packages promotedby development organizations around the world. These are essential tools forbottorn-up planning, training and research with communities. However, the creatorsof VIPP recognized that there is often a discrepancy in such work. While agenciesand institutions are often deeply engrossed in getting villagers and slum dwellers toparticipate, their own institutional work processes - planning, decision making,training, etc. - may be very undemocratic. VIPP is a collection of techniques appliedto encourage literate, educated people to participate and cooperate with theircolleagues, as well as with partners in governmental and non-governmentalorganizations. However, VIPP also has application at the grassroots level, and intraining people for community work.Metaplans influence on VIPP is primarily the use of moveable cards of differentshapes and colours on which the participants express their main ideas in lettersor pictures large enough to be seen by the whole group. Private note-taking isdiscouraged. Participants are asked to use only one idea per card. Theysynthesize their thoughts, or the thoughts of others, on these cards and displaythem on boards.By this method, everyone takes part in the process of arriving at a consensus.Less assertive participants find a means of expression and those who mightnormally dominate a group must respect and include the opinions and ideas ofothers. By visualizing the groups main train of thought, repetition and circularityin argument are reduced. If there is a record of the groups progress, visibleto everyone, it is easier to point out such repetition and refer to or rememberthe proceedings.The rule of one idea per card isimportant.Flip-chartswithlonglistsofideasallowonlypartofthegroupprocess to be visible at one time.Someoftheideasareflippedoutofsight. It is possible to pin or tapeflip-chart paper to a wall or board.However, it is difficult to separateindividualideas,moveideastoothergroupings or categories, or tocondense the ideas of twosubgroups,rulingoutredundancy.Ifthereisoneideapercard,allofthisis possible. Individuals andsubgroups can identify their ownwork and see how it fits in with thethoughts of the group as a whole.
  12. 12. 5In VIPP processes, a whole range of participatory methods arc used: cardcollection, visualized discussion, brainstorming, drawing exercises and debates.Participants move from plenary discussion to buzz groups to small groups orlarge groups to "walk-abouts" that could take them outside the room. Throughoutthey remain active and creative. Games and exercises are introduced intoprocesses to "break the ice", help participants get to know one another, varythe pace of the process, activate different senses, and engage people inproductive group dynamics. Games and interactive exercises are enjoyable andadvance group learning at the same time.VIPP is a set of techniques backed up by a solid philosophy of participation andcooperation. It does not promote a single planning framework or sequencing ofexercises in group events, nor should it be used to promote one persons "vision" ofreality or the future. Such use runs counter to VIPPs philosophy and values. VIPPrelies on the use of participatory facilitators or trainers who can foster a groupsprogress without directing each step of the way. The VIPP facilitator is not anentertainer, nor a guru, nor a messiah, but someone who creates optimal conditionsfor individual and group teaming to take place.VIPPs first applications were in the area of rural development, agriculture andtraining for Participatory Rural Appraisal, especially in Latin America. However,in UNICEF it has spread from Bangladesh to New York headquarters, Easternand Southern Africa, Latin America, West Africa and South East Asia and hasbeen applied to both internal and external programme planning, project proposaldevelopment, curriculum development and training processes in the areas ofhealth, sanitation, nutrition and education. It has also been used for cross-cutting issues such as gender sensitization, communication, social mobilizationand story conceptualization and writing. More recently it has been applied torunning meetings, management training and planning, team building, conflictmanagement, and in the analysis and improvement of work processes.
  13. 13. 6VIPP processes are supported by a manual and a video, available from UNICEFBangladesh, UNICEF-ESARO in Nairobi or from the Training and StaffDevelopment Section of UNICEF, New York. Training courses for facilitators arecarried out periodically by UNICEF New York, UNICEF-ESARO and by variousorganizations and freelance trainers.Although there are a number of games and exercises in the existing VIPP manual,the content of this manual serves as a rich supplement and will greatly widen thechoices available to facilitators involved in planning and facilitating participatorygroup events.
  14. 14. 7ROLE OF GAMES ANDEXERCISESParticipatory processes can be enhanced by games and exercises, carefully placed inthe learning process. Good games and exercises make people reflect, feel emotion,bring about a sense of wonder or curiosity, "grab people in the gut", energize, createhumour,relax,calmandinducemeditation.Theyprovidevariety,discoveryandsurpriseand thereby keep participants engaged.Games should be introduced into a process for a purpose, not just for the sake ofplaying a game or as an attempt by the facilitator to gain "cheap popularity" from thegroup.The best games and exercises activate both sides of the brain - the cognitive, logicalsideandtheemotional,creativeside.Theystimulateperception,affectionorexpressionand create interest through the presentation of a challenging situation. They reinforcelearningthroughexperiencing.Experientiallearninghasprovenmuchmoreeffectivethanmerelyreceiving,discussingandattemptingtodigestinformationfromauthoritativesources.Gamesandexercisescansimulatetheactualexperiencesofourlivesandhelpustoreflectontheapplicationofknowledge.Theymayalsointroduceacertainamountofcomplexityorquestioning,therebystimulatingaprocessofaction-reflection-actionthroughouttheproceedings.Good games and exercises involve everyone in the group, advance the groupprocess, maximize participation and allow as many people as possible to expressthemselves in unique ways. They catalyse individual involvement and expression ingroup events and bring about group synergy. They provide common ground forgroup experience, creating favourable conditions for the growth of participatorybehaviour and a democratic spirit.
  15. 15. 8USING AND CHOOSING GAMESAND EXERCISESThe games and exercises described in this manual are not designed to be includedin formal, non-participatory events where the physical and psychologicalconditions mitigate against their intended role. Such attempts will often fall flator backfire on facilitators, or belittle the significance of games and exercises.They need to be carefully considered and planned by competent, experiencedfacilitators who believe in the power of games to advance group processes.They should not be used in a chaotic, ad hoc manner with little thought concerningtheir outcome. The facilitator must prepare and plan, and therefore have onhand all the materials needed for a particular exercise. Last minute substitutesand switches will appear unprofessional.Gamesandexercisesneedtobesequencedproperlyintermsoftheirintensity,frequency,durationandintendedobjective.Forinstance,aseriesofhighlyinteractivegamesatthebeginningofaworkshopmayreallywarmupparticipantsand"breaktheice".However,theymayappeartobechildishandthoughtlesstosomeparticipantswhomaylosefaithin the facilitator. Activating senses and energizing people for no apparent reason mayalsoputthefacilitatorintotheroleofanentertainerwhoisnotseriousaboutthecontentof the event. Instead, games and exercises have to be placed and paced in an order andfrequencywhichwillallowagradualbuild-upofexperienceandoutcomes.Theyshouldbecarefullybuiltintootherplenaryandgroupsessions.
  16. 16. 9A trainer should pay attention to the length of each game or exercise in order toapply it within the workshop schedule. Another way of sequencing is to combinelong and short games and exercises. Too many long exercises may consume toomuch time and may frustrate some participants. Too many short exercises can bedistracting and inhibit real learning.Theremaybequestions,doubts,anduneasinesswheninstructionsaregiven.Duringthegame itself there may be a lot of action and tension. Attitudes or behaviours may bedisclosedandconflictsmayarise.Thegamemayproducesomekindofan"aha!"effectforsomeoftheparticipants.Otherswilltakelongertograspthepoint.Therearealwaysafewwhomaybedisappointedorfrustrated.Therearealwaysdifferentreactionsfromparticipantsbuttheyallexperiencesomethingwhichhelpstobondthemtogether.Someparticipantsmayalreadybefamiliarwithcertaingamesandexercisesandmaytrytoderailormonopolizetheprocess.Itisbesttoaskfirstifanyoneisalreadyfamiliarwiththe exercise and, if a substitute cannot be found immediately, give those participantsroles which will not spoil the process and outcome. You may ask them to help you runthe game or to act as observers.Dont ask participants to assume the role of facilitator unless you are certain they havethe knowledge and skill to facilitate. Often people will not be prepared. They will giveunclearinstructionsandtheresultwillbedisappointing.Someparticipantsmaycomeupwith a different variation on a game. Thank him or her for helping to open up a newdimension. However, if you dont know the variation and its possible outcome, stick toyouroriginalplan.Seeifthereistimetoplaythevariationinalesscrucialsession,suchas an evening set aside especially for games and exercises.Sometimes senior officials or "experts" will refuse to participate, which sets anegative tone for the whole group. You can overcome resistance by explainingme use of games at the outset, by gradually increasing the frequency of interactivegames or by getting a few key people to support you and join enthusiastically.
  17. 17. 10If people see that their bosses or senior people arc involved, their own inhibitionswill usually disappear. In groups composed of people from different levels inan organization, games should not be introduced which will accentuate conflictsand differences, including hierarchical position, when the opposite effect isintended.The facilitator must be aware of the age, physical, gender and cultural differencesand, accordingly, avoid inappropriate games and exercises. For instance, olderpeople and pregnant women should avoid rough, physical contact games. Also, insuch games all participants must be warned to remove breakable or potentiallyharmful jewellery or clothing, eye glasses and contact lenses. Physically disabledpeople should not be made to feel left out. Find games which can include them.References to sexual stereotypes, unless they are introduced for a specific purpose,and sexual language or other vulgarity, can create conflict and run counter to thespirit of participation. The balance and involvement of both sexes in games andexercises has to be thought out. Conflict may also be created when the participantsread unintented meanings into games. Some games may threaten, introduce negativecompetition or invade privacy. Games and exercises should be non-threatening anddemonstrate the value of differences between people. They should never single outindividuals for ridicule.Not all games and exercises are appropriate for all cultural settings. Humour, forinstance, varies a great deal in different cultures. In certain countries men and womenwho are not married should not touch one another. Even if the participants acceptsuch processes for the purpose of the workshop, pictures taken of such interactionsmay be misinterpreted by non-participants. Setting up games or exercises on taboosubjects may induce conflict in the group and derail progress. The facilitator mustbe sensitive to the cultural values of participants and should avoid pushing them in adirection which is in direct opposition to their world view.
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  20. 20. 13USING AND CHOOSING GAMES :A SUMMARY● Use games in the appropriate psychological and physical setting. They are notdesignedforformalevents.● Familiarizeyourselfwellwithalltheinstructionsbeforeapplication.● Make sure all materials are quickly available. Avoid ad hoc, and last minutesubstitutionsorimprovisation.Avoidusinggamesas"lifesavers".● Sequence games and exercises carefully in terms of their intensity, frequency andpurpose.Forinstance,avoidputtingawholeseriesofhighlyinteractivegamesoneafter the other.● Avoidturningyourselfintoanentertainer.● Stick to your plan. Dont let participants who are familiar with a game put you off.Acknowledge them and use them to support or observe the process.● Involvepotentiallyresistantpeoplebybeginningwithmilder,lessinteractivegamesandexercises,buildinguptheirtrustgradually.● Be aware of age, physical condition, or other factors which may cause harm toparticipants.Havethemremoveitemswhichmayhurtthemorwhichmaybedamagedinphysicallyactivegames.● Do not force people into processes which are against their cultural values or worldviews. Avoid culture-specific humour and perspectives on gender and sexualstereotypes, unless you are prepared to undertake a reflective process on suchsubjects.● Always plan and carry out debriefing sessions after the exercise. Dont leaveparticipantshanging.● Choose games carefully, according to the overall topic, time available, objectiveof the event, group progress and mood at the time, the presence of conflict, etc.● Usegamestointroducemoredrama,therebyincreasingattention,involvementandenthusiasm.
  21. 21. 14● Change your menu of games and exercises frequently. Do not get trapped in a narrow repertoire.● Use this "toolbox" to build your own plans. Modify and adapt according to your purpose andexperience.Thereisnouniversalguideorprescription.Notes :Timesandgroupsizesgivenforexercisesinthefollowingdescriptionsareonlyapproximations.Debriefing :Note that debriefing is recommended after every game or exercise but that this has been indicated inthismanualonlywhenspecificquestionsarerecommended.See sources pages 191 to 196.
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  24. 24. 17DOUBLE LETTERGroup size: Maximum 25Time: 1O to 20 minutesMaterials: None✔ OBJECTIVETo learn the names of the other participants.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USETo facilitate introductions at the beginning of agroupevent.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask participants to sit in a circle.2. Askparticipantstothinkofanadjectivethatbeginswiththefirstletteroftheirname,e.g."Devilish Deidre" or "Awesome Anthony".Uselastnamesiftheparticipantsarefamiliarwithfirstnames.3. Ask them to keep the adjective a secret untilit is their turn to share their name with thegroup.4. Introduce yourself with your double-lettername and then ask the person to your righttointroducehim/herself,usinghis/herdouble-letter name. The person to your right thenintroducesyou,himorherself,andthenasksthe person to the right, etc.5. Thisprocesscontinuesuntilthelastpersoninthe circle re-introduces all the rest of theparticipantstohis/herleftandhim/herself.6. The game is over when all participants havebeenintroducedbytheirdouble-letternames.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ALPHABET PUZZLEGroup size:10 to 30Time: 10 to 20 minutesMaterials: Cards, pins, boards, flip-chart,wrapping paper and markers✔ OBJECTIVETo encourage communication betweenparticipants.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USETo facilitate introductions at (he beginning of agroupevent.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Before the session, collect all the names ofthe participants and facilitators who will bepresent.2. Jumblethelettersofeachpersonsnameinapronounceableway(e.g.Neiltolien,Nuzhatto zunath, Sue to use).3. Prepare cards with the new names writtenonthem.4. Pin all the cards on a board and keep themcovered with paper.5. When you are ready to play, uncover thecards.6. Askparticipantstofindtheirownnames onthe board.7. The facilitator can begin the process bypicking out her card and reading it aloud,pronouncingheractualname.8. Encourage the participants to keep theprocesslightandlively.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  25. 25. 18MISTAKEN IDENTITIESGroup size: 20 to 50Time: 10 to 15 minutesMaterials: Name tags✔ OBJECTIVETo enable people to make new acquaintances.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAtthebeginningofagroupevent.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Make name tags with large letters for allparticipants.Usefirstorfamiliarnamesonly.2. Asthesessionbegins,handoutnametagstoeach person. Ask participants to circulatearound the room and find the person whomatches the name tag they have. (Be surethatparticipantsdonotgettheirownname.)3. Continue until all group members have thecorrect name tag.NOTE: You can prepare formal, printed nametags or hand written name tags with VIPPcards which are fastened with masking tape.Whateveryoudo,makethenameofthepersonlarge and easy to read from eight metres. Smalllettersonnametagsinhibitgroupinteractionandcommunication.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○WRITTEN NAMESGroup size: 10 to 40Time: 10 to 20 minutesMaterials: Cards, masking tape and markers✔ OBJECTIVETofacilitateintroductionsandcreateafriendlyenvironment.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAtthebeginningofa groupevent.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask each participant to write their name inlarge letters on a card and tape it to theirclothing in a visible place. Ask the group toformacircle.2. Give them an appropriate amount of time tomemorize the names of the other people intheircircle.3.Whentheallottedtimeisup,askeveryonetotake off their name cards and pass themclockwisearoundthecircleuntilthefacilitatorasks them to stop.4.Participantsareleftwithnamecardsbelongingto other people. Give them ten seconds tofind the correct owner of the name tag.5. After ten seconds, those left with someoneelses name card are chased and caught orpushed into the centre. They are asked tolook around and find the correct person. (Atthispointthegroupmayhelp.)6. Repeattheexerciseuntilallparticipantsknoweach others names.
  26. 26. 19○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○THE WALKINGBILLBOARDGroup size:10 to 30Time: 30 minutesMaterials: Flip-chart paper, markers andmasking tape✔ OBJECTIVETo encourage participants to mingle and sharepersonalinformationwithoneanother.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAtthebeginningofagroupevent.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Explain to the group that they have theopportunity to design their own get-acquainted session. Ask them to proposequestions that they would like to ask otherparticipants.Examplesmightinclude:- Favourite foods- Thingsyoudontlike- Best books recently read- Favouritemovieactors/entertainers2. Askforaquickshowofhandsregardingthethree most useful questions. Using a roughtabulation,selectthefiveorsixitemsreceivingthe most votes.3. Provideparticipantswithasheetofflip-chartpaper and a marker. Ask them to place theirnameatthetopandtolisttheitemsdowntheleft side and the answers on the right.4. Attach the sheet to each participantsshoulders.Askthemtowalkaroundtheroomanddiscuss.DEBRIEFINGWhat additional information would you like toaskfellowparticipants?○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○I AMGroup size: 10 to 30Time: 15 to 20 minutesMaterials: Paper, markers, masking tape✔ OBJECTIVETofacilitategroupintroductions.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAtthebeginningofagroupevent,particularlyinlong-term,group-buildingsituations.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Give each participant a piece of paper and amarkerandaskthemtowritetheirnamesonthetopandtofinishthestatement,"Iam...,"usingsixdifferentendings.2. Ask the participants to attach their papers totheirchestswithmaskingtapeandthenwalkaround the room and read each othersstatements.3. Suggest that people spend at least thirtysecondstalkingwithoneanother.4. When the exercise has been completed, the"I am" sheets can be taped to the wall as a"Group Gallery". If you have photos ofparticipants these can also be added.VARIATIONAskeachparticipanttobegintheirsentencewith"I am a resource for/to ..."
  27. 27. 20○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○Animals, PlantsAnd FurnitureGroup size:10 to 30Time: 25 to 50 minutesMaterials: Flip-chart paper, markersand masking tape✔ OBJECTIVETo provide an opportunity for individuals toincreasetheirunderstandingofthemselvesandtheirgroupmembers.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAtthebeginningofaworkshop.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Askparticipantstodivideintothreegroups:2. Ask each person to draw the following:• GroupA:Representyourpersonalitybydrawingananimal.• GroupB:Representyourpersonalitybydrawingaplant.• Group C: Represent your personality bydrawingapieceoffurniture.3. Ask each person to explain their drawing toothers in the group.4.Askthemtowritetheirnamesonthedrawingsand tape them to the wall. Have participantswalk around and look at the pictures.DEBRIEFINGInplenaryask:- Whatnewinsightsdidyougainintoyourownpersonalityandthepersonalitiesofothers?○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○Introductionwithout wordsGroup size: 10 to 30Time: 30 minutesMaterials: Flip-chart paper,markers,masking tape✔ OBJECTIVETo demonstrate that effective interpersonalcommunication can be accomplished withoutwords.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAtthebeginningofagroupevent.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask the group to divide into pairs.2. State that the purpose of this exercise is tobe introduced to your partner, but that theentire activity must be done without words.Participantsmayusevisuals,pictures,signs,gestures, signals, anything non-verbal. Ifnecessary, they may offer hints such aspointingtoaweddingringtoindicatemarriage,running-on-the-spottoindicatejogging,etc.3. Give each person two to three minutes forthenon-verbalintroductiontohis/herpartner.Then allow each person to guess what his/herpartnerwastryingtocommunicate.4. Then allow each person to state, verbally,what they were trying to communicate non-verbally.DEBRIEFINGInplenaryask:- Howaccuratelydidyoudescribeyourself?- How accurate were you in reading yourpartners gestures?
  28. 28. 21SKILLS I HAVEAND SKILLS I NEEDGroup size: 10 to 25Time: 45 to 60 minutesMaterials: Flip-chart paper, markers andmasking tape✔ OBJECTIVETo encourage participants to identify theirstrengths and weaknesses.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAtatimeintheworkshopprocesswhenitwouldbehelpfultoencourageself-reflection.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask participants to list, on flip-chart paper,all of the skills they possess and the areaswheretheyneedstrengthening.Askthemtokeep the list to themselves.2. Ask them to think of the one skill they dobest.3. Ask each participant to act out their skillwithoutusinganywords.4. Ask the rest of the group to guess what eachpersons mime represents.5. Putthelistsonthewallandlettheparticipantswalk around and read them.DEBRIEFINGDiscussthefollowing:- The number and variety of skills eachindividualhas.- Thefactthatdifferentindividualshavedifferentstrengths/weaknesses.- Thetotalcompositionofskillsinthegroup.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ACTIVITIES I ENJOYGroup size:10 to 30Time: 10 to 45 minutesMaterials: Flip-chart paper and markers✔ OBJECTIVETo encourage participants to understandthemselvesbetter.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAtthebeginningofaworkshop.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask participants to draw a picture ofthemselvesdoingsomethingwhichtheyenjoy.2. Ask them to find a partner, explain theirdrawingsandtelltheirpartnerwhytheyenjoydoingthatparticularthing.3. Askeachpairtojoinanotherpairandrepeatthe explanation to each other. This can berepeatedmanytimes.DEBRIEFINGInthelargegroupdiscussthefollowing:- Thevarietyofthingsthatindividualsinthegroupenjoy.- Thegenderdifferencesinenjoyment.- What participants have learned aboutthemselvesandothers.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  29. 29. 22HOW WELL DO IKNOW MYSELF?Group size: 10 to 30Time: 45 to 90 minutesMaterials: Flip-chart paper, masking tape,and markers✔ OBJECTIVETohelpparticipantsgainself-confidenceandtobecome more aware of themselves and of theirstrengths and weaknesses.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAtaparticularpointinthegroupprocesswhereitwouldbehelpfultoencourageself-reflection.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask the participants to draw a picture ofthemselves in the centre of a large sheet ofpaper.2. In the top left-hand corner of the picture askthem to write the words "AS A PERSON".In the top right-hand corner write the words"AS A WORKER".3. On either side of the picture, under eachheading, ask them to write five words thatbest describe them as a "person" or as a"worker" (in their occupation). Ask them tolist things they like, enjoy, and can do wellandgivethepicturethetitle,"THEBESTOFME".4. Display the pictures on a wall or board.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○5. Ask participants to walk around and look ateachotherspictureswithouttalking.6. Trytoidentifytheownerofeachpicture.Putnames on pictures as they are guessedcorrectly.7. Discuss the activity with the entire group.Categorize the skills identified asinterpersonal, technical or communicationskills.Introducetheideasofself-perception,positive self-concept, self-assessment andself-acceptance.DEBRIEFINGAskthefollowingquestions:- Is self-concept static or does it change?How?Why?- How does self-concept relate to attitudestowards oneself? Others? Ones work?- Discussthepictures.- How easy was it for you to do this exercise?- Whatdidyoulearnaboutyourselfandaboutothers?VARIATIONS1. Have participants describe bad points/weaknesses and draw something that theydislikedoing.2. Have them list five things they cant do sowell.Titlethepicture"TheOtherSideofMe".3. Gendertraining:haveparticipantslistpointswhich describe them as a person and also asa man or woman.
  30. 30. 23DETECTIVEGroup size: 10 to 30Time: 30 to 60 minutesMaterials: Markers and flip-chart paper✔ OBJECTIVETo introduce group members to one another.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAtthebeginningofagroupevent.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Askthegrouptodivideintopairs.Distributethe markers and paper to everyone.2. Ask each person to draw six items that theyhaveusedinthelastthreemonths.Askthemto choose items which will help the otherpersontodiscoversomethingaboutthemandtheir interests (e.g. a person interested inclimbingmightdrawarope;amusicianmightdrawaninstrument).3. Giveeachpersonaturnatbeingthedetective,guessing as much as they can about theirpartner.4. Ask the pairs to introduce their partner tothewholegroup.VARIATIONS1. Insteadofdrawingobjectseachpersoncouldusesixitemstheyhavewiththem(e.g.keys,pens, membership cards). The detectiveexaminestheseitemstolearnsomethingaboutthe person.2. Dividethegroupintosmallgroupsinsteadofinto pairs. The drawings or objects can alsobe shown to the whole group who then joininguessing.IVE GOT SOME SECRETSGroup size:10 to 30Time: 20 to 30 minutesMaterials: Flip-chart paper and markers✔ OBJECTIVETofacilitateindividualintroductionsandtohavefun.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAtthebeginningofagroupevent.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask each member of the group to choose apartner who they do not know well.2. Askpartnerstostandorsitinacircleorsemi-circle.3. Ask them to find out their partners namesandorganizationsorsections/divisionstheyare affiliated with. Also ask them to find outtwo to three "secrets" that "nobody in thewholeworldknowsaboutthem".4. Askparticipantstointroducetheirpartnerandone of their "secrets" to the group. Thefacilitator and her partner can begin. Keepthingsmovingquicklyandlightly.Giveeachperson only forty-five to sixty seconds topresent.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  31. 31. 24THE RIVER OF LIFEGroup size: 10 to 30Time: 45 to 60 minutesMaterials: Flip-chart paper and markers✔ OBJECTIVETobuildfriendshipandencourageopennessandtrustwithinthegroup.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAt a stage in the workshop when deeper groupsynergyisrequired.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask participants to form pairs.2. Ask them to discuss the highlights and thedifficult periods of their lives. (Allow aboutten minutes per person.)3. Askparticipantstodrawtheinformationgivenbytheirpartnerasa"riveroflife".4. Participants then present and explain theirpartners life to the plenary.VARIATIONSThis exercise is similar to "Mutual-interview"described in the VIPP manual, page 101. It isnotrecommendedtodobothgamesinthesameevent.PORTRAIT OF MY JOBGroup size:10 to 30Time: 45 to 60 minuteMaterials: Flip-chart paper and markers✔ OBJECTIVETo acquire a perception, individually orcollectively,ofhowpeopleseetheirjobsortheirplaceinanorganization.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAtthebeginningofanevent.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Asktheparticipantstodrawthemselvesandtheirplaceinanorganization.2. Then ask them to form small groups anddescribe the drawings to one another.3. Encouragediscussioninthesmallgroupsbyusingthefollowingquestions:- How do you see your job?- How do you fit in?- Hasthisperceptionchangedrecently?How?Why?- How do you think your clients orcolleaguesseeyourorganization?4. Ask the small groups to bring the results toplenaryandpresenttheirfindings.VARIATIONSRelationshipmapping:askparticipantstodrawtheirrelationshipswithotherpeopleintheirworkenvironment.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  32. 32. 25WHAT DO WE EXPECT?Group size: 10 to 30Time: 45 to 60 minutesMaterials: Flip-chart paper and markers✔ OBJECTIVETodiscoverwhattopicsparticipantshopewillbeaddressedorexplainedduringtheworkshop.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEIntrainingandplanningworkshopsasamethodofdiscoveringtheexpectationsofparticipants.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Asktheparticipantstoreflectonthefollowingquestions:- What do I expect from this event?- What can help me achieve this?2. Askeveryonetomoveaboutinsideoroutsidethe room and look for two objects, eachrelated to or associated with an answer toone of the above questions (allow fifteenminutes).Requestthattheybringtheminsideandlaytheminfrontofthefacilitator.3. Ask each person to present their objects tothegroup,answeringthetwoquestionsbriefly.DEBRIEFINGAskwhatinformationtheparticipantsnowknowabout each other. Are there common interests?What are important topics for group work?VARIATIONSExpectations and fears (see VIPP manual,page 67).DIFFERENT FOLKS, DIFFERENTHOPESGroup size:10 to 30Time: 45 to 60 minutesMaterials: Flip-chart paper, masking tapeand markers✔ OBJECTIVETo help participants define and clarify theirexpectations for the group event.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAsanopeningexercise.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask each member of the group to write on apiece of paper one thing they expect to gainfrom the workshop.2. Ask participants to form groups of four orfive people and discuss their expectations,noting the similarities and differences andexplainingthereasonsforthese.3. Ask each group to list their similar anddifferentexpectationsintwocolumns.4. Display the large sheets on a wall or boardand ask these questions:- How realistic are the expectations?- Canalloftheexpectationsbemetduring theworkshop? What factors determine this?- Is there a need for compromise?VARIATIONSRemaining in plenary, have participants movearound and find a group of thirty people withsimilarexpectations.Whilestanding,havethemformulateacommonstatement.Expectations and fears (see VIPP manual,page 67).○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  33. 33. 26SELF IMAGEGroup size: 10 to 30Time: 30 to 60 minutesMaterials: Flip-chart paper, markers, asample for presentation andmasking tape✔ OBJECTIVE- To encourage group interaction.- Tounderstandparticipantsexpectations.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAt the beginning of a group event. (It can alsobe effective when the participants know eachotherquitewell.)✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Collect and fold aflip-chartsheethorizontallyandverticallyintoquarters.2. Writethefollowing:- Upper left section: Name/section/organization- Upperrightsection:Self-image- Lower left section: What I need- Lowerrightsection:WhatIcanoffer3. Explain that one way of understanding self-imageisbydrawingfeelings,likings,dreams,etc. Ask participants to take a sheet andmarker and fill it in. Allow five minutes tocompletetheactivity.4. Ask them to return to plenary. Askparticipants to explain their drawing to thegroup.Givethemabouttwominuteseach.DEBRIEFINGSummarizetheimages,needsandqualitiesattheend of the session. Relate those with theobjectives and processes of the group event.GET THE PICTURE?Group size: 10 to 20Time: 45 to 60 minutesMaterials: Markers, scissors, glue,newspapers and magazines✔ OBJECTIVEToenhanceparticipantsawareness ofthemselves and each other.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAtthebeginningofa group event.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Give each participant a sheet of paper and amarker.Instructthemtofoldtheirnewsprintsheets in half and write at the top of eachhalf,"Thisisme!"and"Thisismyfuture!"2. Ask the participants to cut pictures, words,drawings, and phrases from magazines thatsymbolizethingsaboutthemselvesandtheirfuture. For the side labelled, "This is me!",examplesmightincludephysicaltraits,partsof the body, clothes, hobbies orachievements, personality traits, etc. Theseshouldbegluedintoplacetoformacollage.3. Ask participants to present their collage tothelargegroup.DEBRIEFINGAsktheparticipantsthefollowingquestions:1. Werethesymbolsusedpositiveornegative?2. Didanyoneusethesameorsimilarsymbols?VARIATION1. Drawwithmarkingpens.2. Cutthetwopartsinhalf,scramblethemandthenguesswhichpartgoeswithwhich.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  34. 34. 27CELEBRITIESGroup size: 15 to 40Time: 20 to 30 minutesMaterials: Cards, markers and masking tape✔ OBJECTIVE- To encourage individual participation in thegroup.- Tohelpparticipantsdevelopgoodquestioninganddatagathering/detectiveskills.- To meet people and have fun.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAt the opening of a group event.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Make a list of famous or infamous peoplesufficient to cover the number of expectedparticipants.Celebritiesmightincludefamoussingers,actors/actresses,politicians,businesspeople,writers,musicians,etc.2. Names may have a common threadconnecting them (e.g. celebrities related tothe nature of the group, names starting withthe same letter or people who were popularduringaparticularera).3. If you know the participants well, you maydecide to match the assignment of celebritynames to individuals who have similarcharacteristics.4. Write the names on stick-on or pin-on nametags or cards. Keep the celebrities" nameshiddenfromtheparticipants.5. When participants arrive, fasten a name toeach participants back and encourage themto walk around, asking other peoplequestionsabouttheirunknownpersona.Theycan only ask questions which can beanswered "Yes" or "No". No other hints tobegiven.6. The exercise continues until all or almost allparticipants have discovered the identity oftheircelebrity.DEBRIEFINGAftermostcelebritieshavebeenidentified,askthegrouptodiscussthefollowingquestions:- Whatkindofquestionsweremostuseful?- Werenon-verbalcluesuseful?- Whatdidyoulearnaboutothersthroughthisexercise?○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  35. 35. 28○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○- Whatangeredyoumostinthelastweek?2. Place the cards face down in the middle ofthegroup.3. Give the following instructions: Each cardhas a question on the other side. At eachpersons turn they will take a card and try toanswerthequestionastruthfullyaspossible.Anyone who feels unable to answer says"pass" and gives the card to the next person.4. Someoftheanswerswillprovokediscussion.Dependingonthetimeavailable,discussioncan be encouraged.NOTE:Thisgameworksbestifthefacilitatororgroupleaderiswillingtotakeaturnandtoanswerhonestly. It is also important that the type ofquestionsareappropriateforthegroup.If there are shy members in the group it mayhelptodrawthemintothegamebygettingthemto shuffle the cards before the game starts andaskthemtohandoutcardstoeachpersonwhenitistheirturn.TRUTH GAMEGroup size: 10 to 30Time: 30 to 40 minutesMaterials: Cards and markers✔ OBJECTIVEToenergizethegroup.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAt the opening of a group event.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Prepare cards with questions - for example:- What do you do best?- What TV or radio programmes do youlike?- Ifyouwon$1000,howwouldyouspendit?- Whatmakesyoulaugh?- Whatwasyourhappiestmoment?- Would you like to be someone else?Who?- What has pleased you most today?- Whatwillyoubedoingintenyears?- Whatliehaveyoutoldrecently?- What scares you the most?- What embarrasses you?- When was the last time you cried?
  36. 36. 29MIME AN INTERESTGroup size: 10 to 25Time: 20 to 30 minutesMaterials: None✔ OBJECTIVE- To increase participants knowledge of eachother.- Toenergizethegroup.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAnytime.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Askthegrouptoformacircleandtothinkofa personal interest that they can mime, e.g.anathleticsenthusiastmightrunonthespot;amusicianmightmimeplayinganinstrument.2.Withoutanyfurthertalking,haveeachpersoninturn(includingthefacilitator),tomimetheirown interest. The rest of the group tries toremembereachpersonsmime.3. Explaintothegroupthattheyarenownearlyready to start the game but there will be aminute to practice before the game starts.4. Theprocedureisasfollows:onepersonclapshands,performstheirownmime,clapshandsagain, says a persons name and points tosomeoneelsewho,withouthesitation,clapsandperformsthemimeofthepersonnamed,claps, names and points, and so on ...(Sequenceofactions:clap-mime-clap-name- point to someone.)5. Thegamecaninvolveelimination,withpeoplesitting down if they hesitate beforeperforming.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○IF YOU WERE AN ANIMALGroup size:15 to 30Time: 15 to 20 minutesMaterials: None✔ OBJECTIVE- To improve participants knowledge ofeach other.- Toincreasegroupinteractionandhavefun.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEWhengroupparticipationislow.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask the participants: If you were an animalwhich one would you be and why?2. Ask them to imitate or pose like the animalthey have chosen. Allow a minute forpreparation.3. Havethemformacircle.4. The facilitator may begin by going to thecentre of the circle and imitating or posinglike the animal of her choice and explainingwhyshechosetheanimal.5. The exercise is then repeated by allparticipants.VARIATION"If you were a flower," etc.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  37. 37. 30MOOD CARDSGroup size: 15 to 30Time: 20 minutesMaterials: Cards, markers and masking tape✔ OBJECTIVETo allow participants to talk about moods andfeelingsaspartofwarminguporgettingtoknowone another.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAtthebeginningofagroupevent.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. As people enter the room, give them a card,a marker and a piece of masking tape.2. Ask them to write, in no more than threeWords,theirdominantmoodatthemoment.The written card should be stuck on theirchest with tape.3. Encouragetheparticipantstowanderaroundtheroomlookingateachothersmoodcardsandquestioningeachotherabouttheirmoods.4. After everyone has sought and receivedclarification, invite them to form groups ofpeoplewithsimilarmoods.5. Allow the groups to share. They can alsowrite a title card for their moods and all themoods can be pinned on a boardVARIATIONThisexercisecanbevariedbywritingotherthingson the card, such as a workshop expectation, afear or secret wish, etc. It can also be used asan evaluation exercise in place of a "flash" ormood metre.FIND YOUR PEERSGroup size:15 to 30Time: 10 minutesMaterials: Cards of the same colour,markers, magazines and glue✔ OBJECTIVETodivideparticipantsintosmallgroups.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAs a process for forming groups.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Countthenumberofparticipantsanddecideon the number of groups you would like.2. Select sets of words like names of flowers,birds,rivers,countries,fish,etc.3. Preparethedesirednumberofcategorycardswith words or pictures.4. Shufflethecards.5. Spread the cards upside down on the tableorfloor.6. Invite participants to pick up a card and findtheir group by showing their card to others.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  38. 38. 31TREE OF LIFEGroup size: 10 to 40Time: 40 minutesMaterials: Flip-chart paper and markers✔ OBJECTIVETohelpparticipantsreflectontheirownlifeinafocusedway.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAtthebeginningofagroupevent.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask each person to draw the "tree of life".- Rootsrepresentthefamilyfromwhichwecome, strong influences which haveshaped us into the person we are now.- Thetrunkrepresentsthestructureofourlife today - our jobs, families,organizations,communities,movementstowhichwebelong.- The leaves represent our sources ofinformation - newspapers, radio,television, books, reports, friends.- The fruits represent our achievements,projects and programmes we haveorganized, groups we have started andmaterials we have produced.- The buds represent our hopes for thefuture.2. Give participants about twenty minutes tocompletetheexercise.3. Sharethedrawingsingroupsofthreetofive.If possible, it is good to do this in an open-ended session; for instance, in the eveningwhengroupscancontinuetoshareforaslongastheywish.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○SHARING ACHILDHOOD MEMORYGroup size:15 to 30Time: I 30 minutesMaterials: None✔ OBJECTIVE-Tosharepersonalinformationwiththegroup.- To allow the group leader to gain insightinto the people in the group.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEWhen it is appropriate to encourage theestablishmentofcloserelationshipsandthedevelopmentoftrustwithinthegroup.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Asktheparticipantstoformgroupsofthree.Ask each group member to recall a memoryfrom childhood. Encourage them to freelyexpressthatmemory.2. Allowafewminutesforthemtogetintothememory.3.Haveeachgroupmembersharetheirmemoryfor two or three minutes. Then, withoutcomment,moveontothenextmember.NOTE: When sharing, encourage people tobegininthemiddle-forinstance,"Iamwalkingdown a road and the smell of roses is in theair ..."VARIATIONIn the context of gender training, this activitycouldbeusedtoencourageparticipantstosharememories that emphasize expectations aroundtheir gender and sex roles.
  39. 39. 32Shy handsomehard-workingLOOKING AND FINDINGGroup size: 10 to 30Time: 30 minutesMaterials: Paper and markers✔ OBJECTIVEToenhancegroupinteractiononapersonallevel,whenpeoplearealreadyfamiliarandcomfortablewitheachother.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEIn the middle of a group event.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask every participant to write on threeseparate pieces of paper, personalcharacteristics or physical features thatidentifythem.2. Donotincludenames.3. Collect the papers in a container.4. Ask everyone to draw three papers from thecontainer and then find the owners of thecharacteristicswithinthegroup.5. When they have identified the person, askthem to write the name of the person on thepaper beside the characteristic.6. When all participants are identified by theircharacteristics,thepapersmaybereadaloudto the group.Identify your partnerGroup size:10 to 30Time: 20 minutesMaterials: Paper and markers✔ OBJECTIVETo allow each participant to meet other groupmembers.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAtthebeginningofaworkshop.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Prepareshortdescriptionsofeachparticipantahead of time (e.g. someone with a Ph.D. inchemistry, someone who hates ties, etc.).Writethedescriptionsoncardsandputtheminacontainer.2. Ask participants to pick a description out ofthecontainer.3. Ask participants to mingle around the roomand find the partner who matches thedescription.4. When they find their partner, ask them tointroducethemselvestoeachother.5. Ifthereistime,andthegroupisnottoolarge,ask each participant to introduce his or herpartner to the group.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  40. 40. 33FIND OUTGroup size: 10 to 25Time: 5 to 10 minutes per roundMaterials: None✔ OBJECTIVETo encourage participants to get to know oneanother better.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAtthebeginningofagroupevent.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Askoneparticipanttovolunteertoleavetheroom.Heorshewillbeaskedtothinkoffivequestionsthatcanbeansweredwith"yes"or"no"inordertoidentifyaparticularpersonintheroom.2. While the volunteer is out of the room, thegroup decides who will be the designatedpersonforthevolunteertoidentify.3. Uponreturning,thevolunteerwillbeallowedtoaskfivequestionsbeforeguessingwhothedesignatedpersonis.Givethevolunteerthreeguesses. If he fails the persons identity isrevealed and a new round begins.REVEALING SYMBOLSGroup size:10 to 30Time: 30 minutesMaterial: Cards, markers, and masking tape✔ OBJECTIVETo encourage participants get to know newthingsabouteachother.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAt the beginning of a group event which willrequireparticipantstoworktogetherclosely.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1.Distribute a card to participants and ask eachto draw a symbol of him/herself, based on apersonal interest or a concern.2. Askparticipantstoattachtheircardstotheirchestsandwalksilentlyaroundtheroomandlook at other peoples symbols.3. Eachparticipantattemptstofindapersonwithwhom he or she thinks they may havesomethingincommonbecauseofthesymbol.The pairs may talk to each other about theirsymbolsandwhattheymean.4. Each pair then walks around the room,searchingforanotherpairwithwhomtheythinktheyhavesomethingincommon.5. Each group of four explains their symbols toeachotheranddevelopsagroupsymbol.Thegroupthenpresentstheirgroupsymboltotheplenarywithashortexplanation,introducingthe members of the group.NOTE: Make sure that the participantsunderstand what is meant by a symbol. Givesomeexamples.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  41. 41. 34SECRET ADMIRERGroup size:Maximum 35Time: 15 minutes to organizeMaterials: Cards and markers✔ OBJECTIVE- To develop camaraderie and an atmosphereforpersonalgrowththroughouttheworkshop.- To encourage attentiveness.- To encourage participants get to know newthings about each other.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAnytimeduringagroupevent.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Eachparticipantpullsoutthenameofanotherparticipantfromahat(oranyothercontainer).Thiswillbethepersonofwhomtheywillbea secret admirer.2. Aspecialboardshouldbecreatedforpostingmessages.3. Participants are asked to send supportivemessageswithoutgivingawaytheiridentity.4. A competition on who can send the mostcreativemessagemaydevelopwitheveryonetryingtodeterminewhotheirsecretadmirersare.5. On the final day, time is set aside for peopleto acknowledge their secret admirer.Participants may want to guess who theirsecret admirers were.DOUBLE WHEELGroup size: 10 to 30Time: 20 minutesMaterials: Cassette of local music with acassette player✔ OBJECTIVETointroduceparticipantstoeachotherinahighlyinteractiveway.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEWith a group who do not know one another.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Divideparticipantsintotwogroupsofequalsize.2. Have each group form a circle, one circleinsidetheother.3. Instructparticipantsintheinsidecircletogoclockwise, those in the outer circle gocounter-clockwiseasthemusicplays.4. Askthemtostopmovingwhenthemusicstopsand face the person from the other groupstandinginfrontofthem.Exchangenamesandwhere they come from. When the musicresumes,theygobackinthecircleandmoveinthesamedirectionasbefore.5.Whenthemusicstopsagain,theyshouldrushtofindtheirpreviouspartnerandbothcrouchdown.Thelastfewpairstocrouchdownareselected to have each partner introduce theother to the plenary.6. Continue the "Double Wheel" with anotherfewroundsuntilallparticipantshaveintroducedthem-selves to thegroup.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  42. 42. 35Notes on variation and new games
  43. 43. 36Notes on variation and new games
  44. 44. 37SECTION 11WARM-UPS AND ENERGIZERSWarm-upsandenergizerscanassistinenliveningandre-invigoratingthegroupprocess.Use these games and exercises :● Afteralongdifficultsession.● When group discussion has become tense or lengthy.● Duringperiodofthedayoreveningwhenparticipantsarefired.● When the pace of the workshop needs to be changed.
  45. 45. 38NOTES ON VARIATION AND NEW GAMES
  46. 46. 39CHARADESGroup size: 10 to 30Time: 20 to 30 minutesMaterials: None✔ OBJECTIVETo warm up the group while developingperceptual powers.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEDuringagroupevent.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Onepersonactsoutsomethingspecific,suchas pretending to be an animal or person orpretending to be doing something such assewing,playingcards,watchingTV,etc.2. Theotherstrytoguesswhattheactorisdoing.3. Participants can work together in pairs, insmallgroupsorinteams.AN INTRODUCTIONDANCEGroup size:15 to 40Time: 45 minutesMaterials: Flip-chart,paper,pencils,maskingtape, a radio, musical instrumentor tape player✔ OBJECTIVETo energize the group while increasingparticipationinactivitiesinvolvinggroupgoalsorinterests.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEDuringagroupevent.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask participants a specific question; forexample,"Whatisitthatyoulikemostaboutyourwork?"(oranyrelevantquestion).Explainthattheiranswermustbebrief.2. Have each participant write their name andanswer on a piece of paper and tape it ontotheirchest.3. Start the music and invite participants todance (not in pairs). Explain that while theyare dancing they must look for otherparticipants with answers that are the sameor similar to their own. Those with similaranswerslinkarms,keepmovingandlookingfor new participants to add to their group.4. Stop the music. Check to see how manygroups have formed. If there are manyparticipants still alone, start the music againandgivethemasecondopportunitytofindagroup.5. Whenthemajorityhaveformedgroups,stopthe music and invite each group to discusstheiranswers.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  47. 47. 404. Thedriverindicates,withoutspeaking,whichdirectionthecarshouldmovebytappingtheother person on the shoulder. A tap on therightshouldermeansturnright.Atapontheleft shoulder means turn left. Tapping in themiddle of the back means go straight ahead.Speedmayberegulatedbytappingfasterandslower. A hand held solidly on the backmeans stop.5. After several minutes, switch roles. Thedriversshouldavoiddrivingtheir"cars"intoeach other or into solid objects.VARIATION1. Robot testing (see VIPP manual, page 98).2. This activity can be lengthened by askingdrivers,afterthefirstround,toidentifywhattypeofcartheyweredriving.The"cars"cansay what type of car they were.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○CarsGroup size: 10 to 50Time: 5 minutesMaterials: None✔ OBJECTIVE- To increase the level of trust amongparticipants.- Toenliventhegroup.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEWhen a group needs a change of pace.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask the group to divide into pairs.2. One partner stands behind the other. Thepersoninfrontclosestheireyesandpretendsto be a car.3. Thepersonbehindkeepstheireyesopenandacts as the driver.
  48. 48. 41MINGLE AND STOPGroup size: 15 to 40Time: 5 to 10 minutesMaterials: Cards, music (optional)✔ OBJECTIVETo increase group concentration andparticipation.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAtanytimeduringagroupevent.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. This exercise works well with music or byusingthecommands,"mingle"and"stop".2. Randomly place cards on the floor at leasttwofeetapart.Thereshouldbeonelesscardthanthenumberofparticipants.3. Asthemusicbeginsorthe"mingle"commandisgiven,playersmoveaboutfreely,withinacentral area.4. When the music is stopped or the "stop"commandisgiven,playersquicklychooseacard to stand on. The person without a cardis out of the game.5. Thefacilitatorremovesacardandthe"mingle"commandisgivenagain.6. This is repeated until only one card isremainingandtwoplayersmustcompeteforit.FRUITS AND ANIMALSGroup size:15 to 40Time: 6 to 10 minutesMaterials: None✔ OBJECTIVEToimprovecoordinationandattentivenesswithinthegroup.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEWhen people are feeling slow and tired. Thisexercise requires everyones participation andalertness.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask the group to form a circle and clap.2. Afterthreeclaps,thefacilitatorsaysthenameofafruit.3. After three more claps the next person saysthenameofananimal.4. After three more claps the next person saysthenameofafruitandsoonaroundthecircle.5. If someone says the name of a fruit when ananimal is required, or cannot think of a fruitor animal, or repeats the name of a fruit oranimalthathasalreadybeensaid,theymustsitdown.6. Continue until the last two participants arecontestingandonewins.VARIATIONThe exercise can be simplified by asking theparticipantstonameonlyfruitsoranimalsinsteadofalternatingbetweenthetwo.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
  49. 49. 42GROUP MOVEMENTGroup size: 10 to 50Time: 5 to 15 minutesMaterials: None✔ OBJECTIVEToincreaseinteractionbetweenparticipants.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEDuringagroupevent.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPSMostparticipantsingroupeventswillidentifyafavoriteseatorareaandcontinuetochooseitforthedurationoftheworkshop.Resolvetobreakupthesefamiliarseatingpatternsforthebenefitofthegroup.Thiscanbeachievedby:1. Asking participants to mingle and changeseatseverymorning.2. Changing the size of working groups orvaryingtheworkingareaorarrangement.3. Moving participants into different locationsaccording to their views on a topic.4. Askingparticipantstoselectthepersonaboutwhom they know the least, or identify mostclosely with, or feel most in disagreementwith, and seek out that person as theirconversation partner for the next severalminutes.GOING ON A JOURNEYGroup size:15 to 20Time: 15 to 20 minutesMaterials: None✔ OBJECTIVEToimproveconcentrationandmemoryskills.❍❍❍❍❍ WHEN TO USEAnytime.✍✍✍✍✍ STEPS1. Ask the group to form a circle and clap inunison.2. Askonepersontostartbysaying:"Iamgoingon a journey . . . and on this journey Imbringingmy...(e.g.toothbrush,dog)."3. The next person should repeat the firststatement and add another item.4. Thegamecontinuesuntilalltheparticipantshave added an item to the list and can repeattheentirelist.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○

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