Building goodrelationships improvesyour ability to makecollaborative decisions,to better understand theother side and boost yourefficiency. Dont be putoff by regional or culturaldifferences when sittingdown to negotiate.
What Is Negotiation? Negotiation is the process of securing an agreement between parties with different needs and goals, but each having something to offer the other, and each benefiting from establishing an agreement, though the balance of power can be dependent upon whether one partys need is significantly greater than the other. In such a scenario the choice is to take advantage or exercise great diplomatic skill. Empathy, sensitivity, neutrality, objectivity are characteristics of good negotiators.
Cardinal Rule for Negotiation The key to negotiating is figuring out what the other party wants. Everything else will come together after the essentials are named.
Qualities of a GoodNegotiator 1. A good talker 2. A good listener 3. A man of patience 4. Has a right attitude towards Unions 5. Build a reputation of being fair but firm 6. Understanding 7. Not too critical
NEGOTIATION A. THE INITIAL STAGE Take in more information than you give out during the initial negotiation stage. Never start with your bottom line (MAR) This is the time for pleasantries Get to know the other side
NEGOTIATION 1. Know the Negotiator Your job is to find out what their MAR is Nonverbal behavior means something, but they mean different things to different people Always follow up on perceptions of discomfort, incongruence, anger or disgust Be aware that you are sending out non-verbal messages as well 1. Learn about the other person’s underlying needs, restrictions and flexibilities 2. Ask questions like “why is that important to you?”
NEGOTIATIONS 4. Learn about the other person’s method of processing information & use that in your negotiation communications Visual: hand gestures in front of face, “I see what you mean”, “I get the picture”, etc. Audio: gestures at waist level, “I hear you”, “Listen up”, “I’ve told you 100 times” etc. Kinesics: Large hand gestures associated with different body parts. “I feel uncomfortable with that”, “I’m skeptical” “what were you thinking?”, “cool”, “excellent”
NEGOTIATIONS 5. If you can get to know the “whys” of your opponent’s position, you might be able to solve the problem in a manner that neither of you had thought about before without giving up anything that you want. 6. Knowing the why’s gives you the opportunity to become a creative negotiator and problem solver.
Communication Techniques 1) Listening Responses Clarification – by “kill”, do you mean the entire project or just portions that are important to you? Paraphrase – It sounds like the scope of work you proposed can’t be done for the amount of money allocated to direct costs. Reflection – You are feeling frustrated and believe the University is taking advantage of your hard work. Summarization – If the University pays for its overhead costs out of your project, you won’t be able to do the whole thing, this sounds really frustrating. Empathy - There never seems to be enough resources to go around, and you are frustrated by this.
Communication Techniques2) ACTION RESPONSES Open-ended probe- “kill it?” Closed probe – Are you saying, you will reject the entire award if you don’t get a waiver? Confrontation – I’m confused, you said the entire project would be shut down, but I heard you might be going after supplemental funds from a different agency to cover some of the project tasks. Interpretation –I’m wondering if requesting a waiver is the best way to go about getting resources for your project. Information giving- I’ve seen very successful programs that start out smaller and then build up as resources become available. Instructions – Your request doesn’t fall into our waiver policy requirements so, Let’s do a keyword search in x database to see if we can come up with more resources for your project.
Communication Techniques3) Sharing Responses Self-Disclosure – I know how you feel. With energy prices going up all the time, I cringe every time I have to write a check out to the power company to heat my house. I’d much rather spend the money on something I enjoy doing. Immediacy – When you say that, in that way, you sound like this is a life or death situation for you. Reinforcement – You are one of our most successful researchers. If anyone can get additional funding from the sponsor to cover the full costs of this project, it would be you.
Communication Techniques4) VERBAL JUDO Block the Opponent by finding the truth in their statement and agreeing with it I agree, F&A can be a real pain to pay when you have something important to accomplish Disarm the Opponent by complimenting them on something (until they are disarmed, they will not listen to you) I’m so glad you came to talk to me about this, not everyone is as open as you are to discussing allocations of University resources. I really value your opinion. Follow up with your attack – Educate them about what you want and why You know, F&A is really important, not just to the University, but to you and your project as well. Let me explain . . .
NEGOTIATIONSB. Final Stage1. Summarize what each party has agreed to2. Identify who will take what action - ALWAYS volunteer to write the new contractual language1. Finalize any negotiated contentious points in writing2. Spell out the timeframe for the parties to act (I’ll get the language to you by Tuesday next week and we expect a check by Thursday).3. If oral or phone negotiations, follow up with a written e- mail or letter summarizing your agreements and send off asap.
NEGOTIATION STYLES 1) COMPETETIVE NEGOTIATORS Hard line “take it or leave it” Set up deadlines (that aren’t really deadlines) High expectations of end results (beware of making demands that are not justifiable – you lose credibility) Difficult to make concessions Will take advantage of another’s perceived weakness or lack of credibility Sees negotiation process as a battle to be won
NEGOTIATION STYLES2) COOPERATIVE NEGOTIATORS Primary goal is to get the deal done rather than risk losing the deal entirely Find creative methods of meeting the other side’s needs Tend to score higher on the “likeability” scale Relationship more important than the bottom line Avoidance of win-lose scenarios See negotiation as a problem to be solved
NEGOTIATION STYLES3) COOPERATIVE OR COMPETITIVE? Research shows that competitive negotiators generally end up with better results Cooperative negotiation works only if both sides are using the same approach One method usually works better for you as an individual Competitive does not necessarily mean “abrasive” Be aware of the competitive negotiator wearing cooperative clothing
NEGOTIATION METHODWhich Negotiation method is best? Face to Face Able to read gestures, body language (may not mean what you think it means), usually results in quicker results Telephone: Good for Audio processors, can hear inflection, tone. Allows you to create your own image of the other party E-mail: Avoidance of the intimidation factor in negotiations, better for Visual processors, allows for a written history of negotiations – allows the other side more time to think about propositions – tone can’t be ascertained Snail Mail For more formal situations or to document other communications or when delay is used as a negotiation tactic
Even if you’re on the right track, you’ll get run over if you just sit there. Arthur Godfrey
Do’s for Negotiator1. Listen2. Be sensitive3. Disagree on a positive note4. Acknowledge others’ contributions5. Have a total plan6. Be calm and composed7. Be sure you have all the facts
Don’ts for Negotiator1. Don’t be in a hurry2. Don’t underestimate others3. Don’t embarrass other people4. Don’t react unfavorably to your own mistakes5. Don’t compromise on your objectives6. Don’t oversell
You Get What You Negotiate,Not What You Deserve