Bikeway Design for Complete Streets


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Bikeway Design for Complete Streets

  1. 1. Bikeway Design forComplete StreetsSteve Durrant :: Paul Wojciechowski
  2. 2. Bikeways Solutions for St. Louis
  3. 3. Objectives • Understand that there is diversity among bicyclists we are designing for in St. Louis • There is a distinct preference in the type of facilities we are providing in the Gateway Bike Plan. • There are a basic and expanded pallet of bikeway types in the Gateway Bike Plan. • Safety is critical, and good design is mandatory. • Funding is available to get it done • Practice using the bikeway “Top 10”.
  4. 4. The BicycleVision – The Gateway Bike Plan will create the bicycle component to the regional transportation network that accommodates all users and promotes consistent design and development of bicycle facilities.
  5. 5. The BicycleMission – Increase the number of people using bicycles for transportation, while reducing the number of crashes involving bicycles
  6. 6. Top Ten Considerations for Bikeways 1. Is the roadway a collector , arterial or  neighborhood street?  2. Has the bikeway taken into consideration the  primary type of riders using the bikeway? 3. How does the bikeway fit into the roadway  segment? 4. Has the bikeway type considered the volume  of motor vehicles? 5. Has the bikeway type considered speeds of  motor vehicles?
  7. 7. Top Ten Considerations for Bikeways 6. How does the bikeway integrate into the  transportation system? 7. Has the bikeway taken into consideration  ongoing maintenance? 8. Has the bikeway type considered  intersections? 9. What destinations are you connecting? 10. Have you considered  the right of way and  roadway width ? 
  8. 8. Who are we designing our system for?Shared Roadways Separated Bike Lanes Interested but Concerned No Way, No How 60% 33% 60% Strong and Enthused and Fearless Confident Photo - Trailnet Photo – Roger Geller
  9. 9. What Choices do we have?
  10. 10. Bike Network: Note: Bike St. Louis mileage included in the table does not include mileage in the regional network that calls for changes to facility type. Assessment in the plan did not include all BSL routes.
  11. 11. Great Ideas… but how do we make   these ideas in St. Louis? Think Complete Streets!
  12. 12. PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN1. Allow cyclists to use the road Provide a smooth riding surface Make room for cyclists2. Make road inviting to cyclists Slow traffic down Reallocate roadway space3. Make drivers aware of bicycle presence Stripe or mark or sign when needed4. Build paths where appropriate To supplement the street system
  13. 13. What are bicyclists’ obligations?Ride on the right in the same direction as  other trafficObey all traffic signs and signalsUse hand signals to communicate intended movementsEquip their bicycles with a front lamp and a  rear reflector (light preferred)
  14. 14. Is the roadway a collector, arterial  or neighborhood street?
  15. 15. Arterial Road with Curb and Gutter
  16. 16. Arterial Road without curb and Gutter
  17. 17. Collector Roads
  18. 18. Neighborhood Street
  19. 19. Quiet Streets
  20. 20. Quiet Streets EssentialsBike/Walk StreetsBicycle Preferred StreetsBicycle Boulevards
  21. 21. Definition• Operation of a local street modified to act as a  through street for bicyclists and pedestrians• Traffic controls give priority to through cyclists  and pedestrians• Through auto traffic is encouraged to use  alternate routes
  22. 22. Purpose• To  provide continuous low‐stress access  within a neighborhood.• To provide a route parallel to desirable high‐ volume travel routes• To create low‐stress connections to family,  work and recreation destinations• To provide a network of connected  neighborhoods
  23. 23. Why?Walk or bike to school1969 42%2001 16% Health, options, independence and vitality
  24. 24. Why?
  25. 25. Why?
  26. 26. Features• Safe pedestrian environment for all ages and  abilities• Safe and convenient bicycle and pedestrian  crossings minimizing delay at minor streets• Easy to find and follow• Calming for motor vehicle traffic• Streetscape that slows and discourages through  motor vehicle traffic
  27. 27. Features• Parallel to desirable travel routes lacking  dedicated bicycle facilities or that make  pedestrians uncomfortable• Accommodate pedestrians and cyclists not  comfortable using major roads (even with bike  lanes and sidewalks)• A “Family‐friendly” alternative for children  and/or less experienced riders 
  28. 28. Why?
  29. 29. When will this work?… with an interconnected grid…when a parallel route exists for through auto traffic
  30. 30. • Quiet Streets are also called Bicycle  Boulevards or Neighborhood Greenways• Streets where bicycling and walking is  prioritized over motor vehicles• Shared roadways with no specific vehicle or  bike lane markings (e.g., a residential street)• Streets with lower travel speeds and low or  reduced motor vehicle volumes• A safe environment to walk along and cross as  a pedestrian
  31. 31. Why Bother?• Precedent• Finding Our way• Calming• Getting Across• Signals
  32. 32. AASHTOMUTCDFHWAFTA Precedent
  33. 33. Precedent
  34. 34. NACTO Bike Boulevard OutlineTailor streets to existing conditions and desired outcomes;1. Slow motor vehicle speeds2. Low or reduced motor vehicle volumes3. Minimal bicyclist delays at minor intersections4. Safe and convenient major street crossings5. An easy‐to‐find and –follow route
  35. 35. Finding our way
  36. 36. Finding our way
  37. 37. Finding our way
  38. 38. Finding our way
  39. 39. Finding our way
  40. 40. Calming
  41. 41. Calming
  42. 42. Calming +
  43. 43. Calming
  44. 44. Getting across
  45. 45. Getting across
  46. 46. Getting across
  47. 47. Connections
  48. 48. Connections
  49. 49. Connections/Calming
  50. 50. Transit Connections
  51. 51. Finding our way
  52. 52. Calming
  53. 53. Connections
  54. 54. Putting it all together
  55. 55. Signals
  56. 56. Signals
  57. 57. Signals
  58. 58. Shared Lane Markings
  59. 59. Shared Lane Markings
  60. 60. Shared Lane Markings Shared roadway pavement markings are markings used to indicate a shared lane environment for bicycles and automobiles. SLMs reinforce the validity of bicycle traffic on the road and suggest proper positioning of cyclists on the street. Portland
  61. 61. Shared Lane Markings: Shared Lane Markings: “ What does it do? – Shows cyclists where to  ride on the street to avoid  doors – Alerts drivers to cyclists Where is it appropriate? – Not enough room for lanes – Parallel parking – High occupancy rate
  62. 62. Use of Shared Lane Markings• Adjacent to on‐street parking to position  cyclist outside of door zone• In wide lanes to position away from curb• Narrow lanes (yes, they can go in the middle)• Multi‐lane roads where there is no room for  bike lane• Climbing lanes (on downgrade) paired with  bike lane• 35 mph or less speed limit
  63. 63. Where not to use SLM’s• On paved shoulders or in bike lanes• Where the speed limit exceeds 35 mph• In door zones
  64. 64. Shared Lane Marking
  65. 65. Shared Lane Marking
  66. 66. Shared Lane Markings
  67. 67. Shared Lane Markings
  68. 68. Shared Lane Marking
  69. 69. Shared Lane Marking
  70. 70. Shared Lane Marking
  71. 71. Shared Lane MarkingEager Road,Brentwood/RichmondHeights
  72. 72. Shared with Route Signing
  73. 73. Shared with Route Signing and Marking
  74. 74. Bike Lanes Lanes
  75. 75. Bike Lanes 
  76. 76. Advantages of bike lanes• Create a lane so cyclists can travel at their own pace ( priority for bikes that allow passing stopped motor vehicles in travel lanes)• Guide cyclists in a manner consistent with good operation (close to traffic, where they’re visible and drivers can predict their movements)• Reduce bicycle / pedestrian conflicts (cyclists no longer ride on sidewalks)• Striping creates conditions that change behaviors• More cyclists on the road leads to increased driver awareness
  77. 77. Advantages of bike lanes
  78. 78. Bike Lane Basics  • Markings are required, signs are optional • Edge lines between bikes and motor  vehicles should be 6”, the right bike lane  line should be 4” • Keep bike lanes solid and not dotted at  unsignalized driveways and alleys • Dot lines through bus stops • In St. Louis we use a helmeted rider and  an arrow
  79. 79. Bike Lane Basics • 5 ft. standard width (4 ft. with no curb and gutter)• 5 ft. bike lane is sufficient assuming a 1 ft. wide  gutter• In areas that have 2 ft. wide gutter, a 6 ft. wide bike lane is preferred, with 5 ft. as a minimum width in locations with lower speeds• In extremely constrained, urban low speed environments where 5 ft. cannot be achieved and there is no gutter, a 4 ft. wide bike lane is acceptable (assumes adjacent travel lane has been narrowed to the minimum acceptable width)
  80. 80. Car Doors and Bike Lanes• Why this is an issue, and where?• Recommend and reinforcing safer path of travel  Use Parking “T’s” extending into bike lane  Use parking “T’s” in a wide parking lane  Slightly narrower bike lane symbols on the left of lane
  81. 81. Angled Parking• Bike lanes not recommended along front-in angled parking, use Shared Lane Markings• Bike lanes are OK with back-in angled parking if: 1. Parking bays are sufficiently long 2. Solid line separates parking and bike lane Yes No
  82. 82. Angled parking
  83. 83. Curb, Gutter and Inlets• When measuring for bike lanes, the gutter pan  matters• 4’ minimum outside of gutter
  84. 84. An inlet covering most of the  travel way for bicyclists…is a shoulder 1’
  85. 85. Replace inlets that are hazards!
  86. 86. Bike Safe…but turned wrong
  87. 87. Bike safe… turned the correct direction
  88. 88. Bike safe… and channels water
  89. 89. The best grate…is no grate
  90. 90. Colorized Lanes Color applied to bicycle facilities helps alert roadway users to the presence of bicyclists and clearly assigns right-of-way to cyclists. Motorists are expected to yield to cyclists in these areas. Portland
  91. 91. Colorized Lanes
  92. 92. Colorized Lanes
  93. 93. Colorized Lanes
  94. 94.  Convenience of Colorized Lanes riding on the street with some psychological separation Novice cyclists are more likely to ride in bike lane, not on sidewalk Street appears narrower - motorists drive slower Used in many cities within the US (Seattle, Olympia, Portland) and worldwide
  95. 95. Colorized Lanes
  96. 96. Colorized Lanes
  97. 97. Colorized Lanes
  98. 98. Colorized Lanes Portland
  99. 99. Colorized Lanes
  100. 100. Colorized Lanes
  101. 101. Colorized Lanes
  102. 102. Other Ideas: Jug-handle - go right to turn left
  103. 103. Jug-handle: go right to turn left
  104. 104. Jug-handle: go right to turn left
  105. 105. Intersections with On- or Off-RampsJug-handle: go right to turn left
  106. 106. Jug-handle: go right to turn left
  107. 107. Bike Boxes Portland
  108. 108. Bike Boxes
  109. 109. Bike Boxes
  110. 110. Bike Boxes
  111. 111. Bike Boxes
  112. 112. Bike Boxes Portland
  113. 113. Bike Boxes Portland
  114. 114. Bike Boxes
  115. 115. Bike Boxes
  116. 116. Bike Boxes Portland
  117. 117. Bike Boxes Portland
  118. 118. Buffered Bicycle lane with a spatial buffer to increase the distance between the bicycle travel lane and the automobile travel lane or the parking zone.Portland
  119. 119. Buffered
  120. 120. Buffered
  121. 121. Buffered Portland
  122. 122. Buffered
  123. 123. Buffered
  124. 124. BufferedPortland
  125. 125. BufferedPortland
  126. 126. Buffered Portland
  127. 127.  Convenience of Buffered (Raised) riding on the street + psychological separation of a barrier Mountable curb allows cyclists to leave bike lane for turning or overtaking Motorists feel bump when they stray into curb Novice bicyclists more likely to ride in bike lane rather than on sidewalk
  128. 128. Buffered (Raised)Combines the convenience of riding on the streetwith the psychological separation of a barrier Mountable curb mountable curb
  129. 129. Cycle Tracks
  130. 130. Cycle Tracks
  131. 131. Cycle Track A bicycle exclusive facility that provides physical separation from motorized vehicle traffic within the right of way.Portland
  132. 132. Cycle Track A bicycle exclusive facility that provides physical separation from motorized vehicle traffic within the right of way. Combines the user experience of a separated path with the on-street infrastructure of a bike lane.Portland
  133. 133. Cycle Track
  134. 134. Cycle TrackAmsterdam, The Netherlands
  135. 135. Cycle TrackCopenhagen, Denmark
  136. 136. Cycle TrackCambridge, MA
  137. 137. Cycle TrackCambridge, MA
  138. 138. Cycle TrackCambridge, MA
  139. 139. Cycle TrackCambridge, MA
  140. 140. Cycle TrackCambridge, MA
  141. 141. Cycle TrackVancouver, BC
  142. 142. Cycle TrackVancouver, BC
  143. 143. Cycle Track Munich
  144. 144. Cycle Track Munich
  145. 145. Cycle TrackKelowna, BC (Stantec)
  146. 146. Cycle TrackKelowna, BC (Stantec)
  147. 147. Cycle Track
  148. 148. Cycle Track
  149. 149. Cycle Track
  150. 150. Cycle Track Portland
  151. 151. Cycle Track Portland
  152. 152. Cycle Track Portland
  153. 153. Cycle Track Portland
  154. 154. Cycle Track Portland
  155. 155. Intersection Markings
  156. 156. Continuity & Transitions
  157. 157. Continuity & Transitions
  158. 158. Continuity & Transitions
  159. 159. Continuity & Transitions
  160. 160. Intersections
  161. 161. Merge Areas
  162. 162. Contra‐Flow Bike Lanes
  163. 163. Contra‐Flow Bike Lanes
  164. 164. Contra‐Flow A one-way motorized traffic street with two-way bicycle facilities, including an opposite direction bicycle only lane.Portland
  165. 165. Contra‐FlowDouble yellow line creates 2-way street
  166. 166. Contra‐Flow
  167. 167. Contra‐Flow
  168. 168. Signals
  169. 169. Signals
  170. 170. Bike Signals
  171. 171. Signals
  172. 172. SignalsOregon & Interstate, Portland 177
  173. 173. Hybrid Beacons
  174. 174. SignalsHAWK signal
  175. 175. Sidepaths
  176. 176. Request to Experiment The Process
  177. 177. Request to ExperimentFHWA experimentation procedure:Requests for experimentation shouldoriginate with the agency responsible formanaging the roadway where experiment willtake place.That organization forwards the request to theFHWA.The FHWA must approve the experimentbefore it begins.
  178. 178. Request to ExperimentAll requests must include:A statement of the nature of the problem, including datathat justifies the need for a new device or application.Describe the proposed change, how it was developed,how it deviates from the current MUTCD.Illustrations that enhance understanding of the deviceor its use.Explain how the device was developed, if it has beentried, the adequacy of its performance, and the processby which the device was chosen.A statement that the concept of the traffic control deviceis not protected by a patent or copyright.
  179. 179. Request to ExperimentAll requests must include:The time period and locations of the experiment.A detailed research or evaluation plan. Before and afterstudies, quantitative data enabling a scientifically-soundevaluation of the performance.An agreement to restore the site following completion.Agreement to terminate the experiment if the experimentcauses significant safety hazards.An agreement to provide progress reports for theduration of the experiment.
  180. 180. Request to Experiment4‐12 Weeks
  181. 181. Request to Experiment1Year Minimum 
  182. 182. Request to ExperimentAt the conclusion of the experiment:If the experiment demonstrates animprovement, it may remain in placeas a request is made to update theMUTCD.
  183. 183. Request to ExperimentDocument EverythingLook for precedent Other modes Historic Other placesEvaluate effectiveness Before During After ControlRefineDocument
  184. 184. Request to ExperimentDocument EverythingLook for precedent Other modes Historic Other placesEvaluate effectiveness Before During After ControlRefineDocumentDocument
  185. 185. Request to ExperimentDocument EverythingLook for precedent Other modes Historic Other placesEvaluate effectiveness Before During After ControlRefineDocumentDocumentDocument
  186. 186. ParkingOregon & Interstate, Portland
  187. 187. Parking
  188. 188. Parking