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Cells and their_functions1
 

Cells and their_functions1

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    Cells and their_functions1 Cells and their_functions1 Presentation Transcript

    • Cells and Their Functions
    • What is a cell?
    • Here’s what a “cell” is!
      • Cell - the smallest unit of an organism that carries on the functions of life
      • A cell can perform all the processes of life .
    • Comparing cells
      • Many Sizes:
          • nerve cells - up to a meter long
          • human egg cell - dot of an i
          • bacteria - 80,000 could fit in the dot of an i
    • Comparing cells
      • Different shapes:
          • Related to their function (job)
    • Comparing cells
      • Cell types:
          • Prokaryotic cell –
          • very simple; no membrane-bound structures
          • (ex: bacteria )
          • Eukaryotic cell –
          • more advanced; has membrane- bound structures
          • (ex: animal cells, plant cells)
    • Early Cell Scientists
      • Robert Hooke (1665)
      • An English scientist who looked at slices of cork under a crude compound microscope and saw “a great many little boxes ” that he called “cells.” First person to see cells.
      • “ Cell” comes from the Latin word for “ little room .”
    • Early Cell Scientists
      • Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1673)
      • A Dutch shopkeeper who looked at pond water using a simple microscope and saw what he called “ animalcules .”
      • Today, we call them single-celled organisms .
      An Early Simple Microscope
    • Early Cell Scientists
      • Matthias Schleiden (1838)
      • A German botanist who discovered that all plants are made up of similar units , or cells.
    • Early Cell Scientists
      • Theodor Schwann (around 1830)
      • A German scientist who stated that all plants and animals are made up of building blocks , or cells.
      • He also observed that there are similarities and differences between plant and animal cells.
    • Early Cell Scientists
      • Rudolph Virchow (1858)
      • This German physician also reported that every living thing is made of up vital units, known as cells . He also predicted that cells come from other cells .
    • Cell Theory
      • 1. All living things are made up of one or more cells .
      • 2. Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things.
      • 3. All cells come only from other living cells.
    • Cell Structure Animal Cell Plant Cell
    • Cell Structure
      • A cell is like a small town : Different parts have different and specialized jobs .
      • Plant cells and animal cells have many similar structures, but have several important differences .
    • Cell Membrane
      • Structure :
      • Outer boundary of the cell
      • Phospholipid bilayer membrane
      • Selectively permeable
    • Cell Membrane
      • Function (job) :
      • Protects inside
      • Supports/gives shape
      • Controls what enters/leaves - “gatekeeper”
      • Helps maintain homeostasis (ability to keep a stable environment)
    • Cell Wall
      • Structure :
      • ONLY IN PLANTS
      • Made of cellulose
      • Strong & rigid
      • Dead layer
    • Cell Wall
      • Function (job) :
      • Protects/ supports
      • Gives shape
    • Cytoplasm
      • Structure :
      • Jelly-like substance
      • 80 % water
    • Cytoplasm
      • Function (job) :
      • Organelles float in cytoplasm
      • Materials for growth are found in cytoplasm
      • Expels waste through cell membrane
    • Nucleus
      • Structure :
      • Surrounded by nuclear membrane
      • Usually round/oval
      • Near center
    • Nucleus
      • Function (job) :
      • Control center of cell
      • Controls cell activities
      • Contains chromosomes
    • Mitochondria
      • Structure :
      • Has an outer membrane and an inner folded membrane
      • Rod shaped
    • Mitochondria
      • Function (job) :
      • Cellular respiration
      • Turns food into useable energy (ATP)
    • Ribosomes
      • Structure :
      • Tiny, round, dark
      • Can be free floating or attached to endoplasmic reticulum
    • Ribosomes
      • Function (job) :
      • Protein factories
      • Assembles proteins used in growth, repair and control
    • Endoplasmic Reticulum
      • Structure :
      • Network of tubes and canals
      • Smooth ER - no ribosomes attached
      • Rough ER - ribosomes are attached
    • Endoplasmic Reticulum
      • Function (job) :
      • Transports materials “intracellular highway”
    • Golgi Bodies
      • Structure :
      • Series of flattened sacs
    • Golgi Bodies
      • Function (job) :
      • Processes, packages and secretes material
      • Materials that are transported by the ER usually stop first at the Golgi bodies where they are stored or altered before moving to other parts of the cell
    • Lysosomes
      • Structure :
      • ONLY IN ANIMAL CELLS
      • Contains powerful digestive chemicals
    • Lysosomes
      • Function (job) :
      • Contains digestive enzymes (chemicals), breaks things down
      • “ suicide sac”
    • Vacuoles
      • Structure :
      • Fluid -filled sacs that float in the cytoplasm
    • Vacuoles
      • Function (job) :
      • Stores water and food materials
      • Stores waste and helps the cell get rid of waste
      • Plant cells contain a large central vacuole - filled with water - helps give shape
    • Chloroplast
      • Structure :
      • ONLY IN PLANT CELLS
      • Green, oval-shaped
      • Contains green pigment chlorophyll
    • Chloroplast
      • Function (job) :
      • Site of photosynthesis
      • Traps the sun’s energy to make glucose
    •  
    • How are plant and animal cells different? PLANT CELLS: Have cell walls , chloroplasts , large vacuoles
    • How are plant and animal cells different? ANIMAL CELLS: Have lysosomes
    • How are different cells adapted to their functions? Muscle Cells: Have large quantities of mitochondria for energy. Plant Cells: Rigid cell walls allow plants to grow upright .
    • How are different cells adapted to their functions? Red Blood Cells: Thin, flexible discs allow them to squeeze through tiny blood vessels . Nerve Cells: Have long projections through which message s are sent throughout the body.
    • Vocabulary
      • Permeable
      • Diffusion
      • Osmosis
      • Mitosis
      • Chromosome
      • Centriole
      • Centromere
    • Organization of Living Things
    • Organization of Living Things
      • Five main levels of organization
      • 1. Cell
      • 2. Tissue
      • 3. Organ
      • 4. Organ System
      • 5. Organism
    • Tissue
      • Example: Muscle
      • Tissues are made of specialized cells.
    • Organ
      • Examples: Heart, Lung, Brain
      • Found in both plants and animals.
      • Composed of tissue that is organized into groups that work together to perform special functions.
    • Organ System
      • Example: Circulatory System
      • A group of organs that work together.
    • 10 Organ Systems in complex organisms (humans, dogs, birds, etc.)
      • 1. Circulatory
      • 2. Digestive
      • 3. Nervous
      • 4. Respiratory
      • 5. Skin
      • 6. Skeletal
      • 7. Muscular
      • 8. Reproductive
      • 9. Excretory
      • 10. Endocrine
    • ORGANISMS
      • Different organ systems work together to keep the organism alive.
    • QUESTION:
      • Classify the following as a tissue, organ, or organ system. a. Brain, spinal cord, and nerves b. Heart c. Group of muscle cells
    • QUESTION:
      • Can a single-celled organism contain tissue? Explain.
    • QUESTION:
      • Give one example of each: a. Cell c. Tissue b. Organ d. Organism