What do I do first? Take a look at your topic and identify key search terms, Ask a question. Most databases now use an implied boolean logic search scheme so a keyword search will get you started. Boolean logic is the use of AND, NOT, OR to narrow or expand your search See Research Guide for PSYC 3401
Research Strategy DEFINING YOUR TOPICMost importantpart ofresearch isat thebeginning
Research Tools• Internet• Catalogs – POLAR – OhioLINK• Databases – General – Subject Specific
So what next?• Start big doing background reading• Look for patterns• Look at reference sources, LC subject heading list, subject headings in research tools• Ask a librarian • Look at thesaurus in the research tools• Narrow your topic for a more focused product
Internet ToolsGoogle and Wikipedia aren’t intrinsically evil, just use them for the correct purpose in your research.
Internet ToolsNote: Ifworking Google Scholaroff ONU buyscampus Full-text database Google asksplease to link tosee the content“google OhioLINK Permitsscholar” Google to Run Googletab at the link to full-text ScholarResearch SearchGuide forPSYC ONU user sees licensed full-text3401 articles
Critically analyzing web sources• What? is the page/site about• Who? created and maintains this site• Where? Is the information coming from• Why? Is the information presented on the web• When? Was the page created or last updated• How? Accurate or credible is the pageFrom the University of Wisconsin Library, worksheet for evaluating web sites
What do I do next?Use library resources to continueyour background research.
Research Strategy DEFINING YOUR TOPICIf needed, youwill want to getan overview of BACKGROUNDyour topic. RESEARCHReferenceworks can helpas well asgeneral books.
Find a Book∞POLAR•Looks in several locations (usuallysubject, article title, abstracts orcontents)•Does not require an exact match•Generates comparatively largenumber of hits (not precise)•Good if you are not familiar withterminology•Look for the same or similar wordswhich keep appearing
Find a Book∞POLAR•Looks in one place – subject•Usually requires an exact matchbetween your term and a pre-setlist of terms•Precise•Can be used after keywordsearch has identified specificsubjects•Click on the “Find Similar Items” linkfound on each item record
Find a Book∞OhioLink• Materials owned by all Ohio colleges, universities, several public libraries• Ca. 10 million items• Link from POLAR permits you to submit requests. Available from Heterick home page• Most requests arrive in 2-3 working days• No charge• Limited to 100 items at a time• MAY RENEW UP TO 4 TIMES
What do I do next?Use databases to find articles based on your search strategy
Research Strategy DEFINING YOUR TOPIC BACKGROUNDWith a basic RESEARCHunderstanding ofyour topic, it is DETAILEDtime to get RESEARCHmore detail
Research Tools∞Databases• Often tools for locating journal and newspaper articles• Most are subject-specific – some multi-disciplinary• Many give access to full text of articles• Heterick has over 250
Scholarly, Peer-reviewed Popular• Periodical means the same as MagazineUsually magazines are more “popular”• Journals Scholarly or Professional Peer reviewed See Research Guide for PSYC 340 for this and other Handouts
Databases -- Subject Specific – MEDLINE with Full Text – Psychology and Behavioral Science Collection – Gender Studies Database – PsycINFO 1967 – present – PubMed (for off campus access, click on the “off-campus access” flag and log in using first and last name and all 11 digits ONU ID )
Databases -- Subject Specific • Social Sciences Citation Index
Citation Databases• “General” databases – searchable by subject, title, author, etc.• Citation databases – as above but tells you who has cited a particular article - significance
Citation Databases (ISI)• Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED)--1980-present• Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI)--1980-present• Arts & Humanities Citation Index (A&HCI)--1980-present• Combined into product, Web of Knowledge
General or Subject Citation Specific Database DatabaseYour Search Terms Your Search Terms Keyword / subject KW / subject Sources Author (citations) Author used by authors themselves Title Title Etc Etc.
Advantages• Gauge significance of individual articles & authors• Uses expertise of experts in the field• Gives insight into research patterns in different disciplines• Can save you time – especially when doing more rigorous research
Empirical Article --summarizing original researchComponents of…• Abstract – A report of an empirical study includes an abstract that provides a very brief summary of the research.• Introduction – The introduction sets the research in a context, which provides a review of related research and develops the hypotheses for the research.• Method – The method section is a description of how the research was conducted, including who the participants were, the design of the study, what the participants did, and what measures were used.• Results – The results section describes the outcomes of the measures of the study.• Discussion – The discussion section contains the interpretations and implications of the study.• General Discussion – There may be more than one study in the report; in this case, there are usually separate Method and Results sections for each study followed by a general discussion that ties all the research together.• References – A references section contains information about the articles and books cited in the report.
Recognizing Empirical Research• Language• measurement• psychological aspects• reports• research statistics• usage• Length of Article• Empirical research articles are usually substantial (more than 1 or 2 pages) and include a bibliography or cited references section (usually at the end of the article).
Searching for empirical studies Hints and Tips1. Always click on “peer 3. Also try the keywords reviewed” and/or "research," “scholarly (peer "experiment," or reviewed) "study" periodicals” link if 4. Some databases will available allow you to limit your2. Try a search that search to a particular combines the type of publication or keyword "empirical" content. Use this with keywords that feature to limit your represent your topic. search to only Example: social work empirical or and empirical. research-based articles or case study
InterLibrary Loan You can cut and paste from most any source, so just fill in all the lines you can. ISSN is the unique number every periodical is assigned so it’s great if you can include that in your request. Be sure to only use the print ISSN, not the on-line ISSN.
Detailed Research DEFINING YOUR TOPIC BACKGROUND RESEARCH DETAILED RESEARCH FINAL PRODUCT
QUESTIONS?• Ask at the Reference Desk• Phone the Reference Desk – 2185• Contact us by E-mail firstname.lastname@example.org• Use Chat Help feature or• IM feature