Catalogs – for locating books, maps, musical scores, govt. documents, etc. Databases – usually for locating magazine and newspaper articles, but may cover other materials as well Internet – digital content, mostly in the public domain (not commercial materials) Accessing Information
Massive collections of data which allow for retrieval Organized Fully indexed Allows for sophisticated searching Target audience Shows access points Updated every second of every day Catalogs
Databases Massive collections of data which allow for retrieval Organized Fully indexed Allows for sophisticated searching Target audience Selected content Not free to the library but free to users Updated periodically
Off Campus Access Be sure to click on the “Off campus access tab” to the right of the database title to begin First and last name exactly as it appears on ONU ID + all 11 digits of university ID Click on “submit”
Finding Journals at HML If looking for a specific journal, type in title at library catalog Print Back issues on microfiche Back issues available electronically
Fortune, print Own title from 1969 to latest received copy. Click on “latest received” to find out where all issues are housed
Fortune, print BND PRP means these issues are at bindery and so unavailable ARRIVED means just that and because the location is “Reserve”, these are ones behind the desk. Copies from 1969 through September 2010 are on 2nd floor bound periodical collection or in microforms
Internet Databases “Pay to Play” Usually created by a single publisher Content pre-arranged for easy use Quality/ content control thru editorial staff Content usually available only to subscribers Content source usually identified and dated Internet (Search Engines) Material from numerous sources, individual. Government, etc. Search engines must work with material prepared without regard for specific software Quality of material varies Generally do not access for-profit information Content often anonymous and undated
Unstructured Constantly changing Not fully indexed Appeals to no special audience No selection of content Content most often not free Updated every second of every day Internet
Multi-engine searching: MetaCrawler Vivisimo WIKIPEDIA
Internet Google and Wikipedia aren’t evil, just use them for the correct purpose in your research.
Internet ONU buys Full-text database Note: See the “Google Scholar” tab in Research Guide for off campus access Google asks to link to content OhioLINK Permits Google to link to full-text Run Google Scholar Search ONU user sees licensed full-text articles
Critically evaluating websites Currency * The timeliness of the information. Relevance/Coverage *The depth and importance of the information. Authority *The source of the information. Accuracy *The reliability of the information. Purpose/Objectivity *The possible bias present in the information. *The CRAAP acronym and descriptions are from Meriam Library at California State University Chico. Used with permission.
The Invisible Web Most searchers only locate 0.03% - 1 in 3,000 - of the Web pages available to them Even advanced searchers, using largest search engines, can only access about 16% of Web content Diagrams from http://brightplanet.com/technology/deepweb.asp
The Invisible Web WHY? Because 84% of the information available on the Internet is found only on the “invisible Web,” a.k.a. “deep Web,” and is not searchable using a general search engine such as Google Statistics from The Deep Web: Surfacing Hidden Value, http://www.press.umich.edu/jep/07-01/bergman.html
The Invisible Web Visible Web page exists in “static” or unchanging form Exists as a “physical” file on a computer Most in .htm or .html format Similar to a word processed document in .doc or .wpd format
Static Web pages considered “visible” because standard search engines can index them and display them as search results
Indexing & the Visible Web Search engine spider crawls Web starting with already indexed static pages Spider encounters link to a new static Web page Webmaster registers new static Web page with search engine Spider follows link Spider adds new Web page to search engine’s index Content rendered “visible”
The Invisible Web Invisible Web content is “dynamic” or changing Contains bits of information stored in a database and pulled together on-the-fly into a Web page at your request Page doesn’t exist until you request it Similar to a mail merged document
Dynamic Web Page Author Title Publication Your search results Searching Smarter Wisconsin Lawyer B. Shucha 1. B. Shucha, “Searching Smarter,” Wisconsin Lawyer. 2. J.Q. Public, “Legal Tech Tips,” ABA Journal. Common Law Marquette Law Review J. Doe J.Q. Public Legal Tech Tips ABA Journal
The Invisible Web Because this content is dynamic, or “physically” nonexistent, most search engines are unable to retrieve it, thereby rendering it “invisible”.
Indexing & the Invisible Web Spider crawls Web starting with already indexed static pages Spider encounters database Query is required to access “dynamic” data Spider incapable of generating query Spider stops and cannot index data in database Content rendered “invisible”
The Invisible Web Other types of Invisible Web Content Very recent static pages which haven’t yet been indexed Password protected data
The Invisible Web Content 95% of invisible Web content is free and available to the public Quality of content often exceeds that of visible Web content From The Deep Web: Surfacing Hidden Value, http://www.press.umich.edu/jep/07-01/bergman.html
The Invisible Web Content Legal & Governmental Materials Available in the Public Domain Case law Statutes Bills Regulations Patents Briefs Census Data Government Reports
The Invisible Web Content All Databases owned by Heterick Memorial Library under the “Business” or “Marketing” links See MRKT Research Guide under “Invisible/Deep Web” Business Data SEC filings Stock quotes Company profiles, annual reports
The Invisible Web Content General Information Address & phone directories Flight schedules Dictionaries Maps
The Invisible Web Content NOT freely available on Web (usually) For Profit Publications Public domain documents with editorial enhancements Other material that is someone’s intellectual property
Finding Invisible Web Content To find ANY information, consider where an authoritative source might be found Print? Visible Web? Invisible Web? Subscription Database? Phone Call? Next, consider the quickest, most cost-effective way to get the information
Finding Invisible Web Content If you determine that it may be available on the invisible Web, how do you find it? By knowing where to look!
Finding Invisible Web Content A great deal of excellent legal and business information is freely available on the Internet unfortunately Much of it is contained within databases and is, therefore, invisible to most conventional search engines
Finding Invisible Web Content The most effective way to access this information is using the database’s own search box fortunately The search box is usually found on a static, visible Web page that is accessible using a conventional search engine
Finding Invisible Web Content Search Strategy DON’Tsearch for specific information using a conventional search engine DO use a conventional search engine to search for a database that may contain the information you seek THEN use the search box for that database to search for the specific information
Finding Invisible Web Content “The point is that often the key to the answer is not locating the answer itself as the first step, but locating the right database in which to search for it.” Diana Botluk, Mining Deeper into the Invisible Web, http://www.llrx.com/features/mining.htm
Finding Invisible Web Content General Invisible Web Directories CompletePlanet, http://www.completeplanet.com Direct Search, http://www.freepint.com/gary/direct.htm ProFusion, http://www.profusion.com Librarian's Index to the Internet, http://lii.org See more under the BIZ 240 Research Guide.
End of Library Class #1 Questions? Email email@example.com IM 8a-12:30p M-F Ext. 2473 Reference desk most days 8a-12:30p Professor Traci Welch Moritz Public Services Librarian/Assistant Professor Heterick Memorial Library