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The Real Long-Form Census Informs Neighbourhood Analysis

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Abstract: …

Abstract:

Ms. Tracey P. Lauriault discusses neighbourhood scale research using Census data. She introduces the The Cybercartographic Pilot Atlas of the Risk of Homelessness created at the Geomatics and Cartographic Research and will feature community based research used to inform public policy as part of the Canadian Social Data Strategy (CSDS) . She features maps and data about social issues in Canadian cities & metropolitan areas (e.g. Calgary, Toronto, Halton, Sault Ste. Marie, Hamilton, Ottawa, Montreal, & others) and focuses on the importance of local analysis and what the loss of the Long-Form Census could mean to evidence based decision making to communities in Canada’s. She will also discuss issues surrounding the cancellation of the long-form census in Canada.

Who:

Tracey P. Lauriault is a researcher at the Geomatics and Cartographic Research Centre at Carleton University and is a PhD Candidate in the Department of Geography and Environmental Studies. She participates in activities and represents the GCRC on topics related to the access to and the preservation of Data. She was the Research Leader for the Pilot Atlas of the Risk of Homelessness funded by HRSDC, part of the Project Management Team for the Cybercartography and the New Economy Project responsible for collaboration, transdisciplinary research, organizational theory and lead researcher of the Cybercartographic Atlas of Antarctica Case Study for the International Research on Permanent Authentic Records in Electronic Systems (InterPARES) 2 and General Study of Archival Policies of Science Data Archives/Repositories.

Currently, she is working on the Canadian Social Data Strategy a project of Canadian Council on Social Development as a Research Associate with Acacia Consulting and Research. Her PhD dissertation is on mapping data access discourses in Canada. She is co-founder of CivicAccces.ca, ogWiFi.ca and co-author of datalibre.ca which hosts Census Watch.

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  • “those facing the risk of losing their shelter either by eviction or the expiry of the lease, with no other possibility of shelter in view. Prisoners or people living in other institutions facing their release and having no place to go to are considered as part of this population.” (Springer, 2000:480). These are also individuals or families whose living spaces do not meet minimum health and safety standards, and do not offer security of tenure, personal safety and/or affordability. In the FCM QOLRS, the technical team has selected a variety of indicators associated with the risk of homelessness and these are: those that spend more than 50% of their income on rent, people living in substandard housing, those on social housing waiting lists, the poor and those who are living on low, insecure or feeble incomes, people on fixed incomes such as seniors or those receiving social assistance, and some demographic groups such as lone parent families. Also see the definition Affordable, Appropriate Housing (AAH).
  • Vacancy rates:
    Cicle total number of Rental Units
    The Radial Line is Vacancy Rates
    50% +
    Circles #f Lone-parent family households with 50% or more of HH Income Spent on Rent
    Radial Line % of these private households over the total number of Private Households Renters for each year.
    Social Housing Waiting Lists
    Circles total number of households on the Social Housing Waiting List
    Radial Line percentage of households on the Social Housing Waiting List over to the total number of Rent Geared to Income (RGI) Units
    Housing Starts for Rental, Condos and Private Homes
    Circles total Number of Housing Starts for Rental Unit, or Condo or Private Homes
    Radial Line is percentage of a type of Housing Starts over the Total Housing Starts
  • EA for for 1991
    DA for 2001 and 2006
    This series of maps represents the spatial interpolation of the percentage of both the Low Income Cut Off (LICO) and the households spending more than 30% in rent (30% plus). This interpolation is based on data provided at the EA scale (1991) and DA scale (2001 and 2006).
    How to read this map: the darker areas represent the higher percentages, either in terms of LICO or 30% plus. For instance we can see an important increase of the percentage of households spending more than 30% in rent (30% plus) between 1996 and 2001.
    Low income cut-offs (LICOs)
    are income thresholds,
    family expenditure data, below which families will devote a larger share of income to the necessities of food, shelter and clothing than the average family would.
    Wanted to include the sSignpost study but could not as we could not get a boundary file of the health districts
  • Points display absolute values (numbers)‏
    Colors display percentages for the same criteria.
    Logements sociaux et communautaires : NPO, Coop, total des logements sociaux et abordables existants peu importe leur année de création, le loyer est fixé en fonction du revenu des locataires et indépendamment du marché du logement.
    HLM : habitations à loyer modique
    • PSL : Programme de supplément au loyer
    • LAQ : Programme Logement Abordable Québec - Volet social et communautaire
    • ACL : Programme AccèsLogis
    * % = total number of rental housing by municipality, except for the 50% rate of effort which is calculated based on the total number of renter households.
    * The quantile method has been used to discretise the % (bottom map). This method allows comparison between series of maps (e.g. for each criteria once can see in which part of the distribution each specific municipality is located). For some criteria (e.g. % LAQ), the high number of zeros affect the classification.
  • Canada Post has these: http://www.canadapost.ca/cpc2/addrm/hh/maps/fsa/ON34.pdf and http://www.canadapost.ca/cpc2/addrm/hh/maps/FSA/ON36.pdf.
    By looking at these maps, you may notice that the FSA’s for Northern Ontario are huge in size. Most of the rural area of the Algoma District is covered in two FSA’s (P0S, P0R), with some area’s lying within the gigantic P0M area. There are 3 FSA’s for Sault Ste. Marie, and one for Elliot Lake. The P6A area stands out in SSM, as it covers the downtown core, the east side of the city and parts of two First Nation Reserves. In short, any data grouped by FSA (including the SAAD dataset) cannot be used at a meaningful sub-municipal level. For SSM, if we had to rely on the SAAD dataset to replace some information found in the census long form, we would need at least CT level geography. As far as I know, CT level SAAD data is prohibitively expensive. I’m pretty sure it doesn’t come at the DA level either. If it does, I can’t even imagine what it would cost.
    The problem with CTs is that the SSM Census Agglomeration area is tracted, while the rest of the Algoma District is not. Therefore, CT level data is not useful for rural Algoma. We have to rely on CSDs or DAs.
    I’m sure these problems exist in other municipalities, but I have attached a rudimentary map showing the CTs in and immediately surrounding the urban area of SSM. It seems, in areas with low population density, neighbourhoods can be grouped together rather haphazardly. Take a look at tracts 5900008.00 and 5900018.01. Notice how they both group neighbourhoods that are fairly far apart from each other?
  • Transcript

    • 1. The Real LF-Census informs Neighbourhood Research in Canada GIS Day Carleton University Wednesday, November 17 2010 MacOdrum Library (the main and only library) in Room 235 Presenter: Tracey P. Lauriault, tlauriau@gmail.com Knowledge Contributors: Geomatics and Cartographic Research Centre, Acacia Consulting and Research, Community Social Data Strategy (CSDS)
    • 2. Table of Contents • The Census • How Long has it been Long? • If it goes we loose - Local Scale Research • Example 1: Pilot Atlas of the Risk of Homelessness • Example 2: Community Social Data Strategy (CSDS) • Actions • Contact
    • 3. The Census
    • 4. Why do we take a Census? “under the modern system, it is nothing less than a great periodical stocktaking of the people and of their affairs, designed to show from the widest possible angle the state that has been reached in the general progress of the nation” (Dominion Bureau of Statistics, 1924:xi). “Fundamentally the importance of the census hinges upon its enumeration and analysis of the human element or man – power of the country – the people themselves – the basic asset of every state.” (Dominion Bureau of Statistics, 1924:xii).
    • 5. The Nation's Navigation System “Thus the Census rounds out and completed the scheme of information by which as by a chart the government directs the affairs of the nations. Without the census, it would be literal truth to say that legislation and administration would be carried on in the dark – that there would be no means of knowing whether the country was on the road to success or disaster, or what constituted the norm or standard of its progress in almost any particular.” (Dominion Bureau of Statistics, 1924:xii).
    • 6. A Victorian Era Institution Lower Canada, 182? Lower Canada, 1824 Lower Canada, 182? 1843 1850 1851
    • 7. BNA Act, 1867
    • 8. Statistics Act 1971 http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/PDF/Statute/S/S-19.pdf
    • 9. Major Legislative Requirements • Canada Health Act • Food and Drug Act • Canada Pension Plan Act • Old Age Security Act • Canada Student Loans Act • Canada Student Financial Assistance Act • Employment Equity Act • Canada Pension Plan Investment Board Act • Employment Insurance Act • Indian Act • Consumer Packaging and Labelling Act • Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council Act • Official Languages Act • Canada Council for the Arts Act • Payments in Lieu of Taxes Act • Railway Relocation and Crossing Act • Canada Transportation Act • War Veterans Allowance Act • Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation Act • National Housing Act • Income Tax Act • Canadian Multiculturalism Act • Citizenship Act • Youth Criminal Justice Act • Canadian Human Rights Act • Canada Elections Act • Electoral Boundaries Readjustment Act • Funding for Diagnostic and Medical Equipment Act • Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Resources Accord Implementation Act • Nova Scotia and Newfoundland and Labrador Additional Fiscal Equalization Offset Payments Act (2005) • Budget Implementation Act 2007 • Budget Implementation Act 2009 • Federal-provincial Fiscal Arrangements Act • Bank Act • Canada-Newfoundland Atlantic Accord Implementation Act
    • 10. How long as it been long?
    • 11. 1871 Census 1871, 9 Schedules 1901, 561 Questions were asked
    • 12. And 1961 Census is almost completely processed by a computer More women in the workforce necessitates a better account of labour force statistics 30 000 enumerators Data are transferred to a magnetic tapes IBM 705 Mark III w/10 tape drives is used Census is almost completely processed by a computer More women in the workforce necessitates a better account of labour force statistics 30 000 enumerators Data are transferred to a magnetic tapes IBM 705 Mark III w/10 tape drives is used
    • 13. And ... Source: 2001 Census Handbook http://www12.statcan.ca /english/census01/Produ cts/Reference/2001hand book/war.htm
    • 14. ... Source: 2001 Census Handbook http://www12.statcan.ca /english/census01/Produ cts/Reference/2001hand book/war.htm
    • 15. ... Source: 2001 Census Handbook http://www12.statcan.ca /english/census01/Produ cts/Reference/2001hand book/war.htm
    • 16. ... Source: 2001 Census Handbook http://www12.statcan.ca /english/census01/Produ cts/Reference/2001hand book/war.htm
    • 17. ... Source: 2001 Census Handbook http://www12.statcan.ca /english/census01/Produ cts/Reference/2001hand book/war.htm
    • 18. ... Source: 2001 Census Handbook http://www12.statcan.ca /english/census01/Produ cts/Reference/2001hand book/war.htm
    • 19. ... Source: 2001 Census Handbook http://www12.statcan.ca /english/census01/Produ cts/Reference/2001hand book/war.htm
    • 20. ... Source: 2001 Census Handbook http://www12.statcan.ca /english/census01/Produ cts/Reference/2001hand book/war.htm
    • 21. It has been long for a long time and... http://www.savethecensus.c a
    • 22. If it goes we loose - Local Scale Analysis
    • 23. Mandate - Scale • Jurisdiction – Federal – National, Departments, Programs, Agencies – Provincial and Territorial – City, Municipality, Metropolitan Regions – Wards & Neigbhourhood • Mandates – Health – School Boards – Postal, etc. • Who does – Thematic national scale research – Homelessness? Social Policy? – Trans-Provincial & Territorial Research? – Between cities? – Neighbourhoods? Mandates and/or jurisdictions limit the scale at which research can be conducted, what can be told and the types of data to be accessed
    • 24. Community based research • Research conducted at municipal and sub-municipal scales – Cities – Wards – Neighbourhoods – Health Districts – School catchments – Etc. • Conducted by or for: – Non-Profit community based organizations • Social planning councils, community development councils, United Way's, Community Foundations, Canadian Council on Social Development, Culture specific groups, Religious Groups, etc. – School Boards – Police Forces – Municipalities, cities, counties, – Business Improvement Associations – Neighbourhood associations – etc.
    • 25. Example 1 - Pilot Atlas of the Risk of Homelessness
    • 26. Introduction Pilot Atlas of the Risk of Homelessness • Funded by: – Data Development Projects on Homelessness Program, Homelessness Knowledge Development Program, Homelessness Partnering Secretariat of Human Resources and Social Development Canada (HRSDC) • Partnership: – Federation of Canadian Municipalities (FCM) Quality of Life Reporting System (QOLRS) (24 cities) • 2 cities and 1 metropolitan area: – City of Calgary – City of Toronto – Communauté métropolitaine de Montréal
    • 27. Data Sources • Federation of Canadian Municipalities (FCM) Quality of Life Reporting System (QOLRS) – Canada Housing and Mortgage Corporation (CMHC) – Statistics Canada, LF-Census and LF-Census Special Cross Tabulations • Maps, Data, and Government Information (MADGIC), Library, Carleton University – Data Liberation Initiative (DLI) Statistics Canada LF-Census – Statistics Canada Geography Division digital maps (EA, DA, CT, CD, CSD, Provinces, Canada Political) • City of Toronto – Social Policy Analysis and Research Section: Neighbourhood file – Toronto Housing Connections: Social Housing Registry – Toronto Community Housing Corporation: Social Housing Data • City of Calgary – Community and Neighbourhood, Social Policy and Planning Division: Neighbourhood file • Communauté Métropolitaine de Montréal (CMM), – Direction des Politiques et interventions de développement: Special tabulation LF-Census data, CMM framework base map, Housing data
    • 28. Why focus on the Risk of Homelessness? The main objective of the Pilot Atlas of the Risk of Homelessness is to create useful, tangible, engaging and accessible mapped data to inform public policy, decision makers and the public Source: https://gcrc.carleton.ca/confluence/display/GCRCWEB/Pilot+Atlas+of+the+Risk+of+Homelessness
    • 29. Big Cities: QoLRS City Indicators Across Time Housing Starts
    • 30. GraphoMap: QoLRS City Indicators Across Time 50% + Income Spent on Rent
    • 31. City of Calgary: LICO & 30% of Income Spent on Rent
    • 32. City of Calgary: LICO & 30% of Income Spent on Rent 30% + Income Spent on Rent LICO
    • 33. Grand Montréal: Grand Montréal: Logements sociaux et populations ayant des difficultés financières pour se loger
    • 34. Aging Social Housing Stock by Neighbourhood: Toronto
    • 35. Details by Neighbourhood: Toronto
    • 36. Example 2 - Community Social Data Strategy
    • 37. Community Social Data Strategy • CSDS is led by the Canadian Council on Social Development (CCSD) • It is a gateway for municipalities and community-based organizations to access data to identify and better understand the social and economic trends within their individual communities • 250 organizations in seventeen urban regions, including more than 50 Canadian cities and towns located in 5 provinces • Brings together municipal governments, social planning networks, health and family service agencies, school boards, police services, United Ways, and many others... Source: https://csds-sacass.ca/drupal/MembersList
    • 38. City of Winnipeg Source: CSDS Consortium Member – Social Planning Council of Winnipeg http://www.spcw.mb.ca
    • 39. City of Hamilton Source: CSDS Consortium Member – Social Planning and Research Council of Hamilton http://www.sprc.hamilton.on.ca/CommunityMappingService.php
    • 40. RM-Halton Geography Examples Source: CSDS Consortium Members – Halton Region - Our Kids Our Community Report Card http://www.ourkidsnetwork.ca/about/partners.shtml Report Card Partners • Halton Catholic District School Board • ROCK Reach Out Centre for Kids • Halton Children's Aid Society • Halton District School Board • Halton Region, Departments of Health and Social & Community Services • Halton Regional Police Services • Transitions for Youth
    • 41. RM-Halton Geography Examples Source: CSDS Consortium Member - Regional Municipality of Halton Framework Data
    • 42. RM-Halton Geography Examples Source: CSDS Consortium Member – Community Development Halton Framework Data
    • 43. RM-Halton Geography Examples Source: CSDS Consortium Member – Community Development Halton: Community Lens http://www.cdhalton.ca/lens/index.htm 0
    • 44. Sault Ste. Marie Source: CSDS Consortium Member Sault Ste. Marie Innovation Centre presentation entitled 2009 United Way Donation and Socio-Demographic Maps
    • 45. Sault Ste. Marie Source: CSDS Consortium Member Sault Ste. Marie Innovation Centre presentation entitled 2009 United Way Donation and Socio-Demographic Maps
    • 46. Sault Ste. Marie – Census Tracts Source: CSDS Consortium Member Sault Ste. Marie Innovation Centre Community Geomatics Centre CT Framework Data Maps
    • 47. 2011?
    • 48. 140 years later: The Census gets short, Tory Government scraps the long-form census and relegates it to a survey, but due to legal pressure adds 2 question on language, Canadians experience a summer of government censuslessness summer and hear that “Most like it long”. There is national and international outcry to save it.
    • 49. Survey and Census Compared See complete Analysis: http://datalibre.ca/2010/10/12/2006-long-form-census-compared-to- the-proposed-national-household-survey/
    • 50. Actions
    • 51. 377 want the LF-Census back and counting...
    • 52. Actions Source: datalibre.ca - http://datalibre.ca/census-watch/
    • 53. Thanks! Atlas of the Risk of Homelessness: http://gcrc.carleton.ca/homelessness Community Social Data Strategy https://www.csds-sacass.ca/drupal/ Contact: tlauriau@gmail.com, #TraceyLauriault, http://traceyplauriault.ca

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