The United Nations is an international organization designed to make the enforcement of international law, security, economic development, social progress, and human rights easier for countries around the world. The United Nations includes 192 member countries and its main headquarters are located in New York City.Purposes: The purposes of the United Nations, as set forth in the Charter, are to maintain international peace and security, to develop friendly relations among nations, to cooperate in solving international economic, social, cultural and humanitarian problems and to promote respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It is to be a center for harmonizing the actions of nations in attaining these ends.
HISTORY:• The League of Nations failed to prevent World War II (1939–1945). Because of the widespread recognition that humankind could not afford a Third World War, the United Nations was established to replace the flawed League of Nations in order to maintain international peace and promote cooperation in solving international economic, social and humanitarian problems.
• The principles of the UN as explained in the Charter was to save future generations from war, reaffirm human rights, and establish equal rights for all persons. In addition it also aims to promote justice, freedom, and social progress for the people of all of its member states.
U UDHR December 10th, 1948http://www.slideshare.net/core102/universal-declaration-of-human-rights?src=related_normal&rel=2677574
United Nations Charter AND HUMAN Rights• Article 1(3) of the United Nations charter states that one of the purposes of the UN is: "to achieve international cooperation in solving international problems of an economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian character, and in promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion".Article 55 provides that:• The United Nations shall promote: a) higher standards of living, full employment, and conditions of economic and social progress and development; b) solutions of international economic, social, health, and related problems; c) international cultural and educational cooperation; d)universal respect for, and observance of, human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion.
United Nations Charter AND HUMAN Rights• The Universal Declaration of Human Rights was adopted by General Assembly resolution 217A at its 3rd session in Paris on 10 December 1948.
Who Wrote the UDHR? • United Nations Human Rights Commission was formed to draft the Declaration • Chairman: Former First Eleanor Lady Rene Cassin of France (far right) and Eleanor Roosevelt interview Roosevelthttp://untreaty.un.org/cod/avl/images/ha/udhr/photo%20gallery/06-large.jpg http://www.slideshare.net/core102/universal-declaration-of-human-rights?src=related_normal&rel=2677574
Significance of the UDHR • First time fundamental human rights are universally protected. • Preamble with 30 Chairman Eleanor Roosevelt holding the articles document. http://themormonworker.files.wordpress.com/2009/07/94944-004-5fa0aee2.jpghttp://www.slideshare.net/core102/universal-declaration-of-human-rights?src=related_normal&rel=2677574
It is our duty to ensure that these rights are a living reality -- that they are known, understood andenjoyed by everyone, everywhere. It is often those who most needtheir human rights protected, who also need to be informed that the Declaration exists -- and that it exists for them. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon
• The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1948, partly in response to the atrocities of World War II. Although the UDHR was a non-binding resolution, it is now considered by some to have acquired the force of international customary law which may be invoked in appropriate circumstances by national and other judiciaries. The UDHR urges member nations to promote a number of human, civil, economic and social rights, asserting these rights as part of the "foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world." The declaration was the first international legal effort to limit the behavior of states and press upon them duties to their citizens following the model of the rights- duty duality.• ...recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world.• —Preamble to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948
(Summary Version)The General Assembly proclaims this Universal Declaration of HumanRights as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and allnations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society,keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching andeducation to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and byprogressive measures, national and international, to secure theiruniversal and effective recognition and observance, both among thepeoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples ofterritories under their jurisdiction.
UN Human Rights Bodies• Security Council• General Assembly• Economic and Social Council• Commission on Human Rights• Sub commission on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights• Commission on the Status of Women
UN Human Rights Bodies• Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice• International Court of Justice• International Criminal Court• Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (created by the General Assembly in 1993)
UN Human Rights Bodies• Treaty Monitoring Bodies – Human Rights Committee – Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination – Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women – Committee Against Torture – Committee on the Rights of the Child – Committee on Economic Social and Cultural Rights
International Court of Justice Security councilSecretariat General AssemblyEconomic & social council Trusteeship council Commission on humans rights International Labour organization (ILO) United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) United Nation development fund for Women United nation Educational, Scientific and cultural organization (UNESCO) World Health Organization (WTO)
Human Rights in International Law• Regional Organizations and Law-Making (cont.) – Organization of African Unity was founded in 1963 and adopted the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights in 1981. The African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights is charged with supervising the implementation of the African Charter.
Use of State and Federal Courts to Protect Human Rights• Congress and State Legislatures may enact legislation that specifically incorporates international law into domestic law• Judicial interpretation and application of existing legislative or constitutional provisions
Local Non-Governmental Organizations• Minnesota Advocates for Human Rights• American Refugee Committee• Center for Victims of Torture• Institute on Agricultural and Trade Policy• University of Minnesota Human Rights Center
NGO Activities• Monitor elections and political trials• Investigate human rights and conditions – Analyze human rights practices in closed countries – Albania, North Korea, Saudi Arabia – Identify and analyze conflicts in Chiapas and Kosovo – Child slavery in Haiti; child health in Mexico, Uganda and the United States
NGO Activities• Lobby United Nations• Draft model statutes – Inquest procedures – Forensic techniques – Domestic violence laws• Represent political asylum seekers• Promote ratification of human rights treaties